User talk:Mallerd/S Files

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С Рождеством Христовым[edit]

Thank you for putting the right signs in pronounce for the Russian Merry Christmas. 14:12, 31 December 2006 (UTC)Mallerd

It was my pleasure. —Stephen 14:16, 31 December 2006 (UTC)

In de war[edit]

Hey, in Dutch there is something as "in de war zijn", which means "to be confused". Is the Dutch "war" the same as the English war in the meaning of disruption or something like that? Mallerd 10:44, 15 July 2007 (UTC)

I don't know much about Dutch, but I think the answer is probably yes. The English word war was borrowed from Old French (it's essentially the same as French guerre), which in turn was a borrowing from Old High German werra which meant ‘confusion’. Probably Old Saxon had a similar word which led to the modern Dutch form. (It's theorised that the French and other Romance-speaking peoples had to borrow a Germanic word for war, because the native form from Latin bellum sounded too much like bello- ‘beautiful’, and the Germanic languages amazingly enough never had a standard prosaic word for war, so ‘confusion’ was the nearest they could get.) Widsith 11:16, 15 July 2007 (UTC)
I think the Dutch word war is probably cognate with the English word, but the meaning is not the same. The Dutch that means war is oorlog, while the Dutch word war means confusion, disorder. Dutch war is, I believe, related to Dutch warboel (tangle, chaos), warwinkel (tangle, chaos), verwarren (to entangle, to confuse), verwarring (confusion, disorder), as well as to German Wirrwarr (clutter) and verwirren (to confuse, to perplex). Rather than being a loanword from English, I think Dutch war is from Proto-Germanic *werso, which is also the etymon for German verwirren (to confuse) and the English word war. —Stephen 13:38, 16 July 2007 (UTC)
Okay :) thanks, by the way do you know if there are any etymological dictionaries available? Not just by the internet I mean. In bookstores or are they exclusive? Mallerd 17:54, 16 July 2007 (UTC)

Oh yes 1 more thing then, do you know why German, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have the word krig, Krieg for war and Dutch oorlog? Oorlog is so much different and the only Dutch meaning is war. Do you know that as well? Mallerd 17:56, 16 July 2007 (UTC)

I think oorlog is cognate with war+lay, originally meaning something like "conflict destiny". The German word Krieg is from MHG kriec (exertion, enmity, opposition) < OHG krig (stubbornness, defiance), cognate with Greek ύβρις (outrage). As for etymological dictionaries, there are numerous available, depending on the languages you are mainly interested in. If you speak Dutch, Dutch is nicely dealt with in the Van Dale Dutch Dictionary. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language has excellent etymology information in it. The University of Texas has an interesting etymology site at —Stephen 21:37, 16 July 2007 (UTC)
We just picked a different word as our main word, but there are lots of traces of a krig cognate (krijg in our case), that are still in use. For example krijger = warrior, krijgsheer = warlord, krijgskunst = art of war, etc.

Help please[edit]

Hey Stephen, I copied a table from another page but I don't understand it, can you help me please?умирать

Mallerd 14:03, 23 July 2007 (UTC)

Actually, you need to be a native speaker to fill out this template...or at least have near-native fluency. I hope you know that the forms ебёт, ебут, еби, and ебущий do not belong there? Anyway, here is what you should have in the table:
Infinitive: умира́ть
Imperfective: умира́ть, умира́ться
Perfective: умере́ть, умере́ться
1st person: бу́ду умира́ть, бу́дем умира́ть
2nd person: бу́дешь умира́ть, бу́дете умира́ть
3rd person: бу́дет умира́ть, бу́дут умира́ть
1st person: умира́ю, умира́ем
2nd person: умира́ешь, умира́ете
3rd person: умира́ет, умира́ют
Imperative: умира́й, умира́йте
Present participle active: умира́ющий
Present participle passive: умира́емый
Present adverbial participle: умира́я
Masculine: умира́л, умира́ли
Feminine: умира́ла
Neuter: умира́ло
Past participle active: умира́вший
Past participle passive: —
Past adverbial participle: —
Verbal nouns: умира́ние
As far as I know, this verb does not have the past passive or past adverbial participles. —Stephen 11:31, 24 July 2007 (UTC)

Yes I do know those forms don't belong there. But thanks! Mallerd 18:56, 26 July 2007 (UTC)

стебушыйся стебушийся стебушися[edit]

Hello Stephen, I heard a what I believe was a Russian guy talking just now but he said something like стебушыйся, стебушийся or стебушися. I don't know the word so I don't know exactly how to write it, but it was in the context wheter he had visited the Netherlands, maybe that's any good. Thanks :) Mallerd 13:58, 9 September 2007 (UTC)

It's стебущийся, which is participle from the verb стебаться (to mock, to jeer). --Jaroslavleff 05:12, 10 September 2007 (UTC)
ohh that was one cheeky russian then :P Mallerd 14:59, 10 September 2007 (UTC)


Can you look at the etymology please? Mallerd 20:47, 14 September 2007 (UTC)

I did what I could with it. I didn’t bother with trying to pin down the dates. —Stephen 21:14, 14 September 2007 (UTC)


Hello, Stephen, do you happen to know what (Dutch) stijlfout is in English? I can't find it anywhere in my dictionary. Thanks Mallerd 06:57, 26 September 2007 (UTC)

Dutch stijlfout means "style error". —Stephen 15:02, 26 September 2007 (UTC)
Thanks :) Mallerd 17:08, 26 September 2007 (UTC)

stadium Dutch diminutive[edit]

Hi Stephen. I used {{nl-noun}} in the Dutch section of the page for stadium. The entry did not previously specify a diminutive, but the template automatically added “stadiumje” as the diminutive. Could you check to see if this is correct please?  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 23:48, 21 October 2007 (UTC)

No, that’s incorrect. In the first place, stadium is not the normal Dutch word for this. The Dutch word is stadion. I think stadium can be considered Dutch only in the same way that autobahn is considered English. The word stadium is recognized and used for foreign stadiums such as Yankee Stadium, and there is no corresponding diminutive form that I know of. The word stadion has a diminutive, which is stadionnetje. —Stephen 07:33, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
Fixed. Could you write a usage note thereat, explaining the situation?  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 09:43, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
I’ll try, but I’m not sure how to put it. —Stephen 09:46, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
Stadium as a noun can also mean, stage or phase. Diminutive would be stadiumpje, plural stadiums. Mallerd 10:49, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
Is stadia a valid (read: standard and used) plural thereof?  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿
Thanks, updated. —Stephen 10:58, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
I was about to mention that. Both stadiums and stadia is plural. Just as museums and musea. Both standard and used. Mallerd 18:08, 22 October 2007 (UTC)
Thanks. I’ve corrected the entry.  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 22:57, 22 October 2007 (UTC)


now that I see you are active at wiktionary, can you improve this article please? Perhaps you know the etymology better for example :) Mallerd 18:26, 22 October 2007 (UTC)

amico, amica & amici[edit]

