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See also:
U+6838, 核
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6838

[U+6837]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6839]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 木卜女人 (DYVO), four-corner 40982, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 524, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32173
  • Dae Jaweon: page 912, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1206, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6838

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡuːd, *ɡrɯːɡ): semantic (tree) + phonetic (OC *ɡɯːʔ) – a kind of tree. Modern meanings are borrowed.

Etymology 1[edit]

The definitions related to “to examine” come from the “kernel” sense, i.e. “to go to the core” (Schuessler, 2007).

Generally thought to be of Sino-Tibetan origin. It has been compared to Tibetan རག་ཙེ (rag tse), Karbi rak (Gong, 2002; Schuessler, 2007). However, Hill (2012) rejects the connection to the Tibetan word because most words ending with ཙེ (tse) are loanwords from Chinese words ending with the suffix.

Smith (2011) groups this word with the following terms into a word family meaning “root, germ, generative core”:

  • (OC *kɯː, “grassroot”) and its derivative (OC *kɯːn, “root”),
  • (OC *ɡrɯː, “(human) bones”) (also noted by Schuessler, 2007),
  • (OC *ɡɯː, “child”),
  • (OC *ɡɯːʔ, “sprouting stage”), i.e. "the moon’s first appearance" > "twelfth earthly branch".

Pronunciation 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𣝗


Note:
  • wat6 - “seed; kernel”;
  • hat6 - “nucleus; nuclear”.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • fu̍t - “seed; kernel”;
    • ha̍k - only in 核卵.
  • Jin
  • Note: geh5 - used in 核桃.
    Note:
    • hu̍t - vernacular (“seed”);
    • ha̍t - vernacular (“swelling in the lymph glands”);
    • he̍k/hia̍k - literary.
    Note: hug8 - “seed”.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
    Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/ ~算
    /xu⁴⁵/ 棗~兒
    Jinan /xə⁴²/
    Qingdao /xɛ⁴²/ ~心
    /xuə⁴²/ ~桃
    Zhengzhou /xai⁴²/
    Xi'an /xai²¹/ ~算
    /xu²⁴/ 桃~儿
    Xining /xɛ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xa¹³/ ~算
    /xɛ¹³/ ~算
    /xə¹³/ ~算
    /xɯ¹³/ ~桃
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    /xu⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
    /xu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xe³¹/
    Guiyang /xɛ²¹/
    Kunming /xə³¹/
    Nanjing /xəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/ ~算
    /kəʔ⁵⁴/ ~桃
    Pingyao /kʌʔ⁵³/ ~桃
    /kʰʌʔ¹³/ 審~
    Hohhot /xaʔ⁴³/ ~算
    /xu³¹/ 棗~子
    Wu Shanghai /ɦəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /jy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /xɛʔ²¹/ ~對
    /xɛ²²/ 山~桃
    Tunxi /xə¹¹/
    /uən²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /hæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /hak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /het̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐt̚²/ ~對
    /wɐt̚²/ 桃~
    Nanning /wɐt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɐt̚²/ ~對
    /wɐt̚²/ 桃~
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hik̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xo⁴⁴/
    /xɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hek̚²/
    /huk̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hut̚⁵/

    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hɛk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁ<r>ək/
    English kernel fruit; scrutinize

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4334
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡuːd/
    Notes 𣝗
    Definitions[edit]

    1. seed; pit; stone; kernel; core; nut (Classifier: c)
      𦧲出嚟 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      From:
      loe1 faan1 di1 wat6 ceot1 lai4 [Jyutping]
      spit the seeds/pits back out
    2. (computing) -core
      See also: 核心
      4  ―  4-  ―  quad-core
    3. (physics, chemistry, biology) nucleus
    4. (physics) nuclear
    5. (mathematics, algebra, linear algebra) kernel
    Synonyms[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
    Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/ ~算
    /xu⁴⁵/ 棗~兒
    Jinan /xə⁴²/
    Qingdao /xɛ⁴²/ ~心
    /xuə⁴²/ ~桃
    Zhengzhou /xai⁴²/
    Xi'an /xai²¹/ ~算
    /xu²⁴/ 桃~儿
    Xining /xɛ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xa¹³/ ~算
    /xɛ¹³/ ~算
    /xə¹³/ ~算
    /xɯ¹³/ ~桃
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    /xu⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
    /xu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /xe³¹/
    Guiyang /xɛ²¹/
    Kunming /xə³¹/
    Nanjing /xəʔ⁵/
    Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/ ~算
    /kəʔ⁵⁴/ ~桃
    Pingyao /kʌʔ⁵³/ ~桃
    /kʰʌʔ¹³/ 審~
    Hohhot /xaʔ⁴³/ ~算
    /xu³¹/ 棗~子
    Wu Shanghai /ɦəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /jy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /xɛʔ²¹/ ~對
    /xɛ²²/ 山~桃
    Tunxi /xə¹¹/
    /uən²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /hæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /hak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /het̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐt̚²/ ~對
    /wɐt̚²/ 桃~
    Nanning /wɐt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɐt̚²/ ~對
    /wɐt̚²/ 桃~
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hik̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xo⁴⁴/
    /xɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hek̚²/
    /huk̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (119)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠɛk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚæk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɐk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣæk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣæk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hak6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hɛk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁ<r>ək/
    English kernel fruit; scrutinize

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4843
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡrɯːɡ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. to examine; to check; to verify
    2. rigorous; detailed; reliable
    Usage notes[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. a kind of tree
    2. Alternative form of (gāi).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. eaves of a house

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かく
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    Noun[edit]

    (かく) (kaku

    1. atomic nucleus
    2. (algebra) kernel
    3. (astronomy) core, nucleus
    4. cell nucleus

    Synonyms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (haek, hol) (hangeul , , revised haek, hol, McCune–Reischauer haek, hol, Yale hayk, hol)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: hạch

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]