矛盾

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Chinese[edit]

spear; lance; pike shield
trad. (矛盾/矛楯) /
simp. (矛盾)
Literally: “spear and shield”.
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Etymology[edit]

From a tale in Han Feizi [3rd century BC].

楚人有鬻者,譽之曰:「吾之堅,物莫能陷之。」以譽其曰:「吾之利,於物無不陷也。」或曰:「以子之陷子之,何如?」其人弗能應也。夫不可陷之與無不陷之,不可同世而立。
There was once a man in the state of Chu, who was selling shields and lances. He was praising them saying: “My shields are so firm, that there is nothing that can pierce them.” He praised his lances saying: “My lances are so sharp, that there is nothing that they cannot pierce.” Someone asked: “What if you used your lances to pierce your shields?” The man could not answer. A shield that cannot be pierced and a lance that can pierce everything cannot exist in the same world.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
Initial () (4) (27) (7)
Final () (136) (47) (55)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Closed Closed
Division () III III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨu/ /ʑiuɪnX/ /duənX/
Pan
Wuyun
/miu/ /ʑʷinX/ /duonX/
Shao
Rongfen
/miəu/ /ʑjuenX/ /duənX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muw/ /ʑwinX/ /dwənX/
Li
Rong
/miu/ /d͡ʑiuĕnX/ /duənX/
Wang
Li
/mĭəu/ /d͡ʑĭuĕnX/ /duənX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ə̯u/ /d͡ʑʰi̯uĕnX/ /dʱuənX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
móu shùn dùn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
máo dùn
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjuw › ‹ dwonX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m(r)u/ /*lˤu[n]ʔ/
English a kind of lance shield

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
No. 8814 2623 2631
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 2 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mu/ /*l'uːnʔ/ /*ɦljunʔ/

Noun[edit]

矛盾

  1. contradiction; inconsistency; disagreement; incongruity
  2. problem; issue; conflict
  3. (logic) paradox

Adjective[edit]

矛盾

  1. conflicted; vacillating between two options
    心裡矛盾 / 心里矛盾  ―  Tā de xīnli hěn máodùn.  ―  He is feeling really conflicted inside.

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
じゅん
Grade: S
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese 矛盾 ‎(mjuw dwonX), literally ‎(lance, spear) + ‎(shield).

From an anecdote in the book Han Feizi, c. 2nd century BC, illustrating a contradiction[1][2]:

楚人有鬻楯與矛者 譽之曰 吾楯之堅 莫能陷也 又譽其矛曰 吾矛 之利 於物無不陷也 或曰 以子之矛陷子之楯 何如 其人弗能應也.
There was a man in Chu who sold shields and spears. Praising the shields he said: 'My shields are so strong that nothing can pierce them.' And praising the spears he said: 'My spears are so strong that there is nothing that they cannot pierce.' A person asked: 'What if someone pierces your shields with your spears?' He could not respond.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

矛盾 ‎(hiragana むじゅん, romaji mujun)

  1. a contradiction, an inconsistency, a paradox

Synonyms[edit]

Verb[edit]

矛盾する ‎(hiragana むじゅんする, romaji mujun suru)

  1. to be inconsistent, to be in contradiction, to be incompatible with
     (かれ)今日主張 (きょうしゅちょう)する内容 (ないよう)昨日 (きのう)行動 (こうどう)矛盾 (むじゅん)している。
    Kare ga kyō shuchō suru naiyō wa kinō no kōdō to mujun shite iru.
    What he's going on about today isn't compatible with his behavior yesterday. → What he's saying today doesn't jive with what he did yesterday.

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9