dame

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See also: Dame, damé, dáme, and Damɛ

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

English actress Dame Judi Dench at the 60th British Academy Film Awards in February 2007. Dench was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1988, and thus uses the title “Dame” (sense 1)

From Middle English dame, dam ((term of address or title of a) woman of rank, lady; mistress of a household; superior of a convent; mother), from Old French dame (lady; term of address for a woman; the queen in card games and chess), from Latin domina (mistress of the house),[1] feminine form of dominus (lord, master, ruler; owner of a residence), ultimately either from Proto-Indo-European *demh₂- (to domesticate, tame) or from Latin domus (home, house) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dem- (to build (up))). Doublet of donna.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

dame (plural dames)

  1. (Britain) Usually capitalized as Dame: a title equivalent to Sir for a female knight.
    Dame Edith Sitwell
  2. (Britain) A matron at a school, especially Eton College.
    • 2005, Paul Shrimpton, “Darnell’s School”, in A Catholic Eton?: Newman’s Oratory School, Leominster, Herefordshire: Gracewing, →ISBN, page 88:
      Even though the dames’ houses were being gradually phased out at Eton, [John Henry] Newman was enthusiastic about the arrangement since it met one of the promoters’ key demands; besides, he had experienced something similar as a boy at Ealing School, where the boarding houses were also under the jurisdiction of dames. The Ealing dames ensured that boys were properly dressed and cared for them when sick, and they also ran the tuck shops.
    • 2016, David Noy, “Parents, Childhood, Youth (1739–1760)”, in Dr Johnson’s Friend and Robert Adam’s Client Topham Beauclerk, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, →ISBN, page 14:
      As he [Fréderic Guyaz] worked for Topham [Beauclerk] while he was at Eton, it is likely that Topham was a day-boarder there, living at home in Windsor. His Eton "dame" was Mrs. Bland; day-boarders were allocated to a dame at whose house they took their meals.
      Windsor is on the opposite side of the River Thames from Eton.
  3. (Britain, theater) In traditional pantomime: a melodramatic female often played by a man in drag.
    • 1870 January 29, “English Pantomime. In Two Parts.—Part II.”, in William and Robert Chambers, editors, Chambers’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science and Art, volume VII (Fourth Series), number 318, London; Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, OCLC 793924257, chapter X, pages 73 and 74:
      [page 73, column 2] Mother Goose was produced on the 29th of December; Simmons playing the Old Dame; [] [page 74, column 1] Bugle condemns her to the ducking-stool, a sentence opposed by Colin, who espouses the cause of the Old Dame, who, escaping from her persecutors, puts an end to the wedding festivities by raising the ghost of the Squire's first wife.
    • 2013, Maureen Hughes, “Welcome to the Magical World of Pantomime”, in A History of Pantomime, Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen & Sword History, →ISBN, page 34:
      The Dame in a Panto is generally a large, gregarious and out-going man who plays the part of a large, gregarious and out-going woman. [] Every successful actor who plays the part of Dame in Panto knows that the secret of his success is that it should be obvious that it is a man playing a part, for this is not a Drag act; the intention is not to be as womanly as possible, but always to be 'a feller in a frock'. [] Oh how everyone loves the Panto Dame for she is Panto.
  4. (US, dated, informal, slightly derogatory) A woman.
  5. (archaic) A lady, a woman.
    • 1576, George Whetstone, “The Castle of Delight: []”, in The Rocke of Regard, Diuided into Foure Parts. [...], Imprinted at London: [By H. Middleton] for Robert Waley, OCLC 837515946; republished as J[ohn] P[ayne] Collier, editor, The Rocke of Regard, Diuided into Foure Parts. [...] (Illustrations of Early English Poetry; vol. 2, no. 2), London: Privately printed, [1867?], OCLC 706027473, page 55:
      Now, thou, deare dame, that workſte theſe ſweete effectes in mee, / Vouchsafe my zeale, that onely ſeeke to ſerve and honour thee.
    • a. 1638, Ben Jonson, “The Twelvth Night’s Revells”, in Peter Cunningham, David Laing, editor, Inigo Jones and Ben Jonson: Being the Life of Inigo Jones. [], London: Printed for the Shakespeare Society, [], published 1853, OCLC 462046256, page 101:
      [T]hough they were first-form'd dames of Earth, / And in whose sparcklinge and refulgent eyes / The glorious sonne did still delight to rise; []
    • 1684, Edward Ravenscroft, Dame Dobson: Or, The Cunning Woman. A Comedy as it is Acted at the Duke’s Theatre, London: Printed for Joseph Hindmarsh, [], OCLC 808808278, Act I, scene xi, page 25:
      And do you think my Dame Dobſon don't know a little better than you? She tells you, you need ſay no more, and 'tis an affront to her Art not to believe her; and I'le not ſee my Dame affronted.
    • 1835 April, [Nathaniel Hawthorne], “Young Goodman Brown”, in The New-England Magazine, volume VIII, Boston, Mass.: E. R. Broaders, [], OCLC 1065920053, page 252:
      [H]e pointed his staff at a female figure on the path, in whom goodman Brown recognized a very pious and exemplary dame, who had taught him his catechism, in youth, and was still his moral and spiritual adviser, jointly with the minister and deacon Gookin.
    • 1849, Wolfgang Menzel; Mrs. George Horrocks, transl., “First Period. Heathen Antiquity.”, in The History of Germany, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. [...] Translated from the Fourth German Edition. [...] In Three Volumes, volume I, London: Henry G[eorge] Bohn, [], OCLC 913051751, part I (Origin and Manners of the Ancient Germans), section XX (Wolen and Walkyren), page 45:
      The poetical relation between the pagan warrior and his celestial bride changed, in course of time, to that between the Christian knight and his ladye-bright, who also was not always an earthly dame, but the holy Virgin or some saint.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ dāme, n.” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 16 February 2018.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch dame.

