Wiktionary:About Basque

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Note 1: This guide is intended to provide guidelines both for creating Basque entries on English Wiktionary as well as for adding Basque translations to English words. The main guidelines for creating any entry on English Wiktionary is set forth in Wiktionary:Entry layout explained; this page is an addition to that page, not a replacement.

Note 2: If a change occurs in the basic wiktionary template (currently at Wiktionary:Entry layout explained that affects Basque entries, then that change should be reflected here.


Pronunciation[edit]

For pronunciation, Template:eu-IPA is available. Basque spelling is highly regular, so usually it won't need any parameters (see the template documentation for more). The pronunciation generated by the template corresponds quite closely to the prescriptive pronunciation of Standard Basque, with some minor adjustments (such as giving the pronunciation of <j> invalid IPA characters (<>) as /x/ in Southern dialects).

As the prescribed pronunciation allows for dialectal variation, when necessary the template will give two different pronunciations: "generic" Southern and "generic" Northern. Dialectal pronunciations can be included, but they have to be entered manually.

Stress[edit]

Most dialects (and Standard Basque) don't have phonemic stress, so it shouldn't be included in phonemic transcriptions. In the case of dialects with non-contrastive stress, it can be added in the phonetic transcription.

The only exception is the Souletin dialect, which does have phonemic stress. When adding Souletin pronounciations, it is therefore strongly recommended to add stress in the phonemic transcription (see for example txakhür).

Parts of speech[edit]

Nouns[edit]

  • In Basque, nouns can be inanimate or animate. Animate nouns refer to humans and animals, while the rest are inanimate. Both types differ only in the form and meaning of some declined forms. Some nouns can both inanimate and animate depending on the meaning (for example, katu); and some inanimate nouns can be declined as animate for stylistic purposes or personification.
  • The headword template for nouns is {{eu-noun}}. The first parameter is used to specify the animacy of the noun.
  • In Basque, nouns are declined for a variety of cases. There is only one basic declension pattern, with minor variations depending on the ending of the noun. For adding declension tables, use the template {{eu-decl-noun}}.
  • For example, for an inanimate noun ending in a vowel:
===Noun===
{{eu-noun|in}}

# definition

====Declension====
{{eu-decl-noun|ending=V|form=inanim}}

Adjectives[edit]

In Basque, there are two types of adjectives: izenondo and izenlagun. The first type is more common, so it can be translated "adjective" for simplicity; while the second is usually translated as "adnominal" or "indeclinable adjective".

Izenondo[edit]

  • This is the most numerous class of adjectives. They are always placed after the noun they modify, and they are fully declinable.
  • The headword template for nouns is {{eu-adj}}. The template will generate the comparative forms automatically. If the adjective is not comparable, use it as {{eu-adj|-}}.
  • In Basque, adjectives are declined for a variety of cases. Since they are inflected in the exact same way as nouns, the template {{eu-decl-noun}} is used. Since most adjectives can be used with both animate and inanimate nouns, the animacy parameter on the template should be set to "both"
  • For example, for comparable adjective ending in a consonant:
===Adjective===
{{eu-adj}}

# definition

====Declension====
{{eu-decl-noun|ending=C|form=both}}

Izenlagun[edit]

  • They are placed before the noun they modify, and cannot be declined. Adnominals are not comparable.
  • The formatting of adnominal entries is yet to be determined.
  • The headword template for adnominals/indeclinable adjectives is {{eu-adn}}, it doesn't take any parameter. Despite using a different template, the POS header is Adjectives as in the previous case.
  • The layout is:
===Adjective===
{{eu-adn}}

# definition

Dialects[edit]

Despite being spoken in a small area, Basque has probably a larger dialectal variation than its neighboring languages. Dialectal entries are listed under the ==Basque== heading as normal, and their status as dialectal should be marked using the template {{lb}}. Note that most regional/dialectal terms are included in Standard Basque, so these entries can use Template:eu-IPA and the normal declension templates (see for example zuhamuxka).

In the case of dialectal terms not present in the standard language (such as txakhür), pronunciation should be added manually only for the dialect(s) in which the term is used. Declension templates shouldn't be added to these entries, because the generated inflectional suffixes might not be the same as in the dialect in which the particular word is found. However, dialectal declension templates might be created in the future.

Alphabet[edit]

Basque uses these letters:

They have these names: