Template:it-verb

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it-verb


Usage[edit]

This template is designed for the lemma of all Italian verbs. Only use this template for the verb's lemma entry. For non-lemma forms, use {{head|it|verb form}}.

This template should be placed in all Italian verb sections, immediately following the ===Verb=== section header. It provides the inflection line for the entry. The template also automatically categorizes the entry in Category:Italian verbs and the appropriate category for the auxiliary, e.g. Category:Italian verbs taking essere as auxiliary.

As with other Wiktionary inflection templates, please do not use subst:.

Quick reference[edit]

Page Example // Outcome // Comment
ordinare (to order) {{it-verb|a/ó}}
ordinàre (first-person singular present órdino, first-person singular past historic ordinài, past participle ordinàto, auxiliary avere)
For non-reflexive verbs, use AUX/VOWEL where AUX is a (for avere) or e (for essere) and VOWEL is the stressed vowel marked for quality.
detestare (to detest) {{it-verb|a/è+}}
detestàre (first-person singular present detèsto, first-person singular past historic detestài, past participle detestàto, auxiliary avere)
If the last two stem vowels are the same, add - to indicate the second-from-last (more leftmost) vowel and + to indicate the last (more rightmost) vowel.
metallificare (to become metallic) {{it-verb|e/ì-}}
metallificàre (first-person singular present metallìfico, first-person singular past historic metallificài, past participle metallificàto, auxiliary essere)
scricchiolare (to creak) {{it-verb|a/ì--}}
scricchiolàre (first-person singular present scrìcchiolo, first-person singular past historic scricchiolài, past participle scricchiolàto, auxiliary avere)
Use -- if the third-from-last written stem vowel is stressed.
scricchiolare (to creak) {{it-verb|a/ì--}}
scricchiolàre (first-person singular present scrìcchiolo, first-person singular past historic scricchiolài, past participle scricchiolàto, auxiliary avere)
Use -- if the third-from-last written stem vowel is stressed.
abbandonarsi (to give up, to give in, to surrender) {{it-verb|ó}}
abbandonàrsi (first-person singular present mi abbandóno, first-person singular past historic mi abbandonài, past participle abbandonàto, auxiliary essere)
Omit the auxiliary for reflexive verbs, as it is always essere.
partire (to depart) {{it-verb|e/à}}
partìre (first-person singular present pàrto, first-person singular past historic partìi, past participle partìto, auxiliary essere)
Regular -ire verbs that do not take the -isc infix use the same form as for -are verbs.
punire (to punish) {{it-verb|a/+isc}}
punìre (first-person singular present punìsco, first-person singular past historic punìi, past participle punìto, auxiliary avere)
Regular -ire verbs that take the -isc infix use +isc.
temere (to fear) {{it-verb|a/é}}
temére (first-person singular present témo, first-person singular past historic teméi or temètti, past participle temùto, auxiliary avere)
Regular -ere verbs stressed on the ending use the same form as for -are verbs.
abbattere (to throw down) {{it-verb|a\à+}}
abbàttere (first-person singular present abbàtto, first-person singular past historic abbattéi or abbattètti, past participle abbattùto, auxiliary avere)
Regular -ere verbs stressed on the stem use a backslash in place of the slash.
scomparire (to disappear) {{it-verb|e/scompàio,scompàrvi,scompàrso}}
scomparìre (first-person singular present scompàio, first-person singular past historic scompàrvi, past participle scompàrso, auxiliary essere)
For irregular verbs, specify up to three principal parts.
piacere (to please) {{it-verb|e/piàccio,piàcqui}}
piacére (first-person singular present piàccio, first-person singular past historic piàcqui, past participle piaciùto, auxiliary essere)
You may omit principal parts that are formed regularly, or use +.
scuotere (to shake) {{it-verb|a\ò,scòssi,scòtto}}
scuòtere (first-person singular present scuòto, first-person singular past historic scòssi, past participle scòtto, auxiliary avere)
Root-stressed verb in -ere; use backslash, as above.
scegliere (to choose) {{it-verb|a\é\scélgo,scélsi,scélto}}
scégliere (first-person singular present scélgo, first-person singular past historic scélsi, past participle scélto, auxiliary avere)
Root-stressed verb in -ere with irregular present tense.
riempire (to choose) {{it-verb|a/riémpio,riempìi,riempìto:riempiùto}} or {{it-verb|a/riémpio,+,+:riempiùto}}
riempìre (first-person singular present riémpio, first-person singular past historic riempìi, past participle riempìto or riempiùto, auxiliary avere)
Separate multiple possibilities for a principal part with a colon.
comparire (to appear, to manifest, to seem; (law) to appear before a tribunal) {{it-verb|e/compàio:+isc[less common],compàrvi:comparìi[less common]:compàrsi[in the legal sense],compàrso}}
comparìre (first-person singular present compàio or (less common) comparìsco, first-person singular past historic compàrvi or (less common) comparìi or (in the legal sense) compàrsi, past participle compàrso, auxiliary essere)
Specify qualifiers following a given form to give usage notes, e.g. when there are multiple forms with differing uses.
soccombere (to succumb) {{it-verb|e\ó+,+,+[rare]}}
soccómbere (first-person singular present soccómbo, first-person singular past historic soccombéi or soccombètti, past participle (rare) soccombùto, auxiliary essere)
There is no requirement that multiple forms be present when qualifiers are used.