Hello, could you please add pronunciation to these "friend" articles? I don't know when it is k and ch in Italian. Mallerd 20:39, 31 October 2007 (UTC)

I added the pronunciations. It is "k" before a-o-u, and "ch" before e-i. In order to get the "k" sound before e-i, you have to write it with an "h": che (ke), chi (ki). To get a "ch" sound before a-o-u, you have to write it with an "i": cia (cha), cio (cho), ciu (chu). —Stephen 20:56, 31 October 2007 (UTC)
Thank you very much :D Mallerd 21:00, 31 October 2007 (UTC)


I don't know much Russian, but I at least thought I knew the Cyrillic alphabet pretty well. I always thought ё was pronounced like jo. Yet in Anna Karenina, Levin is spelled Лёвин although I'm assured it's still pronounced "Levin". What's going on? Widsith 12:49, 1 November 2007 (UTC)

Hmm, forget it...I must have picked up a dodgy copy or something. Seems like it's Лeвин after all. Widsith 13:10, 1 November 2007 (UTC)
You are right, ё is pronounced jo. The name Левин is from лев + the possessive suffix -ин, and it is possible to pronounced it (and write it) Левин or Лёвин. In Anna Karenina, it is traditionally considered to be "Konstantin Levin", but there is a school of thought that believes Tolstoy intended for it to be "Konstantin Lyovin". So you may see it either way, but "Levin" is the most widely accepted. —Stephen 13:07, 2 November 2007 (UTC)
Fascinating. Thank you very much. Widsith 10:51, 4 November 2007 (UTC)
Levin is Лёвин. He was Russian, and his last name is from "лев" which results in "Лёвин" in Russian language, which actually is possessive of "лев". Levin (Левин with е, not ё) is not Russian lastname, but Jewish. --Jaroslavleff 16:30, 9 November 2007 (UTC)
It is also sometimes that the dots on the ё are left out, for example: Gorbachov becomes Gorbechev. Mallerd 11:36, 3 November 2007 (UTC)
It’s not just sometimes that the dots are left out, it’s usual. The dots are seldom used except in children’s books and dictionaries. When I was at university, they made us write with the dots to make sure we knew the pronunciation, but after school is over, the dots are abandoned. —Stephen 12:25, 4 November 2007 (UTC)
You know best :) but I have a few Russian friends that I talk to these days via MSN messenger, they use ё. Perhaps because I did not study it :) Mallerd 14:06, 4 November 2007 (UTC)
Things may be changing during the last seven years or so. Prior to the computer age, Russian men did not type, and not many women knew how either. Many of the old manual typewriters did not even have this letter available, but now everybody can type it very easily. Possibly it will now become standard and widespread. —Stephen 14:13, 4 November 2007 (UTC)
I don't know much about the last 7 years since 7 years is 7/17 part of my life. That's what I like about wiktionary :) anyone can contribute. Could you take a look at Talk:duellum? I have found an etymology, but I feel it is not complete. Mallerd 14:28, 4 November 2007 (UTC)

Etymology for names[edit]

Hello again, I was wondering whether you know a good internet source concerning etymologies of names. Given names in particular. I wanted to know/create an article about Romy. Thanks Mallerd 20:04, 6 November 2007 (UTC)

Do you mean given names, such as Michael, or names of states and countries, such as Peru? There are online sources for many state and country names, but I don’t know of any for personal names. There are books available that contain information such as that...for example, "A Dictionary of First Names" by Patrick Hanks, Oxford University Press...but not online as far as I know. —Stephen 20:09, 6 November 2007 (UTC)
Yes I meant given names. Thanks for the info again ;) Mallerd 21:02, 6 November 2007 (UTC)


Hello, do you know what пожит means? Mallerd 18:44, 10 November 2007 (UTC)

That would be the masculine singular short form of пожитый, which is the past passive participle of пожить (to live, to stay). So, пожит would mean something like lived, or that was lived. —Stephen 20:25, 10 November 2007 (UTC)
Okay thanks, and now, perhaps you know, perhaps you don't: is this used as slang in the sense of: it's over [with him/her]? Mallerd 22:28, 10 November 2007 (UTC)
I suppose it’s possible to add the right words to get such a meaning. пожить means to live, to have seen life, to have experienced life, to live for a while. I guess that "he has seen life" could be understood as meaning that his life is now past, or is over with. —Stephen 22:38, 10 November 2007 (UTC)

DOA & Soto[edit]

Hi, I just found out that there is a problem with these two entries. The Indonesian words doa and soto are written without any capital letter, but when I search for doa or soto, it automatically becomes capitalized without a redirect. What can I do? Thanks Mallerd 20:21, 27 November 2007 (UTC)

These have now been fixed so that you can click on them. —Stephen 12:01, 28 November 2007 (UTC)

Category:Dutch nouns with incomplete gender[edit]

Hi, Stephen is it correct that there were only 2 entries in that category or am I missing something here? Mallerd 14:14, 9 December 2007 (UTC)

No, that’s correct. I look at it from time to time and do the ones I can, but my language is German, and Dutch nouns often have gender that is different from German. And it isn’t easy to find genders in the Dutch Wiktionary, because there they frequently just mark the gender as "de". —Stephen 14:58, 10 December 2007 (UTC)

Hi, i'm a dutch native speaker, and indeed, there are in fact three genders, but the male and female are almost everywhere the same. If the article is "de", mostly you can say the word is male or female (neutral is "het"). But even dutch native speakers don't know the difference between female word and a male word. If you want to know it, you'll have to consult a dictionary. Just another question Stephen: how is it possible that you can know so many languages? You know something about 20 different! I have much respect for you, and don't confuse these languages? Sorry, i'm new on wiktionary, but i really want to help build it up and make it perfect! I learn many things about languages when i'm improving wiktionary. Greetings, Vin 18:25, 10 December 2007 (UTC)