Noun[edit]

dame (plural dames)

  1. lady

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French dame (lady).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /daːmə/, [ˈd̥æːmə], [ˈd̥æːm̩]

Noun[edit]

dame c (singular definite damen, plural indefinite damer)

  1. lady
  2. woman
  3. (informal) girlfriend
  4. (card games) queen

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Playing cards in Danish · kort, spillekort (layout · text)
40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
es toer treer firer femmer sekser syver
47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
otter nier tier knægt, bonde dame, dronning konge joker

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Old French dame, from Latin domina.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: da‧me

Noun[edit]

dame f (plural dames, diminutive dametje n)

  1. lady
  2. (chess) queen

See also[edit]

Chess pieces in Dutch · schaakstukken (schaak + stukken) (layout · text)
♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ ♟
koning koningin, dame toren loper paard pion

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French dame, from Late Latin domna, shortened variant of Latin domina.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

dame f (plural dames)

  1. A lady
  2. A polite form of address for a woman.
  3. (chess) queen
  4. (card games) queen

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Chess pieces in French · pièces d'échecs (layout · text)
♚ ♛ ♜ ♝ ♞ ♟
roi dame tour fou cavalier pion
Playing cards in French · cartes à jouer (layout · text)
40 Asso di picche.jpg 41 Due di picche.jpg 42 Tre di picche.jpg 43 Quattro di picche.jpg 44 Cinque di picche.jpg 45 Sei di picche.jpg 46 Sette di picche.jpg
as deux trois quatre cinq six sept
47 Otto di picche.jpg 48 Nove di picche.jpg 49 Dieci di picche.jpg 50 J di picche.jpg 51 Q di picche.jpg 52 K di picche.jpg Jolly Nero.jpg
huit neuf dix valet dame roi joker

Further reading[edit]


Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

dame f

  1. plural of dama

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

dame

  1. Rōmaji transcription of だめ

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin domina, via Old French dame and late Old Norse damma.

Noun[edit]

dame f, m (definite singular dama or damen, indefinite plural damer, definite plural damene)

  1. a lady, woman
  2. (romantic relationship) a girlfriend
  3. (card games) a queen

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin domina, via Old French dame and late Old Norse damma.

Noun[edit]

dame f (definite singular dama, indefinite plural damer, definite plural damene)

  1. a lady, woman
  2. (romantic relationship) a girlfriend
  3. (card games) a queen

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Latin domna, shortened variant of Latin domina.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

dame f (oblique plural dames, nominative singular dame, nominative plural dames)

  1. lady; woman

Usage notes[edit]

  • Unlike in modern French, fame usually refers to a wife, while dame refers to a woman.

Descendants[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

dame

  1. Compound of the informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of dar, da and the pronoun me: give me!