하다

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Jeju[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Korean 하다 (hada, to be many (obsolete)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

하다 (hada)

  1. to be many

Synonyms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠da̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?hada
Revised Romanization (translit.)?hada
McCune–Reischauer?hada
Yale Romanization?hata

Etymology 1[edit]

Of native Korean origin, from Middle Korean ᄒᆞ다〮 (Yale: hò-tá), from Old Korean (*HO(Y)-).

It is believed that at an ancient stage, the stem of ᄒᆞ다〮 (Yale: hò-tá) was actually *ᄒᆡ (Yale: *hoy-), as still evidenced by the irregular infinitive form 하여 (hayeo) (Vovin 2010, p. 27).

Verb[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  1. (transitive) to do; used to vaguely refer to almost any action, in particular:
    ? — 아니, .Haess-eo? - ani, mot haess-eo.Did you do it? — No, I couldn't.
    느리게 하면 되나?Neurige hamyeon doena?Will it work if I do it slowly?
    있어.Je-ga hal su isseo-yo.I can do it.
    (file)
    1. to prepare, to make (food, clothes, etc.)
      내일 미리 하다naeil meog-eul bab-eul miri hadato make tomorrow's rice in advance
      (file)
    2. to make a certain facial expression
      어두운 얼굴 하다eoduun eolgur-eul hadato make a gloomy face
      (file)
    3. (often polite) to have, to eat
      혹시 하실래?Hoksi cha-na hasillae-yo?Should we have some tea?
      좀처럼 하지 않다sur-eul jomcheoreom haji antato rarely drink alcohol
      (file)
    4. to wear, to put on (accessories such as hats or jewelry)
      화려한 귀걸이 하고 나가다hwaryeohan gwigeori-reul hago nagadato go out wearing a fancy earring
      (file)
    5. to run (an enterprise, etc.)
      조그만 가게 하다jogeuman otgage-reul hadato run a small clothing store
      (file)
    6. to be, to take the responsibility of... (a charge, a role)
      대통령 하는 쉬운 아니다.
      Daetongnyeong-'eul haneun geos-eun swiun ir-i anida.
      It is not an easy thing to be president.
    7. to get (a result)
      2밖에 하다i-deung-bakke mot hadato only get second place
    8. (of prices, whether literal or figuratively) to cost, to be worth (a certain price)
      이나 한다.Jip han chae-e sip eog-ina handa.Each house is worth as much as a billion won.
      (file)
      밥값 하는
      bapgap-do mot haneun nom
      worthless person
      (literally, “bastard who isn't even worth the price of his food”)
    9. (usually with 어떻게 (how)) to treat, to deal with
      문제 어떻게 할까?I munje-reul eotteoke halkka-yo?How should we deal with this problem?
    10. (euphemistic) to acquire (an object, by purchase or other arrangement)
      휴대폰 하나 하다hyudaepon-eul hana hadato get a cell phone
      (file)
  2. to say (that):
    1. (after an indirect quotation) to say (that)
      Synonym: 그러다 (geureoda)
      잠깐 쉬자 했다.Jamkkan swija-go haetda.She said we should rest a bit.
      잠깐 쉬자 소리 고개 돌렸다.
      Jamkkan swija-neun sori-e na-neun gogae-reul dollyeotda.
      At her saying we should rest a bit, I turned my head.
      (See Usage notes for the contraction)
    2. (after a direct quotation, colloquial, especially as 하고) to be like; to say (that)
      Synonym: 이러다 (ireoda)
      "씨발" 하고 욕하더라.
      Gyae-ga ssibal hago yok-hadeora.
      He cussed, like "fuck".
      보고 " 미쳤냐?" 하는 있지?
      Gyae-ga na-bogo neo michyeonnya? Haneun geo itji?
      He was telling me, you know, "Are you insane?"
    3. (transitive) to call, to name
      서로 의미 같은 단어 동의어 한다.
      Seoro uimi-ga gateun daneo-reul dong'uieo-ra handa.
      Words which have the same meaning are called synonyms.
    4. (after an ideophone or onomatopoeia) to go; make the sound of the onomatopoeia; to act according to the ideophone
      하고 떨어졌다.Dor-i kung hago tteoreojyeotda.The rock fell, going "boom".
      병아리 삐악삐악했다.Byeong'ari-ga ppiakppiak-haetda.The chick went "chirp-chirp".
    5. (after an interrogative suffix) to wonder, to ponder
      보는가 했더니 만화책이었다.
      Geu-ga mwol boneunga haetdeoni manhwachaeg-ieotda.
      I was wondering what he was reading; it was a comic book.
  3. (transitive, with 으로 (with)) to make, to render:
    1. (with a noun) to decide on; to make; to use (as)
      Synonym: 삼다 (samda)
      황제 차자 태자 했다.Hwangje-neun chaja-reul taeja-ro haetda.The emperor decided on his second son as his heir.
      여인 부인으로 했다.Geu yeoin-eul bu'in-euro haetda.He made that woman his wife.
      아일랜드 농민 감자 주식으로 했다.
