kur

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See also: Kur and Kür

Abu[edit]

Noun[edit]

kur

  1. ear

Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *kur, from Proto-Indo-European *kʷur (compare Lithuanian kur̃, Armenian ur).

Pronoun[edit]

kur

  1. when

Derived terms[edit]


Danish[edit]

Noun[edit]

kur c (singular definite kuren, plural indefinite kure)

  1. treatment
  2. cure, remedy

Inflection[edit]


Latvian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

A form of the verb kurt (q.v.).

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Verb[edit]

kur

  1. 2nd person singular present indicative form of kurt
  2. 3rd person singular present indicative form of kurt
  3. 3rd person plural present indicative form of kurt
  4. 2nd person singular imperative form of kurt
  5. (with the particle lai) 3rd person singular imperative form of kurt
  6. (with the particle lai) 3rd person plural imperative form of kurt

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *kur, from the same Proto-Indo-European stem *kʷu-, *kʷo- as the interrogative pronoun kas (q.v.). Cognates include Lithuanian kur̃, Old Church Slavonic къде (kŭde) (cf. Russian где (gde)), Sanskrit कुह (kúha).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Adverb[edit]

kur

  1. (in questions involving location) where? in what place?
    kur atrodas jūsu māja?where is your house located?
    kur tu strādā?where do you work?
    kur viņš dzīvo?where does he live?
    kur Kristīne? iekšā?” Edgars rādīja uz barona istabām — “where (is) Christne? inside?” Edgars showed the baron's rooms
  2. (in questions involving motion towards) where? where to? to what place? whither?
    kur tu iesi?where will you go?
  3. (often in combination with other adverbs like kaut, citur, tur) indicates an indeterminate or unknown place; where, wherever, somewhere
    kaut kur — somewhere
    kur nekur — somewhere
    kur tur — somewhere
    kur citur — elsewhere, somewhere else
    citur kur — elsewhere, somewhere else
    viņš raudzījās visapkārt, vai vēl kur nekūpēja — he looked all around, even (there) where it wasn't smoking
    kaut kur nodimdēja pēdējās tramvajs, vientuļs un drusku nogurissomewhere the last tram was rumbling (along), lonely and a little tired
    bet vai, uz balli ejot, nevar apmaldīties un nokļūt kur citur? — but can't (you), while going to the ball, get lost and end up somewhere else?
  4. (usually in a rhetorical question or as part of an interjection or interjective expression) indicates denial, impossibility
    kur nu! — lit. where now! (= what?! of course not! what an idea! what are you talking about?)
    kur tad — lit. where then (indicating doubt, impossibility)
    kur šim nauda būs, kad pa krogu vien dzīvoja? — how on earth (lit. where) will this one (= guy) have money, when (= since) he used to live in the bar (doing nothing)?
    Anneli nekur nelaida, un viņa arī nevarēja paiet; kā soli spēra, tā sapinās lakatos un novēlās... kur viņai arī vajadzēja iet! — (they) didn't let Annele (go) anywhere, and she couldn't walk anyway; when she tried a step, she got entangled in (the) scarves and fell down... where should she go anyway!
    “es kādreiz domāju, auskari vairs nav modē...” “kur nu! vismodernākā lieta!” — “I sometimes think that earrings are no longer fashionable...” “what are you talking about?! (earrings are) the most modern (= fashionable) thing!”
  5. used to stress the degree of a quality, or to add emotional intensity; syn. cik; how..., how much..., what a...
    Sals domājis: “sasodīts, kur tas zaķis stiprs!” — Frost thought: “damn! what a strong hare!”
    visi aizsteidzas uz pūķa pili meitu apraudzīt... kur tā bija priecīga, asaras raudādama, puisītim-brālītim tūlīt gar ap kaklu! — everybody hurried to the dragon's palace to look at the girl... how happy she was, crying tears, with the little boy, (her) brother, around her neck (= hugging her)!
  6. used to make an utterance more expressive, to strengthen it; ah...! what happened to...!
    kur tas laiks, sulas kad urbu!ah! (lit. where) that time, when I used to drill (holes on trees, to get) sap!
  7. (with a complement participial verb in -dams) used to indicate concession; let ... wherever
    lai brauc kur braukdams — let him go wherever he will!
    lai rakstnieks ietu kur iedams, darītu ko darīdams — let the writer go wherever he will go, (let him) do whatever he will do
  8. (with an infinitive verb) definition; (a place) where, anywhere, somewhere
    nezināja kur skriet — he didn't know where to run
    nav kur iet — (there) isn't anywhere to go
    nav kur drēbes glabāt — (he) doesn't have where (= a place) to keep (his) clothes
    Gaužens gan saka, ka varētu iztikt ar kaļķiem, bet tos pašus arī nav kur ņemt — Gaužens indeed said that they could do with lime, but there isn't anywhere to take (= get, find) it
    viņa nokāpa pēc ūdens, lai būtu kur nomazgāt gaidāmo bērnu — she went down for (= near) the water, so that there would be where (= some place where) to wash the upcoming baby
Synonyms[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

