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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜心木 (YPD), four-corner 21904, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 521, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14664
  • Dae Jaweon: page 909, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1197, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+67F4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
柴-bronze.svg 柴-bigseal.svg 柴-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zreː): phonetic  ‎(OC *sʰeʔ) + semantic .

Etymology[edit]

Perhaps related to (OC *zraːl, *zraːlʔ, “to cut trees”) (Schuessler, 2007). Compare also Khmer ឈើ ‎(chheu, wood) (ibid.).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰai³⁵/
Harbin /t͡sʰai²⁴/
/ʈ͡ʂʰai²⁴/
Tianjin /t͡sʰai⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰɛ⁴²/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂʰɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰai⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡sʰai²⁴/
Xining /t͡sʰɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɛ⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡sʰai⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰai²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰai³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰai²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰæ³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰae²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰe̞⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰai¹¹/ 片~
/t͡sʰai⁴⁵/ ~市巷
Pingyao /sæ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /za²³/
Suzhou /zɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ze̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /za³¹/
Hui Shexian /sa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /sa⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sai¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡zai¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰai²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰai¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰeu¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰai²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰai²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰai²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰai³⁵/
/t͡sʰa³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰa⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰau³³/ 訓讀
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰa⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sai³¹/
/sa³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (20)
Final () (31)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʒˠɛ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖ͡ʐᵚæ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʒæi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖ͡ʐaɨj/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʒɛ/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʒai/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɖ͡ʐʱai/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chái
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzrɛ ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.dz]ˤre(j)/
English firewood

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1688
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zreː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. faggot; bundle of sticks bound together (as fuel)
  2. firewood; brushwood; wood
  3. to burn firewood and worship heaven
  4. fuzz stick; old wood
  5. (dialectal) bony
  6. (dialectal) lean; hard to chew
  7. (Min) slow and inarticulate; dull
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. to fence; to surround and protect with fence (made of wood)
  2. to cover; to place something over
  3. to stop; to block; to obstruct
  4. Alternative form of (zhài , “defending fence”).
  5. Alternative form of (zhài , “villa”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. brushwood
  2. firewood

Readings[edit]

Kanji in this term
しば
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しば, romaji shiba)

  1. brushwood, firewood

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しば, romaji Shiba)

  1. A surname​.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(si, chae) (hangeul , , revised si, chae, McCune-Reischauer si, ch'ae, Yale si, chay)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(sài, thầy, thài, thày, sầy, xầy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.