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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Ancient simplification of .

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (和), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 戈
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 戸戈切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɦuɑ/ /ɦwa/ /ɣuɑ/ /ɣuɑ/
Character (和), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 戈
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 胡卧切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɦuɑH/ /ɦwaH/ /ɣuɑH/ /ɣuɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hwa › /*[ɢ]ˤoj/ harmonious
‹ hwaH › /*[ɢ]ˤoj-s/ tune (instruments); respond in singing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4932 3 /*ɡoːl/
4937 3 /*ɡoːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) peaceful; harmonious
      ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
  2. Japanese
      ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
  3. sum
    [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ. [Pinyin]
    The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
  4. (archaic) an ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used
  5. (Beginning Mandarin) and
    麵包雞蛋 [MSC, trad.]
    面包鸡蛋 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ xiǎng mǎi xiē ròu, yú, miànbāo jīdàn. [Pinyin]
    I want to buy some meat, fish, bread, and eggs.
  6. with
    流浪街头孩子朋友 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    liúlàng jiētóu de háizǐ jiāo shàng le péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    He has made friends with the kids on the street.
    其他國家採取一致行動 [MSC, trad.]
    其他国家采取一致行动 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā xiǎng qítā guójiā cǎiqǔ yīzhì xíngdòng. [Pinyin]
    He wants to act in concert with other nations.
    比起 [MSC, trad.]
    比起 [MSC, simp.]
    nǐ de chē bǐqǐ lái, wǒ de chē hěn xiǎo. [Pinyin]
    Compared with yours, my car is small.
    如果譯文原文比較一下找到準確地方 [MSC, trad.]
    如果译文原文比较一下找到准确地方 [MSC, simp.]
    Rúguǒ nǐ bǎ yìwén yuánwén bǐjiào yīxià, nǐ jiù huì zhǎodào bù zhǔnquè de dìfang. [Pinyin]
    If you compare the translation with the original, you will find the inaccuracy.
  7. A surname​. He

Usage notes[edit]

Standard Mandarin:
Taiwan: hàn

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to stir; to mix
    /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    /   ―  huò miàn  ―  to knead dough
      ―  hùnhuò  ―  mixture, amalgame
      ―  róuhuò/hé  ―  to knead

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
      ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

Pronunciation 4[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) to make sounds in concert with; to echo
      ―    ―  to second, to echo
      ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
    /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
      ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

Pronunciation 5[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. warm
      ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
    /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji wa)

  1. peace, harmony
  2. sum

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji Wa)

  1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
     ()露辞典 (ろじてん)
    Wa-Ro jiten
    Japanese-Russian dictionary
     () (しょく)
    washoku
    Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
     () (しつ)
    washitsu
    a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors
Usage notes[edit]

Often used as an affix to form compounds, as in the usage examples above.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
やまと
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana やまと, romaji Yamato)

  1. 大和: Japan, Japanese

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
Irregular

Used as ateji in various names.

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana のどか, romaji Nodoka)

  1. A male given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Noun[edit]

(hwa) (hangeul )

  1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hòa, họa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999