Yes, that’s true. In my grandfather’s day, the Dutch knew the genders of nouns just as the Germans do, but in my lifetime this has changed and people don’t know them anymore (much like Afrikaans). This is the reason why the Dutch Wiktionary doesn’t bother too much to put the exact gender, which is not important to native speakers. Here in the English Wiktionary, we would like to record the correct gender for every Dutch noun. The same thing has occurred in Danish and Swedish, too, and now they officially have only two genders...neuter and common.
I was a Russian linguist for the U.S. Government many years ago and since then I received my degrees in several foreign languages and have lived and worked in numerous countries. I built and operated three translating companies for 25 years and maintained a staff of around 200 professional translators who translated almost any subject between English and about 75 other languages. I’ve worked as a linguist/translator for over 40 years, so it was inevitable that some of it would stick. But yes, I do sometimes get confused. For example, I’m likely to use the word "Gradus" in German for degree, but actually it should be Grad (my "Gradus" is from Russian градус). Germans understand it though and they think I’m being erudite instead of confused. Reading is no problem, but speaking often is. I lived for a few months in Amsterdam and found Dutch to be quite easy...but whenever I attempt to speak it, it still comes out in German.
You have lots of experience in the world of languages I see. I am planning to study either Italian, Russian or Indonesian. They all interest me equally, so it doesn't really matter which one I am about to study, could you tell me what language, how do you say this, gives the most work? If you understand my question :) Or is it that there is always demand for translators for that matter? Thanks if you know, like my compatriot said: I admire your knowledge of languages. Mallerd 15:01, 14 December 2007 (UTC)
Oh wait, he's from Belgium :P Mallerd 15:05, 14 December 2007 (UTC)
The need for translators varies from place to place, and to some extent from industry to industry. In Texas, Spanish accounts for about 40% of work, followed by Chinese (20%), French (15%), Japanese, Korean and German (5%), and then Dutch, Italian, Swedish, Indonesian, Russian (>5%), and then more exotic languages such as Burmese and Khmer (>1%). However, if a translator is very proficient in a more exotic language such as Japanese, Finnish or Indonesian, since there are only a small number of good translators worldwide for these languages, once his reputation is established he will have all the work he can do. The more exotic a language, the higher it pays. A document that costs €75 to translate from Spanish into English might be €400 for Burmese to English.
Before you can do professional work, you have to learn the language fluently, especially the written language, and you have to specialize in one or two fields, such as civil engineering, medicine, finance (finance is very difficult but pays great and there is a big need), etc. There is very little money to be made in literary translating, you have to learn a technical field. Then you have to acquire a library of specialized translators’ dictionaries for the languages and fields that you’ve chosen. After that, it’s just a matter of gaining experience, speed, and a reputation for reliability. —Stephen 22:44, 14 December 2007 (UTC)
I find this very useful, thank you very much! 1 question though, you talk of speed, what is the average time for translating an average document? Mallerd 16:28, 15 December 2007 (UTC)
The average page contains around 250–300 words, and you should be able to finish about ten pages a day without the help of w:translation memory. Of course, you sometimes get jobs that are so easy that you can translate as fast as you can type. OTOH, some translations are especially difficult and take much more time. In reality, most customers now require that you use a translation memory such as WordFast, WordAlign, or TRADOS. You will probably have to obtain and learn to use several of the popular TM programs, because different clients may insist on certain programs. When using TM, speed depends on how well you have developed your TM, and it also depends on the individual job. Some texts are more compatible with TM than other texts. There are some helpful online resources such as and (FLEFO, a dedicated forum for translators). —Stephen 09:17, 16 December 2007 (UTC)
Again very useful. You have my thanks. Mallerd 17:35, 16 December 2007 (UTC)


Should I add entries with slang names for brands? Like stoli/stoli's is the slang name for Stolichnaya vodka. Mallerd 17:35, 16 December 2007 (UTC)

Yes, I think it is very useful to include words such as that. Sometimes it’s hard to decide on capitalization, however. In my opinion, "Stoli" should be capitalized (but I could be wrong). —Stephen 17:43, 16 December 2007 (UTC)


Hi Stepphen, I am starting to doubt my decision to put wodka as uncountable, since when you order a vodka you only have plural in diminutive, but sometimes when you are talking about varieties of vodka, you can say wodka's. But that's not always the case. Can you help me? Mallerd 18:24, 18 December 2007 (UTC)

Well, in English, a part can stand for the whole, therefore vodka can mean either the mass noun that is the liquid or the count noun that means "shot of vodka". You can order two shots of vodka, or two vodkas, or even two shots. By the same token, you can order two waters (glasses of water), two milks (glasses of milk), two breads (slices or orders of bread), and so on. I’m not sure whether Dutch has the same flexibility. —Stephen 23:58, 18 December 2007 (UTC)
Yes that was what I meant, thank you. Mallerd 16:01, 20 December 2007 (UTC)


Hi, do you know if there exist a template for Dutch adjectives just like there is a {{nl-noun}} template? If so, could you give the correct code to put into the template? Thanks Mallerd 13:46, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

There is one {{nl-adj}}. I might try to make a better one if I can. —Stephen 14:04, 6 January 2008 (UTC)
You might try this new one: {{nl-adjcomp}}. —Stephen 14:27, 6 January 2008 (UTC)


Thanks very much, Stephen. Mallerd 14:44, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

v wants to say f[edit]

True, but what does it mean when it says v. (m.). I see I had put Template:v in the entry, my mistake. Mallerd 21:05, 23 January 2008 (UTC)

I assume that that means {{m|f}} (i.e., m, f).