Basic usage[edit]

Regular -are verbs[edit]

This template normally takes a single parameter, which specifies the auxiliary as well as the first singular present indicative, first singular past historic, and past participle. If you are not sure of the correct conjugation, you can leave out all parameters, and the headword will not have any inflected forms specified. However, this is not recommended.

For regular -are verbs, the parameter normally takes the form AUX/VOWEL, where AUX is either a for avere or e for essere, and VOWEL (termed a single-vowel spec) is the stressed vowel in the present singular with the appropriate stress mark (acute or grave) added to indicate the vowel quality (i.e. it should be one of à è é ì ò ó ù). For example, for ordinare (to order), use the following:

{{it-verb|a/ó}}

which produces

ordinàre (first-person singular present órdino, first-person singular past historic ordinài, past participle ordinàto, auxiliary avere)

Note that all the verb forms in the headword include an accent specifying the stress as well as the quality of stressed e and o, even though Italian normally does not mark the stress or quality except when the stress is word-final. Accordingly, the verb forms are linked using the appropriate standard spelling without the extra stress marks.

If the last two vowels of the stem are the same, add - after the vowel to specify that the leftmost of the two vowels (i.e. the antepenultimate) is stressed, and + to indicate that the rightmost of the two vowels (the penultimate) is stressed. For example, for detestare (to detest), use the following:

{{it-verb|a/è+}}

which produces

detestàre (first-person singular present detèsto, first-person singular past historic detestài, past participle detestàto, auxiliary avere)

Meanwhile, for metallificare (to become metallic), use:

{{it-verb|e/ì-}}

which produces

metallificàre (first-person singular present metallìfico, first-person singular past historic metallificài, past participle metallificàto, auxiliary essere)

If the third-from-last written vowel is stressed, as in scricchiolare (to creak), use -- after the vowel:

{{it-verb|a/ì--}}

which produces

scricchiolàre (first-person singular present scrìcchiolo, first-person singular past historic scricchiolài, past participle scricchiolàto, auxiliary avere)

Regular -ire verbs[edit]

For regular -ire verbs that do not take the -isc- infix, use the same form as for -are verbs. For example, for partire (to depart), present tense io pàrto, use:

{{it-verb|e/à}}

which produces

partìre (first-person singular present pàrto, first-person singular past historic partìi, past participle partìto, auxiliary essere)

For regular -ire verbs that take the -isc- infix, use +isc in place of the vowel spec. For example, for punire (to punish), present tense io punìsco, use:

{{it-verb|a/+isc}}

which produces

punìre (first-person singular present punìsco, first-person singular past historic punìi, past participle punìto, auxiliary avere)

Regular -ere verbs[edit]

For regular -ere verbs stressed as -ére, use the same form as above. For example, for temére (to fear), present tense io témo, use:

{{it-verb|a/é}}

which produces

temére (first-person singular present témo, first-person singular past historic teméi or temètti, past participle temùto, auxiliary avere)

Note that both alternative past historic forms are given in the output by default.