kur

  1. where; used to introduce subordinate clauses indicating location and relating to elements of the main clause with various different functions:
    (a) subject:
    ja slimnieks sūdzas par sāpēm pakrūtē, tad jānoskaidro, kur īsti sāp, vairāk pa labi... vai pa kreisi... — if the patient complains of chest pain, then (we) must find out where it really hurts, more to the right... or to the left...
    (b) predicate:
    vistrokšņainākā istaba redakcijā bija tā, kur strādāja lauksaimniecības nodaļas līdzstrādnieki — the noisiest room in the editorial office was the one where the associates of the agriculture department worked
    (c) attribute, secondary predicate:
    gravu ienaidnieks uzskatīja par vietu, kur katrā ziņā vajag būt sapulcētiem uzbrūkošajiem spēkiem — the enemy considered a ravine a place where in all respects there must be assembled attacking forces
    {d} attribute, with purpose meaning
    itin kā zemes trūktu, kur dārzu stādīt — as if there was no land where to plant a garden
    (e) direct object (e.g., reporting a question)
    tātad taisnība un brīvība nav vis pavisam pazudušas: Jēkabs zina, kur tās paslēptas — so, truth and freedom were not completely lost: Jēkabs knew where they (were) hidden
    sveicināti! vai jūs man neparādītu, kur dzīvo Dzenes? — hello! wouldn't you (= would you please) show me where the Dzenes live?
    (f) spatial (adverbial), locative or directional (including the combination kur (tik) vien) “wherever...”)
    kur dūmi, tur siltums — where (there is) smoke, (there is also) heat
    labi, labi! ņem sievu un bērnus un ej, kur esi nācis! OK, OK! get (your) wife and children and go (back) where you came from!
    allaž gribas nokļūt tur, kur esmu jau bijis — (I) always feel like going where I have already been (before)
    Andriksons stāvēja turpat, kur stāvējis, stīvs un mēms — Andriksons stood right there where he had stopped, stiff and speechless
    kur vien Liena parādījās, tur skumjas bēga kā nakts no dienaswherever Liena showed herself, there sadness ran (away) like the night from the day
    kur tik vien māceklis pieķeras, visur notik klizmawherever the apprentice tried to do something, accidents happened
    (g) concession (in the sequences lai kur, lai arī kur, lai nu kur, lai vai kur)
    lai kur tu dzīvotu, jaunais draugs, lai cik klusa būtu tava sēta, tu allaž sasniegsi drauguswherever you may live, young friend, no matter how quiet your little ranch is, you will always obtain friends
    viņš ir tik karsts un nikns... lai kur kāds runā, viņš tūdaļ pretī ar savu — he is so hot (= angry) and wild... wherever someone is speaking, he immediately reacts with his (comments, counterarguments)

Pronoun[edit]

kur (relative)

  1. where; used to link a component of a subordinate clause with a component of a main clause, expressing a locative relation
    Janka ienira pavadītāju drūzmā, kur neviens nepiegrieza viņam vērību — Janka dived into the accompanying crowd, where nobody would pay attention to him
    māte priecājās par sieru un iebāza to, drusku nogaršojusi, kabatā, kur tas pazuda kā akā — mother was happy about the cheese and put it, after tasting a little, in (her) pocket, where it disappeared as if in a well

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “kur” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.

Lithuanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

kur

  1. where
    Kur esi?
    Where are you?

Pronoun[edit]

kur

  1. where

Lojban[edit]

Rafsi[edit]

kur

  1. rafsi of kurfa.

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kur m

  1. (archaic) rooster

Declension[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Verb[edit]

kur

  1. create (imperative)