Hey Stephen, I read somewhere that spas in Slavic means something like the Dutch "Verlosser", or "Saviour" in English. Do you know if that can have a relation to spasibo? Mallerd 22:34, 31 January 2008 (UTC)

Almost right. It’s спаси (the imperative of "to save", from the infinitive спасти) + бог (nominative case) = ‘God save’. —Stephen 22:14, 1 February 2008 (UTC)
Ah, I see now. That's cool :D do you know where the etymology from the Hebrew entry is from? Some say it is the Euphrates river and others say it is the Jordan river. Do you know also what people called the Ibri people the way they are called. Understand my poor English? Mallerd 19:36, 3 February 2008 (UTC)
Hebrew is from עברי (‘ivri), meaning "to cross over". It refers to the Ibri people who were so-called because they came from the other side of the Jordan river. —Stephen 20:13, 3 February 2008 (UTC)
I assume Ibri is an exonym if you look at the meaning of the word? Do you know which people called the people that crossed the Jordan Ibri? Mallerd 17:55, 4 February 2008 (UTC)
I’m not sure, but I suspect that a few of the people who would would eventually become the Ibri crossed over the Jordan to settled there, and then began to speak of the original population as "those on the other side" of the river. Or perhaps when people began crossing the river, the Phoenicians asked them who they were and they answered that they are the ones across the river. After that, the Phoenicians told the Greeks and others that they are the Ibri. —Stephen 13:14, 5 February 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen, I was wondering whether you know the etymology of hypocritical or not. Can you tell me what it is? Mallerd 19:35, 17 February 2008 (UTC)

It is formed by adding the adjectival ending -ic(al) to the noun hypocrisy. Then Modern English hypocrisy < Middle English ipocrisie < Old French ypocrisie < Late Latin hypocrisis < Greek ὑπόκρισις (answer, stage acting, pretense) < ὑποκρίνεσθαι (to play a role, pretend) < ὑπό (under) + the middle voice of κρίνω (to separate, judge, decide) < Proto-Indo-European base *krei- (to sieve, to discriminate, to distinguish). The Greek word evolved from ὑποκρίνομαι (to separate gradually) to ὑπόκρισις (answer) to ὑποκριτής (actor, pretender, hypocrite). —Stephen 12:19, 18 February 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen, I was wondering if you could create this Dutch word in wiktionary, it means the same as the Dutch "weiland". But I don't know what weiland in English is. Thank you. Mallerd 17:07, 13 March 2008 (UTC)

Okay, how’s this: zwaag? —Stephen 10:17, 14 March 2008 (UTC)
Oh it's pasture! Thanks very much :) Mallerd 19:23, 14 March 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen, what does спасская mean? I see it mostly in combination with "tower". thanks Mallerd 20:02, 19 March 2008 (UTC)

Спасская башня is one of towers of the Moscow Kremlin. Спас means Спаситель - the Savior, i.e. Jesus Christ. See also w:Kremlin_towers#Spasskaya --Jaroslavleff 08:06, 20 March 2008 (UTC)
Thanks, I wasn't sure whether it was connected to spasibo and the Lord. But the tower is also named at the kremlin of Kazan, does it mean "Tower of the Saviour"? Mallerd 15:38, 20 March 2008 (UTC)
Yes, it means "Savior Tower". The word спасский is an adjective that corresponds to the nouns Спас or Спаситель (Savior). —Stephen 18:54, 20 March 2008 (UTC)

family affairs[edit]

Hi Stephen, could you tell me please how to translate "family affairs" into Italian? Thanks if you know. Mallerd 20:10, 24 March 2008 (UTC)

Literally, "affari di famiglia", but in some cases it is different. For example: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs = Direzione Generale per la Famiglia. —Stephen 20:46, 24 March 2008 (UTC)
Ok, so, if someone wants to know where I was going on a weekend I should say: affari di famiglia? Thanks Mallerd 20:48, 24 March 2008 (UTC)
Yes, that makes sense. —Stephen 20:56, 24 March 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen, do you know if the Greek nesos and the Javanese nusa are connected in some way? Since Bali, the hindu island, is evidence of Indian influence. Thanks Mallerd 14:40, 11 April 2008 (UTC)

I have not seen any evidence that Greek νήσος is related to Javanese nusa (Indonesian nusa, Balinese nusa, Sundanese nusa, Tetun nusa, Malagasy nosy). The Hindi word for island is द्वीप (dvīpa), which probably accounts for the -dive in Maldives. I believe that νήσος is related to Indic words meaning to bathe or to wash, and also to Latin nare and natare (to swim), but as far as I know, the Malayo-Polynesian words are a coincidence. —Stephen 15:37, 11 April 2008 (UTC)
Ok thanks for that, I was wondering since I saw the following:

from PIE *sna- "to swim, to flow" (cf. Arm. nay "wet, liquid;" Gk. notios "damp, moist," nao "I flow;" Skt. snati "bathes;" M.Ir. snaim "I swim;" and probably also Gk. nesos "island," from *na-sos, lit. "that which swims").

Mallerd 20:12, 11 April 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen, I have created this entry. The table is incorrect, if you press edit you can see the correct froms behind nl-verb. They are in this order: present singular first, second, third - present plural first, second, third - past singular, plural. Then: present participle - imperative auxiliary - past participle.

I hope you understand. Mallerd 11:37, 28 April 2008 (UTC)

Hi, Mallerd, I’ve fixed it. For separable verbs such as this, you have to use {{nl-verb-sep}}. —Stephen 11:48, 29 April 2008 (UTC)

To moo[edit]


do you know if the Mirathi word for "moo" actually is "(hammaaaa)"? Thanks Mallerd 18:20, 13 May 2008 (UTC)

I don’t know. It is possible, but it is the wrong alphabet. Marathi is written like this: मराठी. —Stephen 18:28, 13 May 2008 (UTC)

Etymology of Latin "bellum"[edit]

Hi Stephen, I was contributing a little to the Italian wiktionary. I was adding the etymology for the Latin bellum, which is supposed to be the older Latin duellum, right? Now is there a user who keeps reverting what I was editing. I've tried to leave him a message, but his Babel says his English is not that good. Could you, or someone you know that speaks good Italian, ask him why he reverts my edits? Thank you Mallerd 13:14, 23 May 2008 (UTC)

I believe our Italian expert is User:SemperBlotto. I can read Italian, but when I try to speak it, it comes out as Spanish. In your argument, you might mention the Latin page at la:bellum. —Stephen 13:28, 23 May 2008 (UTC)
Thanks for your help. Mallerd 13:34, 23 May 2008 (UTC)
I see that it:Discussioni utente:Giannib has realized the error of his ways and it:bellum now displays the correct etymology. —Stephen 13:41, 23 May 2008 (UTC)
Yes he did, his English was much better than I thought. So, no need for an Italian godfather to translate at all. Mallerd 13:45, 23 May 2008 (UTC)


Hi again Stephen,

I am having some trouble in formulating the following into an entry: in Indonesian, if you put ku behind a word it means "my ...". First: should I create an -ku article for it or just ku? Second how do I explain this function in dictionarial terms? Thanks Mallerd 09:39, 24 May 2008 (UTC)

