list

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English[edit]

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A list (enumeration or compilation of a set)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English, mostly from Old English līste "hem, edge, strip", from Proto-Germanic *līstǭ (cognate with Dutch lijst, German Leiste, Icelandic lista/listi). Middle English liste (border, edging, stripe) gave rise to the sense of "catalogue of names" by circa 1600; it was influenced by Old French liste or Old Italian lista (both meaning "border, band; strip of paper"), which are themselves from the Germanic word.

Noun[edit]

list (plural lists)

  1. A strip of fabric, especially from the edge of a piece of cloth.
    • Shakespeare:
      gartered with a red and blue list
  2. Material used for cloth selvage.
    • 1893, Arthur Conan Doyle, The Naval Treaty, Norton 2005, page 681:
      The charwomen are in the habit of taking off their boots at the commissionaire's office, and putting on list slippers.
  3. (in the plural) The palisades or barriers used to fence off a space for tilting or jousting tournaments.
    • 1663, Hudibras, by Samuel Butler, part 1, canto 2:
      With truncheon tipp'd with iron head, / The warrior to the lists he led.
    • Alexander Pope
      In measured lists to toss the weighty lance.
    • 1819, Walter Scott, Ivanhoe:
      William de Wyvil, and Stephen de Martival, [...] armed at all points, rode up and down the lists to enforce and preserve good order among the spectators.
  4. A register or roll of paper consisting of an enumeration or compilation of a set of possible items; the enumeration or compilation itself. [1600]
    • Francis Bacon:
      He was the ablest emperor of all the list.
    • 2013 June 29, “A punch in the gut”, The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, page 72-3: 
      Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial. [] Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism. Dr Yoshimoto and his colleagues would like to add liver cancer to that list.
  5. (computing, programming) A codified representation of a list, used to store data or in processing; especially, in the LISP programming language, a data structure consisting of a sequence of zero or more items.
  6. (obsolete) A limit or boundary; a border.
    • Shakespeare
      The very list, the very utmost bound, / Of all our fortunes.
  7. (obsolete) A stripe.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir Thomas Browne to this entry?)
  8. (architecture) A little square moulding; a fillet or listel.
  9. (carpentry) A narrow strip of wood, especially sapwood, cut from the edge of a plank or board.
  10. (ropemaking) A piece of woollen cloth with which the yarns are grasped by a worker.
  11. (tin-plate manufacture) The first thin coating of tin.
  12. (tin-plate manufacture) A wire-like rim of tin left on an edge of the plate after it is coated.
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. To create or recite a list.
  2. To place in listings.
  3. (intransitive, obsolete) To engage in public service by enrolling one's name; to enlist.
  4. (transitive, obsolete) To engage a soldier, etc.; to enlist.
    • Walter Scott, The Waverly Novels:
      "I will list you for my soldier, then," said the Countess.
  5. (transitive) To enclose (a field, etc.) for combat.
  6. To sew together, as strips of cloth, so as to make a show of colours, or form a border.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of H. Wotton to this entry?)
  7. To cover with list, or with strips of cloth; to put list on; to stripe as if with list.
    to list a door
    • Alfred Tennyson:
      The tree that stood white-listed through the gloom.
  8. (carpentry) To cut away a narrow strip, as of sapwood, from the edge of.
    to list a board
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English liste, from Old English list (art, cleverness, cunning, experience, skill, craft), from Proto-Germanic *listiz (craft, art), from Proto-Indo-European *leys-, *leyǝs- (track, furrow, trace, trail). Cognate with Scots list (art, skill, craft, cunning), Eastern Frisian list (cunning, knowledge), Dutch list (ruse, strategem, guile, artifice, sleight), Low German list (wisdom, prudence, cunning, artifice), German List (cunning, ruse, trick, guile, ploy), Swedish list (cunning, art, trick, ruse, wile, guile, stealth), Icelandic list (art). Related to lore, lere, learn.

Noun[edit]

list (uncountable)

