gall

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See also: gäll and Gall

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English galle, from Old English galla, ġealla, from Proto-Germanic *gallǭ. Related to Dutch gal, German Galle, Swedish galle, galla, Ancient Greek χολή (kholḗ). Also remotely related with yellow.

Noun[edit]

gall (countable and uncountable, plural galls)

  1. (anatomy, obsolete, uncountable) Bile, especially that of an animal; the greenish, profoundly bitter-tasting fluid found in bile ducts and gall bladders, structures associated with the liver.
  2. (anatomy) The gall bladder.
  3. (uncountable, obsolete) Great misery or physical suffering, likened to the bitterest-tasting of substances.
    • Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;
    • 1683, John Dryden, The Art of Poetry
      The stage its ancient fury thus let fall, / And comedy diverted without gall.
    • 1847, Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights, chapter XIV:
      {...} I hated him with a hatred that turned my life to gall {...}
  4. (uncountable) A feeling of exasperation.
  5. (uncountable) Impudence or brazenness; temerity, chutzpah.
    • 1917, Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Oakdale Affair, Chapter 6
      “Durn ye!” he cried. “I’ll lam ye! Get offen here. I knows ye. Yer one o’ that gang o’ bums that come here last night, an’ now you got the gall to come back beggin’ for food, eh? I’ll lam ye!” and he raised the gun to his shoulder.
  6. (medicine, obsolete, countable) A sore or open wound caused by chafing, which may become infected, as with a blister.
  7. (countable) A sore on a horse caused by an ill-fitted or ill-adjusted saddle; a saddle sore.
  8. (countable) A pit on a surface being cut caused by the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. (transitive) To bother or trouble.
    • 1881–1882, Robert Louis Stevenson, “‘Pieces of Eight’”, in Treasure Island, London; Paris: Cassell & Company, published 14 November 1883, OCLC 702939134, part V (My Sea Adventure), page 219:
      I went below, and did what I could for my wound; it pained me a good deal, and still bled freely; but it was neither deep nor dangerous, nor did it greatly gall me when I used my arm.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 15, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      Edward Churchill still attended to his work in a hopeless mechanical manner like a sleep-walker who walks safely on a well-known round. But his Roman collar galled him, his cossack stifled him, his biretta was as uncomfortable as a merry-andrew's cap and bells.
  2. To harass, to harry, often with the intent to cause injury.
    • June 24, 1778, George Washington, The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources: Volume 12, 1745–1799
      The disposition for these detachments is as follows – Morgans corps, to gain the enemy’s right flank; Maxwells brigade to hang on their left. Brigadier Genl. Scott is now marching with a very respectable detachment destined to gall the enemys left flank and rear.
  3. To chafe, to rub or subject to friction; to create a sore on the skin.
    • 1719 April 25, [Daniel Defoe], The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, [], 3rd edition, London: [] W[illiam] Taylor [], published 1719, OCLC 838630407:
      …he went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at length very well.
  4. To exasperate.
    • 1979, Mark Bowden, “Captivity Pageant”, The Atlantic, Volume 296, No. 5, pp. 92-97, December, 1979
      Metrinko was hungry, but he was galled by how self-congratulatory his captors seemed, how generous and noble and proudly Islamic.
  5. To cause pitting on a surface being cut from the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
    Improper cooling and a dull milling blade on titanium can gall the surface.
  6. To scoff; to jeer.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from French galle, from Latin galla (oak-apple).

Galls on a dried leaf.

Noun[edit]

gall (plural galls)

  1. (countable, phytopathology) A blister or tumor-like growth found on the surface of plants, caused by burrowing of insect larvae into the living tissues, especially that of the common oak gall wasp Cynips quercusfolii.
    • 1974, Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas
      Even so, Redi retained a belief that in certain other cases—the origin of parasites inside the human or animal body or of grubs inside of oak galls—there must be spontaneous generation. Bit by bit the evidence grew against such views. In 1670 Jan Swammerdam, painstaking student of the insect’s life cycle, suggested that the grubs in galls were enclosed in them for the sake of nourishment and must come from insects that had inserted their semen or their eggs into the plants.
  2. (Can we clean up(+) this sense?) (countable) A bump-like imperfection resembling a gall.
    • 1653, Izaak Walton, The Compleat Angler, Chapter 21
      But first for your Line. First note, that you are to take care that your hair be round and clear, and free from galls, or scabs, or frets: for a well- chosen, even, clear, round hair, of a kind of glass-colour, will prove as strong as three uneven scabby hairs that are ill-chosen, and full of galls or unevenness. You shall seldom find a black hair but it is round, but many white are flat and uneven; therefore, if you get a lock of right, round, clear, glass-colour hair, make much of it.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts in dyeing.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ure to this entry?)

See also[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.svg Gall (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Occitan [Term?] (compare Occitan gal), from Latin gallus (compare Spanish gallo, Portuguese galo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

gall m (plural galls)

  1. rooster, cock

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: gall
  • Rhymes: -ɒlː

Adjective[edit]

gall (not comparable)

  1. Gallic (of or pertaining to Gaul, its people or language)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative gall gallok
accusative gallt gallokat
dative gallnak galloknak
instrumental gallal gallokkal
causal-final gallért gallokért
translative gallá gallokká
terminative gallig gallokig
essive-formal gallként gallokként
essive-modal
inessive gallban gallokban
superessive gallon gallokon
adessive gallnál galloknál
illative gallba gallokba
sublative gallra gallokra
allative gallhoz gallokhoz
elative gallból gallokból
delative gallról gallokról
ablative galltól galloktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
gallé galloké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
galléi gallokéi

Noun[edit]

gall (countable and uncountable, plural gallok)

  1. Gaul (person)
  2. Gaul (language)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative gall gallok
accusative gallt gallokat
dative gallnak galloknak
instrumental gallal gallokkal
causal-final gallért gallokért
translative gallá gallokká
terminative gallig gallokig
essive-formal gallként gallokként
essive-modal
inessive gallban gallokban
superessive gallon gallokon
adessive gallnál galloknál
illative gallba gallokba
sublative gallra gallokra
allative gallhoz gallokhoz
elative gallból gallokból
delative gallról gallokról
ablative galltól galloktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
gallé galloké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
galléi gallokéi
Possessive forms of gall
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. gallom galljaim
2nd person sing. gallod galljaid
3rd person sing. gallja galljai
1st person plural gallunk galljaink
2nd person plural gallotok galljaitok
3rd person plural galljuk galljaik

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • gall in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh: A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Icelandic[edit]

Verb[edit]

gall (strong)

  1. first-person singular past indicative of gjalla
  2. third-person singular past indicative of gjalla

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish gall (foreigner), from Latin Gallus (a Gaul). Related to Scottish Gaelic Gall (foreigner).

Noun[edit]

gall m (genitive singular gaill, nominative plural gaill)

  1. foreigner
  2. (derogatory) Anglified Irish person
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

gall m (genitive singular gaill, nominative plural gaill)

  1. Alternative form of gallán

Declension[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
gall ghall ngall
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "gall" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “gall” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “gall” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

gall m (genitive singular goill, plural goill)

  1. Alternative letter-case form of Gall

Welsh[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • geill (literary, third-person singular present/future)

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

gall

  1. third-person singular present/future of gallu
  2. (literary, rare) second-person singular imperative of gallu

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
gall all ngall unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 51 v