      Aillaendeu nongmin-deur-eun gamja-reul jusig-euro haetda.
      The Irish peasantry had potatoes as their staple food.
    2. (with a clause nominalized with or ) to decide
      전쟁 하기 했다.Geu-neun jeonjaeng-'eul hagi-ro haetda.He decided to wage war.
      정책 추진하는 으로 했습니다.
      Jeongchaeg-eul chujin-haneun geos-euro haetseumnida.
      We decided to push forward with the policy.
    3. (with a direction) to cause to face
      얼굴 메카 방향으로 하고 기도 드렸다.
      Eolgur-eul Meka banghyang-'euro hago gido-reul deuryeotda.
      He had his face face Mecca, and offered his prayers.
  4. (intransitive, with indirect object, with adverb) to treat (in a certain way)
    Synonym: 대(對)하다 (daehada)
    남친한테 너무 나쁘게 같다.
    Nae-ga namchin-hante neomu nappeuge han geot gatda.
    I feel I treated my boyfriend too badly.
  5. (auxiliary) See 어하다 (-eohada, to consider (as); to find (as)).
  6. Used as a light verb to allow nouns and noun-like forms to function as active verbs. The verb itself has little to no real meaning. The noun functions as a direct object of the verb, being able to take particles such as the accusative case marker or the topic marker .
    (mal, speech) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎말하다 (malhada, to talk)
    번역(飜譯) (beonyeok, translation) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎번역(飜譯)하다 (beonyeokhada, to translate)
    사랑 (sarang, love) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎사랑하다 (saranghada, to love)
    사랑 ?Na-reul sarang-'eun haess-eo?Did you even love me?
    전쟁 하는 얼마나 끔직한 인지 몰랐었다.
    Jeonjaeng-'eul haneun geos-i eolmana kkeumjikhan ir-inji na-neun mollasseotda.
    I had not known what a terrible thing it is to wage war.
  7. Used as a light verb to allow nouns and noun-like forms to function as adjectives. The verb itself has little to no real meaning. The noun can be separated by the topic marker .
    클린 (keullin, from English clean) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎클린하다 (keullinhada, to be clean)
    은은(隱隱) (euneun, being beautifully indistinct) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎은은(隱隱)하다 (euneunhada, to be beautifully indistinct)
    건강 한데 너무 역하다.
    Geongang-'eun hande mas-i neomu yeokhada.
    It's good for your health, but it tastes too repulsive.
  8. After certain roots, fully suffixed to form an inseparable verb or adjective. Such roots tend to be single-character Sino-Korean morphemes.
    (chak, of unknown etymology; from Manchu ᠴᠠᡴ (cak)?) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎착하다 (chakhada, to be nice)
    망(亡) (mang, ruin, destruction) + ‎하다 (hada) → ‎망(亡)하다 (manghada, to be brought to ruin)
  9. Used with no real meaning after a verb or adjective nominalized with and followed by a particle.
    먹기 했다.Meokgi-neun haetda.She did eat [but did not do anything else].
    먹기 했다.Meokgi-man haetda.All she did was eat.
    먹기 했다.Meokgi-do haetda.She also ate.
  10. Used as the neutral verbal element after suffixes expressing intent.
    인도 고자 했다.Indo-ro ga-goja haetda.He intended to go to India.
    빨리 도망가려고 했다.Ppalli domang-ga-ryeogo haetda.He quickly tried to run away.
  11. Used as the neutral verbal element for constructions with repeated suffixes.
    다가 다가 했다.
    Anj-at-daga seot-daga haetda.
    He was sitting down, then standing up, then sitting down again.
    갈까 말까 했다.
    Galkka malkka haetda.
    He wondered if he should go or not.
    아기 울고 웃고 했다.
    Agi-neun ulgo utgo haetda.
    The baby was crying, then smiling.
  12. (colloquial) and all; used after to emphasize a suffix expressing causation.
    Synonym: 그래서 (geuraeseo)
    > 오고 해서
    bi-ga waseo > bi-ga ogo haeseo
    since it was raining > since it was raining and all
    기분 길래 > 기분 하길래
    gibun-i an jo-killae > gibun-i an jo-ko hagillae
    since I was feeling bad > since I was feeling bad and all
  13. Various idiomatic usages:
    1. See 게 하다 (-ge hada, to make; (forms the causative)).
    2. See 고는 하다 (-goneun hada, [one] would [customarily]...).
    3. See 다 하면 (-da hamyeon, if... always).
    4. See 어야 하다 (-eoya hada, must; should; have to).
    5. See 었으면 하다 (-eosseumyeon hada, to wish; to hope).
    6. See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, because of; via).
    7. See 쯤 해서 (-jjeum haeseo, around the time...).
    8. See 하고 (-hago, and, with).
    9. See 하면 (hamyeon, as for).
    10. See 할 것 없다 (hal geot eopda, to have no need to distinguish).
Usage notes[edit]