You will need to have separate entries for saya, aku, daku, ku-, and -ku. The suffix -ku is a cliticized object pronoun and possessive pronoun. The heading for -ku could be either Pronoun or Suffix. I think I would use the header Pronoun along with a suffix category. —Stephen 10:00, 24 May 2008 (UTC)
I'm sorry, but I do not really understand what such an entry is supposed to look like. Mallerd 22:52, 24 May 2008 (UTC)
I think I understand what he means, and have set up the entry at -ku. --EncycloPetey 22:57, 24 May 2008 (UTC)


Hey Stephen,

"покоряй" means conquer, doesn't it? Thanks Mallerd 17:39, 31 May 2008 (UTC)

Yes, it’s the imperative singular of покорять and means conquer!, subdue!. —Stephen 17:43, 31 May 2008 (UTC)


Ahoj, do you know in what way this list of EN-CZ words should be classified? Does it mean that there are 3 meanings of thanks as an interjection, but also 2 (or 5 I don't know) thanks as nouns? Thanks Mallerd 12:18, 3 June 2008 (UTC)

  • thanks - dík (pl.)
  • Thanks - díky/pl./
  • thanks - díky (pl.)
  • thanks (pl) - dík (poděkování)
  • thanks (pl) - poděkování
  • thanks - docenění
  • thanks - povděk
  • thanks a lot - mockrát děkuji
  • thanks a lot for it - mockrát za to děkuji
  • thanks for - díky za
  • thanks go to you - dík patří vám
  • thanks to - díky (velkému úsilí)
Well, interjection is on a different level from noun, so that it is possible for a noun or verb to also be an interjection. The word interjection focuses on how a word or phrase is used rather then its part of speech. So, the ones that mean thanks, thank you, and thanks a lot may be classified as interjections. If something strays too far, then it may be better to call it a phrase, and this includes "thanks for", "thanks go to you" and "thanks a lot for it". Then thanks to operates as a preposition. —Stephen 08:52, 4 June 2008 (UTC)


Hi does the "language" part in this entry have the same etymon as bahasa? Could you also tell me the page where I could request translations? Thanks Mallerd 16:33, 18 June 2008 (UTC)

Yes, they both come from Sanskrit भाषा (bhāṣā). See ภาษา. You can request Thai translations at Wiktionary:Requested articles:Thai. Also, you may request inline translations of individual words by inserting {{trreq|Thai}} in the Translations section. For miscellaneous translations, you can put a request at Wiktionary:Translation requests, but that page does not seem to be very effective at getting translations. —Stephen 12:26, 19 June 2008 (UTC)
Ah yes, now I remember thank you. I have another question, in Turkish you hardly pronounce the ğ letter, I don't know other languages that use this letter. Is it okay to just create an entry ğ and copy some lines from the wikipedia article I've just searched? Mallerd 18:07, 22 June 2008 (UTC)
Yes, an article for Turkish ğ would be good. Turkish ğ has two different pronunciations, depending on the dialect. In some dialects, it is pronounced like the Spanish g in agua (i.e., a voiced kh sound). In other dialects, it is not pronounced at all, but merely has the effect of lengthening the preceding vowel. So, ağa could be pronounced "agha" or "aaa". I have not read the Wikipedia article, but perhaps it explains this much better. —Stephen 12:05, 23 June 2008 (UTC)

ب plate[edit]

Hi Stephen, I was in w:Portofino and I saw a car with a registration plate with this ب letter on it, I thought it is from Bahrein. Is that correct? Mallerd 19:53, 13 August 2008 (UTC)

A request: العرب, is it al-ʿarab or just ʿarab? Mallerd 19:59, 13 August 2008 (UTC)
Sorry, I’m not familiar with most of the registration plate codes. But yes,العرب is "al-ʿarab". —Stephen 12:05, 14 August 2008 (UTC)

Ok, no problem. But Stephen, I can't find the actual Russian word in Wiktionary that is said like "dawai". Do you know it? Mallerd 17:42, 19 August 2008 (UTC)


Stephen, I can't find the actual Russian word in Wiktionary that is said like "dawai". Do you know it? Mallerd 18:05, 23 August 2008 (UTC)

That is давай, imperative of давать. —Stephen 15:06, 24 August 2008 (UTC)
Well, ok, I see that davat' is to give, but I think they meant dawai something as "go" or something, is that possible? Mallerd 17:25, 24 August 2008 (UTC)
Yes, давай is used like come on or let's: Давай читать = let’s read; давай, я тебе помогу = c’mon, I’ll help you. —Stephen 17:39, 24 August 2008 (UTC)
Ok, I shall create the entry. Thank you with this Mallerd 17:52, 24 August 2008 (UTC)
I'm almost sorry to bother you with this, but can you hear what language is spoken in this film? Mallerd 00:52, 24 August 2008 (UTC)
Sorry, I could not hear enough, or clearly enough, to recognize the language. I can’t even tell if it’s Germanic, Slavic, Romance, or something else. —Stephen 15:06, 24 August 2008 (UTC)

Me neither, but I thought it was perhaps because I didn't know the language. Thanks you very much anyway. Mallerd 17:24, 24 August 2008 (UTC)


Hi Stephen,

lately I keep seeing this word, which meaning is obvious, but I can't really tell where it's from. It seemed to me that it's used in Germany a lot, be it by Russians or not, when I googled it, this came up. Of course, it means something like Russian or Russians, but google only seems to find it as slang. Have you ever seen or heard it in a context other than slang? Mallerd 21:26, 31 August 2008 (UTC)

I think they mean русак (plural русаки). This is a colloquial term that means somebody who really looks Russian, who has characteristic Russian features. There are different words for a Russian person: россиянин is a Russian who is a resident of Russia, regardless of ethnicity; русский is an ethnic Russian; and русак is a Russian who really LOOKS Russian. It’s not slang, but it’s colloquial.
When I lived in Germany (during the 1960s-70s), I did not hear this word in use. If Germans are now using Russack, it will be similar to Polack (plural Polacken), which is a disdainful term for a Pole. —Stephen 10:30, 1 September 2008 (UTC)

I guess you know what you are talking about, but the usage I mostly found was of an ethnic Russian (apparantly living in Germany?). I thought it was slang, because of the google findings, the usage of the term seems to be limited to youth subcultures (to me). I also don't think that the term is meant to be disdainful as many speakers use "Russaki" to refer to themselves. The google search also included several youtube videos which show this. I shall ask around in German circles with a Russian background, thanks for your help. Mallerd 11:37, 1 September 2008 (UTC)