For regular -ere verbs stressed on the stem, use a backslash in place of the slash (mnemonic: the forward slash leans to the right for the more rightward stress, and the backslash leans to the left for the more leftward stress). For example, for abbàttere (to throw down, to knock down), present tense io abbàtto, use:

{{it-verb|a\à+}}

which produces

abbàttere (first-person singular present abbàtto, first-person singular past historic abbattéi or abbattètti, past participle abbattùto, auxiliary avere)

Here à+ must be used because there are two a's among the last two vowels of the stem. The backslash indicates that the stress on the infinitive, displayed in the headword, should be taken from the present tense rather than placed on the ending.

Note that the default for verbs in -cere and -gere uses a hard c/g in the present but a soft ci/gi in the past participle, which is correct for the majority of verbs, e.g. conoscere (to know (a person), to recognize), with present io conósco, past participle conosciùto.

Irregular verbs[edit]

For irregular verbs, specify up to three principal parts (first-singular present, first-singular past historic and past participle), separated by commas. For example for scomparire (to disappear, to die), use:

{{it-verb|e/scompàio,scompàrvi,scompàrso}}

which produces

scomparìre (first-person singular present scompàio, first-person singular past historic scompàrvi, past participle scompàrso, auxiliary essere)

You can omit the past participle if it is regularly constructed, or both the past historic and past participle if both are regularly constructed. For example, for piacere (to please), with regularly formed past participle piaciùto, use:

{{it-verb|e/piàccio,piàcqui}}

which produces

piacére (first-person singular present piàccio, first-person singular past historic piàcqui, past participle piaciùto, auxiliary essere)

For root-stressed verbs in -ere, use a backslash in place of a slash, as above, e.g. for scuotere (to shake):

{{it-verb|a\ò,scòssi,scòtto}}

which produces

scuòtere (first-person singular present scuòto, first-person singular past historic scòssi, past participle scòtto, auxiliary avere)

As mentioned above, when a backslash is specified the position and quality of the stress is derived from the present tense single-vowel spec. If the present tense is irregular, specify it in full and include the single-vowel spec before the backslash, e.g. as follows for scegliere (to choose):

{{it-verb|a\é\scélgo,scélsi,scélto}}

which produces

scégliere (first-person singular present scélgo, first-person singular past historic scélsi, past participle scélto, auxiliary avere)

If a given principal part has more than one possibility, separate the possibilities by a colon, e.g. for riempire (to fill):

{{it-verb|a/riémpio,riempìi,riempìto:riempiùto}}

which produces

riempìre (first-person singular present riémpio, first-person singular past historic riempìi, past participle riempìto or riempiùto, auxiliary avere)

Note that you can use a + to request the default form(s). Thus, the above spec for riempire could (and preferably would) be written as follows:

{{it-verb|a/riémpio,+,+:riempiùto}}

You can specify qualifiers following a given form, which helps give usage notes when there are multiple forms with differing uses, e.g. for comparire (to appear, to manifest, to seem; (law) to appear before a tribunal):

{{it-verb|e/compàio:+isc[less common],compàrvi:comparìi[less common]:compàrsi[in the legal sense],compàrso}}

which produces

comparìre (first-person singular present compàio or (less common) comparìsco, first-person singular past historic compàrvi or (less common) comparìi or (in the legal sense) compàrsi, past participle compàrso, auxiliary essere)

Here, there are two possible present tense forms (compàio and comparìsco) and three possible past historic forms (compàrvi, comparìi, compàrsi), with differing usage characteristics.

Note that there is no requirement that multiple forms be present when qualifiers are used. For example, for soccombere (to succumb), whose past participle is rare, use the following:

{{it-verb|e\ó+,+,+[rare]}}

which produces

soccómbere (first-person singular present soccómbo, first-person singular past historic soccombéi or soccombètti, past participle (rare) soccombùto, auxiliary essere)

Specifying additional irregular forms[edit]

For highly irregular verbs, it sometimes makes sense to include additional irregular forms in the headword. For example, cadere (to fall) has irregular future cadrò, cadrài, etc. To add the first-person singular future to the headword, use a spec like fut:FORM, separated from the principal parts by a period, as follows:

{{it-verb|e/à,càddi.fut:cadrò}}

which produces

cadére (first-person singular present càdo, first-person singular past historic càddi, past participle cadùto, first-person singular future cadrò, auxiliary essere)

Similarly, for tenere (to hold), to specify an irregular future terrò and irregular imperative singular tièni, use:

{{it-verb|a/tèngo,ténni.fut:terrò.imp:tièni}}

which produces

tenére (first-person singular present tèngo, first-person singular past historic ténni, past participle tenùto, first-person singular future terrò, second-person singular imperative tièni, auxiliary avere)

A more complicated example is essere (to be), with numerous irregularities:

{{it-verb|e\è\sóno,fùi,stàto.imperf:èro.fut:sarò.sub:sìa.impsub:fóssi.imp:sìi}}

which produces

èssere (first-person singular present sóno, first-person singular past historic fùi, past participle stàto, first-person singular imperfect èro, first-person singular future sarò, first-person singular present subjunctive sìa, first-person singular imperfect subjunctive fóssi, second-person singular imperative sìi, auxiliary essere)

The full list of recognized additional irregular forms is as follows:

Prefix Form
imperf first-singular imperfect indicative
fut first-singular future indicative
sub first-singular present subjunctive
impsub first-singular imperfect subjunctive
imp second-singular imperative

To specify multiple possibilities for a given irregular form, separate the possibilities by colons, as above. Qualifiers in brackets can be appended to a given form, as above. See the example for dare just below for an example of this.

Special considerations with single-syllable irregular forms[edit]

With verbs with single-syllable irregular forms, there are some special considerations. For one thing, there may or may not be a written accent on the vowel. Normally, forms are shown in headwords with an accent on the vowel to indicate stress and quality, even though when normally written only the final vowel of multi-vowel words has a written accent. Accordingly, when generating the link, accents are stripped from non-final vowels as well as from single-vowel words. To indicate that a single-vowel word has a written accent, add an asterisk (*) before the form. This preserves the accent in the link and includes a qualifier reading with written accent.

Some single-syllable forms trigger syntactic gemination, while others don't. To indicate that a form triggers syntactic gemination, add an asterisk (*) after the form. This includes a qualifier reading with syntactic gemination. You can also include a double asterisk (**) after the form to indicate optional syntactic gemination.

An example that uses both of the above indications is dare (to give):

{{it-verb|a/dò*:*dò*,dièdi:dètti,dàto.sub:dìa.impsub:déssi.imp:dai:da':*dà*}}

which produces

dàre (first-person singular present (with following syntactic gemination) or (with written accent, with following syntactic gemination) , first-person singular past historic dièdi or dètti, past participle dàto, first-person singular present subjunctive dìa, first-person singular imperfect subjunctive déssi, second-person singular imperative dai or da' or (with written accent, with following syntactic gemination) , auxiliary avere)

Note in particular the forms *dò* and *dà*, with asterisks both before the form (to indicate preservation of the written accent) and after the form (to indicate syntactic gemination).

Verbs whose auxiliary varies[edit]

Many verbs can take either avere or essere as an auxiliary, often with different meanings. A very common scenario is avere when transitive and essere when intransitive, e.g. with finire (to end, to finish). You can separate multiple auxiliaries with a colon, as with multiple irregular forms, and include qualifiers, which typically you should do to clarify the different usages: {{it-verb|a[transitive]:e[intransitive]/+isc}} which produces

finìre (first-person singular present finìsco, first-person singular past historic finìi, past participle finìto, auxiliary (transitive) avere or (intransitive) essere)

You can include commas, quotes and other punctuation inside brackets in the qualifier text, e.g. with avanzare: avanzare: {{it-verb|e[intransitive]:a[transitive, also intransitive meaning "to advance"]/à+}} which produces

avanzàre (first-person singular present avànzo, first-person singular past historic avanzài, past participle avanzàto, auxiliary (intransitive) essere or (transitive, also intransitive meaning "to advance") avere)

You can also include angle brackets (e.g. direct HTML, or HTML produced by a template) or even nested square brackets, as long as they are matching.