("to say", for direct quotes):

  • Using 하고 (hago) is more colloquial and has a nuance of more intimate or faithful quoting than using 이라고 (-irago). For example, speakers use 하고 (hago) when imitating the actual way something was said (e.g. someone's accent, prosody, etc.), and 이라고 (-irago) when quoting written material.[1]
    보고 " 어디?" 하고 물었어.Na-bogo ya neo eodi-ya? Hago mureosseo.He was like, "Hey, where are you?"
    촉수엄금이라고 적혀있었다.Choksueomgeum-irago jeokhyeo-isseotda.It was written, "Do not touch."

(compounds)

  • As Korean verbs and adjectives are a fully closed class, all newly borrowed or coined verbs and adjectives must be formed by 하다 (hada).

(contractions)

  • In compound verbs or adjectives, the stem can be contracted. This often has a literary nuance.
  • For some of the adverbs formed by such a contraction of conjugated forms, the presumed original verb or adjective is no longer widely used, if at all. For example, the adverb 기어(期於)코 (gieoko, no matter what; in the end) has no corresponding adjective *기어(期於)하다 (*gieohada).
  • Some of these contracted forms have undergone semantic shifts and are no longer fully equivalent to the uncontracted forms. For example, 무심(無心)코 (musimko, thoughtlessly) cannot be replaced by 무심(無心)하고 (musim-hago, [one] is careless, and...).
  • Contraction is more common for connective suffixes and less common for sentence-final ones, especially informal ones.
  • Contraction is more common in Gyeongsang dialect than in Standard Seoul Korean.

(contraction in indirect quotes)

(conjugation)

  • In less formal language, the infinitive 하여 (hayeo) is always contracted to (hae).
  • Because the intimate style is never formal by definition, 하여 (hayeo) can never replace (hae) in such contexts.
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum haerye (訓民正音解例 / 훈민정음해례), 1446, as Middle Korean 하다 (Yale: hata).

Adjective[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive , sequential 하니)

  1. (obsolete) to be many; to be big

References[edit]

  1. ^ 안경화 (1995) 한국어 인용구문의 연구 [A study of Korean quotative constructions], Seoul National University (PhD)

Middle Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Suspected to have same root with 크다 (keuda, “big”).

Adjective[edit]

하다 (hata)

  1. many; big

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Korean: 한숨 (hansum, sigh)
  • Korean: 한강(漢江) (hangang, Han River)