A favour[edit]


I need a favour, actually 2. Could you please create the following

Also, I still have not received response about "Russaki". I've tried asking a Russian on the German wikipedia, but perhaps my German was too poor to understand. Could you please ask it for me? Both Russian and German are languages you speak at a near-native level. I have asked this user for help, but perhaps you know another user? Thank you very much. Mallerd 19:23, 15 September 2008 (UTC)

Okay, I’ll create the pages, but I don’t know of the word пати or пать. There is a word in the game of chess called пат, паты...could that be what you mean?
I looked at your German correspondent, Adrichel, and your question was easy to understand. It needed a couple of commas, but otherwise was quite good. But Adrichel has not been around in five months, since April. I don’t think he has seen your question. I don’t know anyone on the German Wikipedia, but you need someone who is current. —Stephen 15:00, 16 September 2008 (UTC)
Well, I searched for party in Wiktionary and found different words, so I thought they had different meanings. Thanks for pointing out the differences.
I shall try searching for a more active user, I'd like to know some more about it. Kindest regards, Mallerd 15:58, 16 September 2008 (UTC)
Looking on the Internet, it appears that пати f (pati) does exist, a loanword from the English word party. It’s something new that I haven’t heard before, so I don’t know exactly who uses it or under what circumstances, but it means party in the sense of тусовка f (tusovka). —Stephen 16:12, 16 September 2008 (UTC)

Hey, I have recieved a reply (in German of course). I was wondering if you could translate it for me? That would mean much to me. Thank you

rusak, русак[edit]

Hallo, können Sie mir bitte erzahlen was das Wort "rusak" bedeutet in Deutschland und insbesondere im Kreis des Russen in Deutschland? Wie weit verbreitet is das Wort? Bitte reagieren auf User:Mallerd. Danke schön

Das ist *imho* ein Slang einer eher ungebildeten bzw unkulturellen Gruppe der Russlanddeutschen. Das russische Wort bedeutet eigentlich "Feldhase" [1], wird aber - innerhalb dieser Gruppe - für die Bezeichnung von sich selbst bzw. russischsprachigen Migranten verwendet. Weil der Wortwurzel "russ" in der russischen Sprache sowohl beim "Feldhasen" als auch beim Wort "Russe" gleich ist. In diesem Zusammenhang möchte ich ausdrucklich darauf hinweisen, dass es um einem Slang-Begriff einer Teilgruppe der russischsprachigen Migranten handelt. Aber wie auch immer - bei einer Enzyklopädia hat so was *imho* nichts zu suchen. Es sei denn, es geht über Migrantenslang. Alex Ex 21:58, 17. Sep. 2008 (CEST)

Kindest regards, Mallerd 18:52, 18 September 2008 (UTC)

Ah, thanks. Yes, that sounds right, except that русак, besides the literary meaning of hare, is also a colloquial term that means somebody who really looks Russian, or who has characteristic Russian features. I can’t imagine Germans using "rusak", because they would change it to "Russack". But it looks like they don’t even use "Russack". —Stephen 19:03, 18 September 2008 (UTC)

Well, isn't reality seperate from what you can imagine? There are many occasions where Russian Germans use "rusak", just to identify themselves as, like Alex Ex says "a part of Russian immigrants (in Germany)". Do you believe that an entry (rusak/russaki) should be created? Mallerd 15:33, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

русак, yes, but I don’t think "rusak" or "russaki" should be done. I don’t think it’s German, but Russian written in Roman letters (because they probably don’t know how to get a Cyrillic keyboard or to type Cyrillic). It’s like Mexican immigrants in the Southwestern U.S....they might say something like "I am mexicano", but this mixing of languages doesn’t make "I am" Spanish or "mexicano" English. Russians who live in large Russian populations in the U.S., such as San Francisco or Los Angeles, also use the term русак, and if they write an email or a blog, they often don’t know how to get Cyrillic, so they write in Roman. I don’t believe it makes a reasonable case for having Russian words in Roman letters. —Stephen 15:50, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

Okay, this is how I am going to describe the slang term русак,it should be under a Russian header saying that it's slang only used in Germany. Agreed? Mallerd 16:42, 19 September 2008 (UTC)

I made the page русак. I don’t think it needs to have a mention of Germany, because it can be used by Russians anywhere, Germany, England, France, the U.S., or Moscow. It isn’t slang, but simply colloquial. —Stephen 16:20, 20 September 2008 (UTC)

Well, isn't colloquial usage often more widespread among speakers? Alex Ex said that only a small portion of the German Russians uses it in the sense of "Russian". I believe that small portion stands for "slang" and widespread for "colloquial". Please correct me if I am terribly wrong here, so I will not make mistakes similar to this. Mallerd 19:15, 21 September 2008 (UTC)

No, русак means Russian throughout the length and breadth of the Russian language. It’s much like the word Yank, which is a colloquial term for American. Every American knows it, even though only a few of us actually use it in that sense. But Ami is slang for the same thing and understood by only very few Americans who have spent some time in Germany. All Russians know русак. —Stephen 13:03, 22 September 2008 (UTC)

What I understood from Alex Ex was that the Russian immigrant group in Germany didn't mean Russian looks, but Russian descendance. This way, the word "rusak" has 3 different meanings. I am not accusing you of anything, but I requested you to translate the German reply before. Perhaps I have misunderstood Alex Ex. If you are getting tired of this, I understand. Mallerd 18:09, 22 September 2008 (UTC)

TRANSLATION: "This is IMHO a slang word used by a rather uneducated and/or uncultured group of Russian Germans. The Russian word actually means European hare, but is used by this group to refer to themselves or to Russian-speaking immigrants. The Russian root "russ" means both "hare" and "Russian". In this context I would like to explicitly point out that it concerns a slang term used by a group of Russian-speaking immigrants. But in any case, it has nothing to do with an encyclopedia, IMHO. Unless it goes under "Migrant slang". Ex Alex"
But what I’m trying to explain to you is that Alex Ex is German, not Russian. The word is a Russian word that just means what I said. Like many other words, it can be used metaphorically, as a figure of speech, as a positive term for any Russian, even if he does not particularly look Russian. —Stephen 18:40, 22 September 2008 (UTC)

Okay, capito. Thank you for your time and knowledge. Mallerd 18:52, 22 September 2008 (UTC)