  1. (archaic) Art; craft; cunning; skill.
    • 1877, James Clarke & Co, The literary world:
      In discussing the Syllabus and the last dogma of 1870, so much must be allowed for Italian list and cunning, or a word-fence. An Englishman, with his matter-of-fact way of putting things, is no match for these gentry.
    • 1893, Solomon Caesar, Original notes on the Book of Proverbs:
      "[...] The foxes had heard that the fowls were sick, and went to see them decked in peacock's feathers; said of men who speak friendly, but only with list or cunning within."
    • 1897, Lilian Winser, Lays and legends of the Weald of Kent:
      For when the guileful monster smiled Snakes left their holes and hissed, — And stroking soft his silken beard Raised creatures full of list.
    • 1991, Alexander L. Ringer, The Early romantic era:
      The general bass, in its fixed lines, is taken by surprise and overwhelmed by List ... (List = cunning); [...].
    • 1992, University of Reading. Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, Reading medieval studies:
      The latter wins his fight not by list but through straightforward knightly prowess, [...]
    • 2000, Cordula Scholz, Georgios Makris, Peter Schreiner, Polypleuros nous:
      It is worth noting that, contrary to Alexios who according to his daughter did not scruple to use any tricks to achieve his goal, Manuel, as depicted by Kinnamos, preferred "to win by war rather than by list."
    • 2008, Jon B. Sherman, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, The magician in medieval German literature:
      One man can accomplish with list (magic), that which a thousand could not accomplish, regardless of how strong they were.

Etymology 3[edit]

From listen.

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle list)

  1. (intransitive, poetic) To listen.
  2. (transitive, poetic) To listen to.
    • Shakespeare:
      Then weigh what loss your honour may sustain, / If with too credent ear you list his songs.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Possibly from tilting on lists in jousts.[1]

Noun[edit]

list (plural lists)

  1. (nautical) A tilting or careening to one side, usually not intentionally / not under a ship's own power.
  2. (architecture) A tilt to a building.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. (nautical) To tilt to one side.
    the ship listed to port
  2. (nautical) To cause (something) to tilt to one side.
    the steady wind listed the ship
Translations[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Old English lystan, from Proto-Germanic *lustijaną, from Proto-Germanic *lustuz (pleasure). Akin to Old Norse lysta (whence cognate with Danish and Norwegian lyste), Old High German lusten (German gelüsten and obsolete lüsten).

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. (archaic, transitive) To be pleasing to.
  2. (archaic) To wish, like, desire (to do something).
    • 1610, The Tempest, by Shakespeare, act 3 scene 2
      If thou beest a man, show thyself in thy / likeness: if thou beest a devil, take't as thou list.
    • 1843, Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present, book 3, ch. VIII, Unworking Aristocracy
      Ye are as gods, that can create soil. Soil-creating gods there is no withstanding. They have the might to sell wheat at what price they list; and the right, to all lengths, and famine-lengths, — if they be pitiless infernal gods!
    • 1959, Leo Strauss, "What is Political Philosophy?", in What is Political Philosophy?, page 51:
      License consists in doing what one lists; liberty consists in doing in the right manner the good only;
    • 2007, John Burrow, A History of Histories, Penguin 2009, page 413:
      The spirit seemed to blow where it listed among a historically motley collection of Catholic theologians, Puritan zealots and American squires.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

list

  1. (obsolete) Inclination; desire.

Anagrams[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. leaf (green and flat organ of vegetative plants)
  2. letter (written message)
  3. sheet (sheet of paper)
  4. newspaper
    Polský list Dziennik Gazeta Prawna nejdříve napsal, že polská hlava státu podepíše dokument ve středu. (iDNES)
  5. certificate (document containing a certified statement)
    rodný list -- birth certificate
    úmrtní list -- death certificate

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Danish[edit]

Noun[edit]

list c (singular definite listen, not used in plural form)

  1. cunning, trick

Verb[edit]

list

  1. Imperative of liste.

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch list, from Old Dutch list, from Proto-Germanic *listiz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (plural listen, diminutive listje n)

  1. a cunning plan

Anagrams[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (genitive singular listar, plural listir)

  1. art

Declension[edit]

f2 Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative list listin listir listirnar
Accusative list listina listir listirnar
Dative list listini listum listunum
Genitive listar listarinnar lista listanna

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (genitive singular listar, nominative plural listir)

  1. art

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m (diminutive listk)

  1. leaf, foliage
  2. letter (a written message)

Declension[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Verb[edit]

list

  1. imperative of liste

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *listiz. Cognate with Old Saxon list, Dutch list, Old High German list (German List), Old Norse list (Swedish list).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f

  1. art; cunning, guile, craft

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. letter (a written message)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]

  • list” in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lȋst m (Cyrillic spelling ли̑ст)

  1. leaf
  2. (computing) leaf
  3. sole (fish)
  4. letter (written message)
  5. sheet of paper
  6. calf (leg part)
  7. a special purpose certificate, e.g. of birth, ownership etc.

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • list” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. letter; a written message
  2. leaf; a part of a tree
  3. sheet; a piece of paper

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

líst m inan (genitive lísta, nominative plural lísti)

  1. piece of paper
  2. leaf
  3. sole
  4. (anatomy) calf (leg part)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list c

  1. smartness, trick, cunning
  2. a strip (of wood or metal, a thin and long board), a border, a beading
  3. (graphical user interface) a bar

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Upper Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. letter