Reflexive verbs[edit]

All reflexive verbs use essere, so there is no need to specify the auxiliary and it should be omitted, e.g. for abbandonarsi (to give up, to give in, to surrender), use:

{{it-verb|ó}}

which produces

abbandonàrsi (first-person singular present mi abbandóno, first-person singular past historic mi abbandonài, past participle abbandonàto, auxiliary essere)

For root-stressed verbs in -ere, use a backslash with nothing before it, e.g. for accorgersi (to notice, to realize) (stressed as accòrgersi), use:

{{it-verb|\ò,accòrsi,accòrto}}

which produces

accòrgersi (first-person singular present mi accòrgo, first-person singular past historic mi accòrsi, past participle accòrto, auxiliary essere)

If a root-stressed verb in -ere has an irregular present, specify the stressed vowel before the backslash with or without a second backslash, e.g. for togliersi (to get out of the way), use either:

{{it-verb|ò\tòlgo,tòlsi,tòlto}}

or

{{it-verb|\ò\tòlgo,tòlsi,tòlto}}

both of which produce

tògliersi (first-person singular present mi tòlgo, first-person singular past historic mi tòlsi, past participle tòlto, auxiliary essere)

Note that explicitly specified forms should be given without the reflexive pronoun attached. The only exception is if the imperative is explicitly specified; in that case, include the pronoun, as it is joined to the imperative form and may cause special changes to the form, e.g. syntactic gemination. An example is for farsi (to become, to move (oneself), to buy, etc.), with imperative fàtti:

{{it-verb|fàccio:fò*[archaic or dialectal],féci,fàtto.imperf:facévo.sub:fàccia.imp:fàtti}}

which produces

fàrsi (first-person singular present mi fàccio or (archaic or dialectal, with following syntactic gemination) mi , first-person singular past historic mi féci, past participle fàtto, first-person singular imperfect mi facévo, first-person singular present subjunctive mi fàccia, second-person singular imperative fàtti, auxiliary essere)

Verbs in -rre[edit]

Verbs in -rre, e.g. trarre (to pull), porre (to put), dedurre (to deduce) should use the same backslash notation as with root-stressed verbs in -ere, e.g. for porre:

{{it-verb|a\ó\póngo,pósi,pósto.imperf:ponévo.fut:porrò}}

which produces

pórre (first-person singular present póngo, first-person singular past historic pósi, past participle pósto, first-person singular imperfect ponévo, first-person singular future porrò, auxiliary avere)

For verbs ending in -arre and -urre (and -irre if any such verbs exist), the double-backslash notation can be simplified to a single backslash because the stressed vowel can only be one possibility, e.g. for dedurre:

{{it-verb|a\dedùco,dedùssi,dedótto.imperf:deducévo}}

which produces

dedùrre (first-person singular present dedùco, first-person singular past historic dedùssi, past participle dedótto, first-person singular imperfect deducévo, auxiliary avere)

Reflexive verbs in -arsi and -ersi based off verbs in -arre and -erre can also be interpreted as based off of verbs in -are or -ere; for example, consider contrarsi, reflexive of either contrare (to counter (boxing)) or contrarre (to tense). These verbs must use the special indicator rre to indicate that the reflexive is based off of a verb in -arre; otherwise, it will be interpreted as based off of a verb in -are. An example is distrarsi (to be distracted), from distrarre (to distract):

{{it-verb|\distràggo,distràssi,distràtto.imperf:distraévo.imp:distràiti.rre}}

which produces

distràrsi (first-person singular present mi distràggo, first-person singular past historic mi distràssi, past participle distràtto, first-person singular imperfect mi distraévo, second-person singular imperative distràiti, auxiliary essere)

Note in particular the .rre at the end.

