tom

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /tɒm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /tɑm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɒm

Etymology 1[edit]

From generic use of the proper name Tom.

Noun[edit]

tom (plural toms)

  1. The male of the domesticated cat.
  2. The male of the turkey.
  3. The male of the orangutan.
  4. The male of certain other animals.
  5. (Britain, slang) A female prostitute.
  6. (US, slang) A lesbian.
  7. (music) Clipping of tom-tom.
  8. (obsolete) The jack of trumps in the card game gleek.
  9. (Britain, regional, obsolete) A close-stool.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Shortened from tomato

Noun[edit]

tom (plural toms)

  1. (Britain, greengrocers' slang) A tomato (the fruit).
    Toms 90p a pound

Etymology 3[edit]

Rhyming slang from tomfoolery.

Noun[edit]

tom (uncountable)

  1. (Cockney rhyming slang) jewellery

Etymology 4[edit]

From Uncle Tom.

Verb[edit]

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (intransitive, derogatory, of a black person) To act in an obsequiously servile manner toward white authority.

Etymology 5[edit]

Verb[edit]

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (nautical) To dig out a hole below the hatch cover of a bulker and fill it with cargo or weights to aid stability.

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tómr, from Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty) .

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter tomt, plural and definite singular attributive tomme)

  1. empty

References[edit]


Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish tom (bush, tuft; hillock, knoll).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular toim, nominative plural toim or tomacha)

  1. bush, shrub
    Synonym: tor
  2. clump, tuft, tussock
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular toma, nominative plural tomanna)

  1. Alternative form of taom (fit, paroxysm)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

tom (present analytic tomann, future analytic tomfaidh, verbal noun tomadh, past participle tomtha)

  1. Alternative form of tum (dip, immerse)
Conjugation[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
tom thom dtom
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

tom

  1. locative masculine singular of ten
  2. locative neuter singular of ten

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom

  1. Alternative form of tome (empty)

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom (uncountable)

  1. Alternative form of tome (freetime)

Etymology 3[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom

  1. (Southwest, southern West Midlands) Alternative form of tame (tame)

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tómr

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommere, indefinite superlative tommest, definite superlative tommeste)

  1. empty

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tómr

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommare, indefinite superlative tommast, definite superlative tommaste)

  1. empty
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse taumr.

Noun[edit]

tom m (definite singular tommen, indefinite plural tommar, definite plural tommane)

  1. Alternative form of taum; form removed with the spelling reform of 2012; superseded by taum
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Oksapmin[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. water

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty). Akin to Old Norse tómr (empty), whence Icelandic tómur (empty).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tōm

  1. empty
  2. (figuratively) free from
    Ðæt hīe mōstun mānweorca tōme lifgan and tīres blǣd ēcne āgan.
    That they might live free from wicked works and own the eternal reward of glory.

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: tome, tom, toume, tombe
    • English: toom
    • Scots: tume, tuim

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tomus, from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m inan

  1. volume (single book of a publication issued in multi-book format)

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • tom in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • tom in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably a semi-learned borrowing from Latin tonus (and influenced by som; compare the Spanish ton, variant of the standard tono, which underwent a similar change, influenced by son, respectively), from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos, tone), from τείνω (teínō, I stretch). Cf. also trom, a possible doublet.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (plural tons)

  1. tone or pitch (property of sound determined by the frequency)
  2. (music) tone (interval of a major second)
  3. (music) key.

See also[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular tuim, plural toman or tomannan)

  1. round hillock or knoll, rising ground, swell, green eminence
  2. any round heap
  3. tuft of anything
  4. bush, thicket
  5. anthill
  6. (Islay) stool
  7. volume of a book
  8. bank
  9. grave
  10. (medicine, rare) the plague
  11. conical knoll

Slovene[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tọ̑m m inan

  1. tome

Inflection[edit]

Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. tóm
gen. sing. tóma
singular dual plural
nominative tóm tóma tómi
accusative tóm tóma tóme
genitive tóma tómov tómov
dative tómu tómoma tómom
locative tómu tómih tómih
instrumental tómom tómoma tómi

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • tom”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tómr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom

  1. empty
    tomma tunnor skramlar mest
    empty barrels make the most noise (those who complain most vigorously, are the least important)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of tom
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular tom tommare tommast
Neuter singular tomt tommare tommast
Plural tomma tommare tommast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 tomme tommare tommaste
All tomma tommare tommaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
Antonyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Used in Swedish since 1697. From French tome, Latin tomus (section of larger work), from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos, section, roll of papyrus, volume), from τέμνω (témnō, I cut, separate). Cognate with English tome.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom c

  1. a tome, a volume in a series of books, a (thick) book
Declension[edit]
Declension of tom 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tom tomen tomer tomerna
Genitive toms tomens tomers tomernas
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Westrobothnian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tómr (empty,) from Proto-Germanic *tōmaz, of unknown origin.

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter tomt)

  1. Empty.
  2. Bare.
  3. Hungry, stingy.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Zuni[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

tom

  1. Second person singular possessive (medial position)
    your
  2. Second person singular object
    you

Related terms[edit]