Is it relevant to add that in Russian computer language 4 can be used instead of ч? For instance, people without the Cyrillic keyboard are typing xo4u instead of хочу. Mallerd 15:10, 5 October 2008 (UTC)

I haven’t noticed this before. My guess is that it’s because 4 starts with ч (четыре). The same writers also use w for ш, and I see Roman c being used for Cyrillic с, but the same writers sometimes use c for ч. The letter ы is b|. It seems to be something like leet (1337), where letters are written in assorted and novel ways. I don’t think it’s relevant for us here, however. We don’t usually allow leet entries, and this Russian thing seems even less organized than leet. —Stephen 17:30, 6 October 2008 (UTC)

Stephen, it's because 4 and ч look very similar. Don't connect the 4 at the top. Preobrazhenskiy 15:39, 22 February 2012 (UTC)

I see, thank you =) Could you please create the entry that belongs to предает? The entire verb I mean, which I guess must be предать? I'm not sure, bye bye Mallerd 18:19, 8 October 2008 (UTC)

Yes, предавать, предать. —Stephen 18:32, 8 October 2008 (UTC)

Spasibk Mallerd 20:02, 9 October 2008 (UTC)


Hi, is it not common that translations of words are given in an etymology section? In the так article, only the words are given, not the translations. Do you know them? Mallerd 14:28, 16 October 2008 (UTC)

Mostly they all just mean so or such. In Polish, it has come to mean yes, which is a meaning that is carried by so (it is so). Just as so can be use for yes in English, так can be used the same way in the Slavic languages: так, it is so. —Stephen 19:23, 16 October 2008 (UTC)
Ah yes, I've heard some Pole once say "tak jest", meaning that also right? Anyway thank you. Mallerd 20:06, 16 October 2008 (UTC)

(it is) done[edit]

Hi Stephen,

I was wondering what done is in Russian. Is it the same as the 3rd person perfective aspect of do? I guess not, but I'd like to know. Could you help me? Bye Mallerd 20:28, 2 December 2008 (UTC)

No, done will be the past passive participle of сделать, which is сде́ланный, сде́лан, сде́лана, сде́лано, сде́ланы. I need to make a more complete conjugation of делать and сделать. —Stephen 20:01, 3 December 2008 (UTC)



in the Netherlands, certain types of hashish are named after their country of origin. Is that worth including? So you'll have Moroccan/Maroc, Afghaan, Nepal and various other. I'm not certain, it's usually used by people actually producing/importing/exporting/vending hashish. I don't think the "common" hashish smoker really cares for these terms and therefore not really uses it. Oh, before you are concerned about me using hash or any other drugs: I don't use drugs. Greetings Mallerd 15:17, 11 January 2009 (UTC)

One more thing, if you don't mind. Do you know this commercial? Is that actually a language? Or is it just made up. Mallerd 16:01, 11 January 2009 (UTC)

Well, we have Appendix:Cannabis slang, so I suppose there could be a similar appendix for hashish. I believe hashish use is far more common in Europe than in the U.S. Here in the U.S., people seem to prefer marijuana. Perhaps because of obtainability and availability. Since Britain is virtually in Europe, I assume hash use is common there, too.
Part of the commercial is Italian, but most of it seems to be a made-up language, read by an Italian speaker. —Stephen 06:31, 12 January 2009 (UTC)

kapieren, Sclavus/Sclavin[edit]

Hi Stephen,

I was watching this German programme, in it they said kapieren and Sclavus (later Sclavin). I thought kapieren was understand and Sclavus was obvious. Are these words used a lot in German? I also thought kapieren might have come from capire, is that a correct thought? Mallerd 17:32, 16 March 2009 (UTC)

If they were saying Sclavus, that’s Latin. German would be ein Sklave, eine Sklavin (bzw. Slawe), so I would not think that Sclavus is used a lot in German. The word kapieren is what I would call school slang. It means to understand, to grasp, and it comes from Latin capere, capiō. I think these are words that will be more common in the speech of high-school or university students, but not so common in regular German. —Stephen 04:23, 17 March 2009 (UTC)

I don't know if they said it with an k or c, but I definitely heard -us. Anyway, thank you for your help :) Mallerd 14:06, 17 March 2009 (UTC)

-ko, Japanese[edit]

Hi there Stephen, I've asked Tohru the same but since you speak Japanese as well: I've been playing this game Red Alert. Now it's sequel has crossed my path and in it, there is this girl called Yuriko. Sounds really strange this, huh? Well, I've heard that Yuriko means "daughter of Yuri", Yuri is a character in Red Alert. So, you are getting me? =P Is that true? If so, does -ko actually mean "daughter of"? An antry could be created. Thanks Mallerd 19:24, 22 March 2009 (UTC)

That is a very common suffix for girls’ names and is written this way: . It means child, infant, girl, daughter. So the answer is yes, Yuriko means Daughter of Yuri...except that it’s not an optional word the way "daughter" is, it’s a permanent part of the girl’s name. I have no idea who Yuri is or what Red Alert is or any of that. Yuri is a Japanese place name or surname, and Yuriko is a girl of that name or place. There are actually many different names that are pronounced Yuriko, each written a different way. Here are some of them: 結利子, 結梨子, 結里子, 弓里子, 夢里子, 百利子, 百理子, 百里子, 百英子, 百合子, 雪凜子, 英合子, 佑利子, 佑吏子, 唯理子, 愉吏子, 愉理子, 愉里子, 有利子, 諭吏子, 諭里子, ゆ里子. These are all the girl’s name Yuriko. —Stephen 20:56, 7 April 2009 (UTC)


Dear Stephen, could you perhaps point out the actual meaning of батюшка as an interjection? It says "goodness" in the example but "dear friend" or "old boy" in the translation. Thank you --User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 16:55, 10 April 2009 (UTC)

Hmm. It needs to be changed a bit. The interjection should probably be in a separate section. —Stephen 17:13, 10 April 2009 (UTC)
However, a separate interjection section does not really seem appropriate here, because it doesn’t rise to that level in my opinion. Originally it was under an Idioms header, but that header seems to have been against standard policy. The only solution that I can think of is as an example (as it is now), but it’s a little tricky since, as an idiom, the meaning is a little different from the definitions of the noun. But the meaning is closer to priest than to friend, so I’ll move it up one. —Stephen 17:29, 10 April 2009 (UTC)
May I butt in? The days when I knew Russian are gone, but I remember there was an idiomatic expression батюшка-царь. Do you think it would be worth an entry? --Duncan 19:39, 10 April 2009 (UTC)
Yes, I’ve heard that before. I think it’s southern, perhaps from the Ukraine. I think it deserves an entry, but I don’t have a good feel for how to say it in English. —Stephen 20:00, 10 April 2009 (UTC)
Only in form "батюшки!", not батюшка. --Alexander Widefield 16:45, 12 April 2009 (UTC)

