hold

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See also: Hold and hołd

English[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English hold, holde, from Old English hold (gracious, friendly, kind, favorable, true, faithful, loyal, devout, acceptable, pleasant), from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz (favourable, gracious, loyal), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to tend, incline, bend, tip). Cognate with German hold (gracious, friendly, sympathetic, grateful), Danish and Swedish huld (fair, kindly, gracious), Icelandic hollur (faithful, dedicated, loyal), German Huld (grace, favour).

Adjective[edit]

hold (comparative more hold, superlative most hold)

  1. (obsolete) Gracious; friendly; faithful; true.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English holden, from Old English healdan, from Proto-Germanic *haldaną (to tend, herd), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to drive) (compare Latin celer (quick), Chazumba Mixtec kälts (to goad, drive), Ancient Greek κέλλω (kéllō, to drive), Sanskrit kaláyati (kaláyati, he impels)).[1][2] Cognate to West Frisian hâlde, Low German holden, holen, Dutch houden, German halten, Danish holde.

Verb[edit]

hold (third-person singular simple present holds, present participle holding, simple past held, past participle held or (archaic) holden)

  1. (transitive) To grasp or grip.
    Hold the pencil like this.
    • 1879, Richard Jefferies, chapter 1, The Amateur Poacher:
      But then I had the flintlock by me for protection. ¶ There were giants in the days when that gun was made; for surely no modern mortal could have held that mass of metal steady to his shoulder.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 23, The Mirror and the Lamp:
      The slightest effort made the patient cough. He would stand leaning on a stick and holding a hand to his side, and when the paroxysm had passed it left him shaking.
    • 2013 September-October, Henry Petroski, “The Evolution of Eyeglasses”, American Scientist: 
      The ability of a segment of a glass sphere to magnify whatever is placed before it was known around the year 1000, when the spherical segment was called a reading stone, [] . Scribes, illuminators, and scholars held such stones directly over manuscript pages as an aid in seeing what was being written, drawn, or read.
  2. (transitive) To contain or store.
    This package holds six bottles.
  3. To maintain or keep to a position or state.
    1. (transitive) To have and keep possession of something.
      Hold my coat for me.
      The general ordered the colonel to hold his position at all costs.
      • 2011 December 14, Angelique Chrisafis, “Rachida Dati accuses French PM of sexism and elitism”, Guardian:
        She was Nicolas Sarkozy's pin-up for diversity, the first Muslim woman with north African parents to hold a major French government post. But Rachida Dati has now turned on her own party elite with such ferocity that some have suggested she should be expelled from the president's ruling party.
    2. (transitive) To reserve.
      Hold a table for us at 7:00.
    3. (transitive) To cause to wait or delay.
      Hold the elevator.
    4. (transitive) To detain.
      Hold the suspect in this cell.
    5. (intransitive) To be or remain valid; to apply.
      to hold true;   to hold good
      • John Locke (1632-1705)
        The rule holds in land as all other commodities.
    6. To keep oneself in a particular state.
      to hold firm;   to hold opinions
      • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 2, A Cuckoo in the Nest[1]:
        Mother [] considered that the exclusiveness of Peter's circle was due not to its distinction, but to the fact that it was an inner Babylon of prodigality and whoredom, from which every Kensingtonian held aloof, except on the conventional tip-and-run excursions in pursuit of shopping, tea and theatres.
    7. (transitive) To impose restraint upon; to limit in motion or action; to bind legally or morally; to confine; to restrain.
    8. (transitive) To bear, carry, or manage.
      He holds himself proudly erect.
      Hold your head high.
    9. (intransitive, chiefly imperative) Not to move; to halt; to stop.
    10. (intransitive) Not to give way; not to part or become separated; to remain unbroken or unsubdued.
  4. To maintain or keep to particular opinions, promises, actions.
    1. (transitive) To maintain, to consider, to opine.
      • 1776, Thomas Jefferson et al., United States Declaration of Independence:
        We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
      • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 1, The Celebrity:
        In the old days, to my commonplace and unobserving mind, he gave no evidences of genius whatsoever. He never read me any of his manuscripts, […], and therefore my lack of detection of his promise may in some degree be pardoned. But he had then none of the oddities and mannerisms which I hold to be inseparable from genius, and which struck my attention in after days when I came in contact with the Celebrity.
    2. (transitive) To bind (someone) to a consequence of his or her actions.
      I'll hold him to that promise.
      He was held responsible for the actions of those under his command.
    3. To maintain in being or action; to carry on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to continue; to sustain.
      • Bible, Psalms lxxxiii. 1
        Hold not thy peace, and be not still.
      • John Milton (1608-1674)
        Seedtime and harvest, heat and hoary frost, / Shall hold their course.
    4. To accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, openly or privately; to persist in, as a purpose; to maintain; to sustain.
      • Bible, 2 Thessalonians ii. 15
        Stand fast and hold the traditions which ye have been taught.
      • John Dryden (1631-1700)
        But still he held his purpose to depart.
    5. (archaic) To restrain oneself; to refrain; to hold back.
      • John Dryden (1631-1700)
        His dauntless heart would fain have held / From weeping, but his eyes rebelled.
  5. (tennis, transitive, intransitive) To win one's own service game.
  6. To organise an event or meeting.
    Elections will be held on the first Sunday of next month.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 5, The Mirror and the Lamp:
      Here, in the transept and choir, where the service was being held, one was conscious every moment of an increasing brightness; colours glowing vividly beneath the circular chandeliers, and the rows of small lights on the choristers' desks flashed and sparkled in front of the boys' faces, deep linen collars, and red neckbands.
  7. (archaic) To derive right or title.
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Noun[edit]

hold (plural holds)