Third-person only verbs[edit]

Some verbs have only third-person forms, either third-person singular only (impersonal) or third-person singular and plural only. Use only3s for the former, and only3sp for the latter. An example of an impersonal verb is bufare (to blizzard):

{{it-verb|e/ù.only3s}}

which produces

bufàre (impersonal, third-person singular present bùfa, third-person singular past historic bufò, past participle bufàto, auxiliary essere)

An example of a third-person only verb (singular and plural) is accadere (to happen):

{{it-verb|e/à+,accàdde.fut:accadrà.only3sp}}

which produces

accadére (third-person only, third-person singular present accàde, third-person singular past historic accàdde, past participle accadùto, third-person singular future accadrà, auxiliary essere)

As the latter example shows, irregular forms must be specified in the third person.

Defective verbs[edit]

Some verbs are defective in that they are missing some of their forms. To indicate a missing form, use -. For example, the verb redire (to return) has no past historic, imperfect, future or imperfect subjunctive. Indicate as follows:

{{it-verb|a/rièdo,-,redìto.imperf:-.fut:-.impsub:-}}

which produces

redìre (first-person singular present rièdo, no first-person singular past historic, past participle redìto, no first-person singular imperfect, no first-person singular future, no first-person singular imperfect subjunctive, auxiliary avere)

If the verb is missing its past participle, use - as normal, but also put a - in place of the auxiliary, because without a past participle no composed tenses can be formed. An example is serpere (to snake):

{{it-verb|-\è,+,-}}

which produces

sèrpere (first-person singular present sèrpo, first-person singular past historic serpéi or serpètti, no past participle)

Pronominal verbs[edit]

Pronominal verbs are those verbs that inherently have a clitic pronoun attached to the infinitive. Reflexive verbs, covered above, are a type of pronominal verb; not all pronominal verbs are reflexive. An example that is not is spuntarla (to make it, to succeed), composed of spuntare + clitic -la. Indicate pronominal verbs as normal:

{{it-verb|a/ù}}

which produces

spuntàrla (pronominal, first-person singular present la spùnto, first-person singular past historic la spuntài, past participle spuntàto, auxiliary avere)

Note that the clitic is automatically moved before the finite forms.

If the pronominal verb is reflexive, the auxiliary spec will be omitted, as with all reflexive verbs (see above). An example is trovarcisi (to find oneself in a happy situation):

{{it-verb|ò}}

which produces

trovàrcisi (pronominal, first-person singular present mi ci tròvo, first-person singular past historic mi ci trovài, past participle trovàto, auxiliary essere)

note that the two clitics are automatically moved to the front of the finite forms, and -si is automatically converted to mi.

If the pronominal verb is irregular, don't include any of the clitics in the irregular forms except for the imperative (same as with reflexive verbs). An example is andarsene (to go away, to leave):

{{it-verb|vàdo.fut:andrò.sub:vàda.imp:vàttene}}

which produces

andàrsene (pronominal, first-person singular present me ne vàdo, first-person singular past historic me ne andài, past participle andàto, first-person singular future me ne andrò, first-person singular present subjunctive me ne vàda, second-person singular imperative vàttene, auxiliary essere)

Another example is volerci (to be needed, to be required). This is impersonal, hence it uses the spec only3s (see above), and requires that all irregular forms be given in the third-person singular:

{{it-verb|e/vuòle,vòlle.fut:vorrà.sub:vòglia.only3s}}

which produces

volérci (pronominal, impersonal, third-person singular present ci vuòle, third-person singular past historic ci vòlle, past participle volùto, third-person singular future ci vorrà, third-person singular present subjunctive ci vòglia, auxiliary essere)

Multiword expressions[edit]

Multiword expressions such as prestare attenzione (to pay attention) are supported. To indicate the conjugation of such an expression, place the full verbal spec inside angle brackets (<...>) directly after the verb to be conjugated:

{{it-verb|prestare<a/è> attenzione}}

which produces

prestàre attenzione (first-person singular present prèsto attenzione, first-person singular past historic prestài attenzione, past participle prestàto attenzione, auxiliary avere)

Individual portions of the expression, including words other than the verb, are automatically linked. To override this, add explicit links, e.g. for tenere d'occhio (to keep an eye on):