I thank you, I also did not realise that the picture of that fire in Helsinki was meant as example for Russian usage until you said so. Anyway, I've been looking up coke (short for cocaine) and did not find the Russian equivalent. It sounds something like "koks", can you confirm that? User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 19:20, 10 April 2009 (UTC)

Yes, кокс, кока, кокос, корс, белый, дорогой, орех, орт, первый, си, снег, and чарли are all slang words for cocaine. —Stephen 19:30, 10 April 2009 (UTC)


Do you happen to know IPA and the languages mentioned in the lead? If you do, could you please add the IPA pronunciations as is done already with the Polish name? If you don't, would you know someone who knows IPA and these languages? Thank you very much User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 12:40, 12 April 2009 (UTC)

Servisch: шљивовица or šljivovica ([ʃʎi.ʋo.ʋi.tsa]) (not certain about the stress); Sloveens: slivovka ([ˈsli.ʋoʋ.ka]); Kroatisch: šljivovica ([ʃʎi.ʋo.ʋi.tsa]) (not certain about the stress); Bosnisch: šljivovica ([ʃʎi.ʋo.ʋi.tsa]) (not certain about the stress), Macedonisch: slivova ([]) (not certain about the stress); Pools: śliwowica ([ˌɕli.voˈvi.tsa]); Roemeens: şliboviţă ([ʃ̞ˈvi.tsə]); Bulgaars: сливова ([]) (not certain about the stress); Slovaaks: slivovica ([ˈslɪ.vo.vɪ.tsa]); Tsjechisch: slivovice ([ˈslɪ.vo.vɪ.tsɛ]). —Stephen 18:58, 12 April 2009 (UTC)
I don't know about the others, but the Czech and Slovak letter c is read /ts/ - /c/ would be written ť. --Duncan 19:11, 12 April 2009 (UTC) (Same goes for Polish, come to think of it). --Duncan 19:13, 12 April 2009 (UTC)
I didn’t know that there was a difference between IPA /ts/ and /c/. They sound the same to my ear. ť seems like Russian ть. —Stephen 19:31, 12 April 2009 (UTC)
IPA's /c/ isn't like Russian ц, though Czech and Slovak c is. Of course ť is like Russian ть - but that's IPA's c, see (I mean listen) eg here. --Duncan 19:40, 12 April 2009 (UTC)
I listened, but the speaker did not enunciate clearly. He pronounced /c/ as though it were something like /dja/, /tja/, or /tʃ/. I could not grasp the sound. But it appears that the Slavic languages that use the letter c do not pronounce it /c/, but /ts/. —Stephen 19:52, 12 April 2009 (UTC)
Yes, when in Czech / Slovak / Polish we write c we pronounce it like Russian ц or German z. The IPA /c/ is on the other hand nearest to /tj/. --Duncan 20:15, 12 April 2009 (UTC)

Yep, the article first said "Slivovitsj", tsj being ч. Changed that though. Thank you guys for the help :D User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 23:36, 12 April 2009 (UTC)


I explained my reasons for the requæst above, though no policy compelled me to. I also dismissed as invalid your requæst for “contrary evidence”. All our policy requires that you verify that sense or leave the {{rfv-sense}} where it is; I consider it an abuse of your admin. privileges that you have protected cruz gamada from my edits to enforce policy. I do a lot of referencing and quoting on Wiktionary; you should try it — you’ll find that it’s not difficult; it’s a hell of a lot easier that learning a whole language from scratch, that’s for sure.  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 01:51, 8 April 2009 (UTC)

Of course it will be! The quotation would not belong under the “swastika” sense if that were not the most appropriate translation for the Portuguese use of cruz gamada. What that shows is the way that the Portuguese cruz gamada matches up with the English swastika, rather than with the English crux gammata or with any other term.  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 02:28, 8 April 2009 (UTC)

Word choice and meaning are two different things. Even if one word might be the preferred usage, if the other word is a legitimate choice, then the other word gets named. Writing translations for foreign words isn’t a popularity contest, it’s meaning. Portuguese cruz gamada, even if usually translated with other words, means English swastika, and a translator can use select this translation if he wants. Judging from your usual choices of English words and forms, you probably want the translation to be "çreuxeaux Γämmatidiæ", but I consider your graphical and semantic trinkets just that, silly trinkets. In the places where I read Portuguese cruz gamada, I will usually if not always translate it swastika, and as a lifelong professional translator, I would be correct in doing so. —Stephen 02:38, 8 April 2009 (UTC)
Proove itt.  (u):Raifʻhār (t):Doremítzwr﴿ 02:44, 8 April 2009 (UTC)
I think you have "prooveđ itt" for me. —Stephen 02:47, 8 April 2009 (UTC)



is кружим a form of крутиться? Also, does кру- indicate some sort of 'surrounding' or '(en)circling' movement? Not literally per se, if you understand what I am saying. Last but not least, is there some sort of consensus on whether verbs are derived from nouns or the other way around? I am curious about that. Thank you User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 20:18, 7 September 2009 (UTC)

No, кружим is from кружить (kružitʹ, to spin, twirl).
  • ж <=> г, д, з
  • ч <=> к, т
  • ш <=> х, с
  • щ <=> ск, ст
Therefore, круж- = круг (krug, circle, sphere, orbit). In many cases, nouns derive from verbs, but in others, it is the other way around. —Stephen 23:42, 7 September 2009 (UTC)

What do you mean with that list? Does it show how letters change in certain words? User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 22:14, 10 September 2009 (UTC)

It shows mechanical mutations. These mutations often occur in verbs when the consonant is followed by certain stressed or unstressed vowels: глодить, гложу, глодал; лететь, лечу, летишь, летел; просить, прошу, просил. In the case of кружим, ж may become г, д, or з, but not т, and therefore it cannot be related to крутиться. Rather, кружим is related to круг (where ж <=> г). —Stephen 22:53, 10 September 2009 (UTC)

Okay, I wasn't really sure. Thank you User:Mallerd (Zeg et es meisje) 05:44, 11 September 2009 (UTC)