  1. A grasp or grip.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      Old Applegate, in the stern, just set and looked at me, and Lord James, amidship, waved both arms and kept hollering for help. I took a couple of everlasting big strokes and managed to grab hold of the skiff's rail, close to the stern.
    Keep a firm hold on the handlebars.
  2. Something reserved or kept.
    We have a hold here for you.
  3. The property of maintaining the shape of styled hair.
    • 2004, Zoe Diana Draelos, Hair Care: An Illustrated Dermatologic Handbook (page 221)
      Sculpturing gels provide stiffer hold than styling gels, which provide better hold than mousses.
  4. (wrestling) A position or grip used to control the opponent.
    He got him in a tight hold and pinned him to the mat.
  5. (gambling) The percentage the house wins on a gamble, the house or bookmaker's hold.
    The House Hold on the game is 10,000, this is the amount of decision or risk the house wishes to assume.
  6. (gambling) The wager amount, the total hold.
    As of Monday night the total Melbourne Cup hold was $848,015
  7. (tennis) An instance of holding one's service game, as opposed to being broken.
  8. This term needs a definition. Please help out and add a definition, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      So I felt my way down the passage back to the vault, and recked not of the darkness, nor of Blackbeard and his crew, if only I could lay my lips to liquor. Thus I groped about the barrels till near the top of the stack my hand struck on the spile of a keg, and drawing it, I got my mouth to the hold.
  9. A fruit machine feature allowing one or more of the reels to remain fixed while the others spin.
  10. (video games, dated) A pause facility.
    • 1983, New Generation Software, Knot in 3D (video game instruction leaflet)
      A hold facility is available; H holds, and S restarts.
    • 1987?, Imagine Software, Legend of Kage (video game instruction leaflet)
      SCREEN 5 — Perhaps the toughest — going like the clappers sometimes works but generally you'll have to be smarter than that. If things get a little too hectic and you don't even have time to reach the HOLD key, try taking a short rest below the top of the stairs.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert K. Barnhart, ed., Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, s.v. "hold¹" (1988; reprint, Chambers, 2008), 486.
  2. ^ D.Q. Adams, "Drive", in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 170.

See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Alteration (due to hold) of hole. Cognate with Dutch hol (hole, cave, den, cavity, cargo hold).

Noun[edit]

hold (plural holds)

  1. (nautical, aviation) The cargo area of a ship or aircraft, (often cargo hold).
    Put that in the hold.
Translations[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German hold, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz. Cognates include Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐍃 (hulþs, clement) and Old Norse hollr ( > Danish huld).

Adjective[edit]

hold (comparative holder, superlative am holdesten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) friendly, comely, graceful
    • 1907, Carl Spitteler, Die Mädchenfeinde, Siebentes Kapitel, Beim Narrenſtudenten
      • Um aber auf deinen holden Kadettengeneral zurückzukommen, ſo will ich dir, weil du mir dein Geheimnis anvertraut haſt, auch etwas Geheimnisvolles verraten […]

Declension[edit]

External links[edit]

  • hold in Duden online

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uralic *kuŋe. Cognates include (month), Finnish and Estonian kuu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

hold (plural holdak)

  1. moon, natural satellite
  2. unit of surface area, originally meant the same as acre, has different kinds ranging from 3500 m^2 to 8400 m^2

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse hold, from Proto-Germanic *huldą.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

hold n (genitive singular holds, no plural)

  1. flesh
    • Isaiah 40 (Icelandic, English)
      Heyr, einhver segir: "Kalla þú!" Og ég svara: "Hvað skal ég kalla?" "Allt hold er gras og allur yndisleikur þess sem blóm vallarins. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, þegar Drottinn andar á þau. Sannlega, mennirnir eru gras. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, en orð Guðs vors stendur stöðugt eilíflega."
      A voice says, "Cry out." And I said, "What shall I cry?" "All flesh are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field. The grass withers and the flowers fall, because the breath of the LORD blows on them. Surely the people are grass. The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God stands forever."

Declension[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English hold.

Adjective[edit]

hold

  1. friendly, faithful

Noun[edit]

hold

  1. carcase, flesh

Related terms[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Verb[edit]

hold

  1. imperative of holde

Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognates include Old Norse hold (flesh) (Icelandic hold, Swedish hull), and (from Indo-European) Old Irish colainn, Welsh celain.

Noun[edit]

hold n

  1. Dead body or carcase, lich
    Swa swa grædige ræmmas ðar ðar hi hold geseoþ. Like greedy ravens when they see a corpse.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz, a variant on a root meaning ‘lean, incline’ (compare Old English heald, hieldan). Cognates include Old Frisian hold, Old Saxon hold, Old High German hold (German hold), Old Norse hollr (Danish huld, Swedish huld), Gothic 𐌷𐌿𐌻𐌸𐍃 (hulþs).

Adjective[edit]

hold (+ dative)

  1. gracious, loyal, kind
    Swa hold is God mancynne ðæt he hæfþ geset his englas us to hyrdum. God is so gracious to mankind that he has appointed angels as our guardians.

Old High German[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hold

  1. friendly

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]