{{it-verb|tenere<a/tèngo,ténni.fut:terrò.imp:tièni> [[d']][[occhio]]}}

which produces

tenére d'occhio (first-person singular present tèngo d'occhio, first-person singular past historic ténni d'occhio, past participle tenùto d'occhio, first-person singular future terrò d'occhio, second-person singular imperative tièni d'occhio, auxiliary avere)

This even works if there are multiple verbs in the expression, e.g. trascinare e rilasciare (to drag and drop):

{{it-verb|trascinare<a/ì> e rilasciare<a/à>}}

which produces

trascinàre e rilasciàre (first-person singular present trascìno e rilàscio, first-person singular past historic trascinài e rilasciài, past participle trascinàto e rilasciàto, auxiliary avere)

Qualifiers and references[edit]

As mentioned above, you can place a qualifier in square brackets after any verb form or after an auxiliary, to indicate under what circumstances that particular form or auxiliary is used. For example, for the verb forare (to pierce), specify:

{{it-verb|a/ò:ó[traditional]}}

which produces

foràre (first-person singular present fòro or (traditional) fóro, first-person singular past historic forài, past participle foràto, auxiliary avere)

Here, we indicate the modern stressed-vowel pronunciation fòro along with the traditional one fóro, marked as such.

An example of qualifiers on auxiliaries occurs with discendere (to descend), which has both intransitive usages (which take the auxiliary essere) and transitive usages (which take the auxiliary avere, as with all transitive verbs). To indicate this, specify:

{{it-verb|e[intransitive]:a[transitive]\é:è,discési,discéso}}

which produces

discéndere or discèndere (first-person singular present discéndo or discèndo, first-person singular past historic discési, past participle discéso, auxiliary (intransitive) essere or (transitive) avere)

You can also specify reference footnotes to be displayed after a given form. To specify such a footnote, use the syntax [ref:...] directly after a form, similar to a qualifier. For example, for discendere, to footnote the fact that both discéndo and discèndo are allowed in modern usage (traditional usage calls for discéndo only), citing Luciano Canepari's Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana, use:

{{it-verb|e[intransitive]:a[transitive]\é:è[ref:{{R:it:DiPI|discendo}}],discési,discéso}}

===References===
<references />

which produces

discéndere or discèndere (first-person singular present discéndo or discèndo[1], first-person singular past historic discési, past participle discéso, auxiliary (intransitive) essere or (transitive) avere)

References

  1. ^ discendo in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

Here, we use a template call to {{R:it:DiPI}}, which generates a citation to Canepari's online dictionary.

You can combine qualifiers and reference notes on the same form. For example, for forare above, to footnote the pronunciations fòro (modern) and fóro (traditional), use:

{{it-verb|a/ò:ó[traditional][ref:{{R:it:DiPI|foro}}]}}

===References===
<references />

which produces

foràre (first-person singular present fòro or (traditional) fóro[1], first-person singular past historic forài, past participle foràto, auxiliary avere)

References

  1. ^ foro in Luciano Canepari, Dizionario di Pronuncia Italiana (DiPI)

The syntax of the contents inside of [ref:...] is the same as for the |ref= parameter to {{IPA}} and {{it-IPA}}. Specifically, to specify multiple footnotes, separate them with  !!! (with or without spaces). To specify a name for a given footnote, use <<name:NAME>> directly after the footnote text, as if <ref name="NAME">...</ref> were used, and to use a previously named footnote a second time, use only <<name:NAME>> with an empty footnote text, as if <ref name="NAME" /> were used. See {{IPA}} for more information.

Parameters[edit]

The allowed parameters are as follows:

|1=
Specify the inflected forms; see above.
|head=, |head2=, ...
Override the headword. Useful especially to add unpredictable links in multiword expressions (an automatic linking algorithm applies in the absence of this, and links each word).
|noautolinktext=1
Disable the autolinking algorithm for text outside of the verb itself, in multiword expressions.
|noautolinkverb=1
Disable the autolinking algorithm for the verb. If you use both this and |noautolinktext=1, no autolinking will happen, with the result that any links need to be specified using |head= and non-lemma forms will be linked in their entirety.
|sort=
Optional argument to specify the sort key; rarely needed.
|id=
Optional argument to specify a sense ID for linking purposes; see {{senseid}} and {{l}}.