tom

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /tɒm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /tɑm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɒm

Etymology 1[edit]

From generic use of the proper name Tom.

Noun[edit]

tom (plural toms)

  1. The intact male of the domesticated cat.
  2. The male of the turkey.
  3. The male of the orangutan.
  4. The male of certain other animals.
  5. (UK, slang, dated) A female prostitute.
  6. (US, slang) A lesbian.
  7. (music) Clipping of tom-tom.
  8. (obsolete) The jack of trumps in the card game gleek.
  9. (UK, regional, obsolete) A close-stool.
Synonyms[edit]
Coordinate terms[edit]

(intact male cat):

Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Shortened from tomato

Noun[edit]

tom (plural toms)

  1. (British, greengrocers' slang) A tomato (the fruit).
    Toms 90p a pound
    • 2009, Mark Penny, Jonathan Penny, The Golden Pig, page 160:
      “I'd like sausage, eggs, bacon, toms, mushies, beans – oh, and some fried bread,” said Mike.

Etymology 3[edit]

Rhyming slang from tomfoolery.

Noun[edit]

tom (uncountable)

  1. (Cockney rhyming slang) jewellery

Etymology 4[edit]

From Uncle Tom.

Verb[edit]

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (intransitive, derogatory, of a black person) To act in an obsequiously servile manner toward white authority.

Etymology 5[edit]

Verb[edit]

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (nautical) To dig out a hole below the hatch cover of a bulker and fill it with cargo or weights to aid stability.

See also[edit]

terms containing the word "tom". Some should probably be listed in the right place above

Anagrams[edit]

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

tom

  1. locative masculine/neuter singular of ten

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tómr, from Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter tomt, plural and definite singular attributive tomme)

  1. empty

References[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English tom.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈtom/, [ˈt̪o̞m]
  • Rhymes: -om
  • Syllabification(key): tom

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. (music) tom, tom-tom (percussion instrument)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of tom (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative tom tomit
genitive tomin tomien
partitive tomia tomeja
illative tomiin tomeihin
singular plural
nominative tom tomit
accusative nom. tom tomit
gen. tomin
genitive tomin tomien
partitive tomia tomeja
inessive tomissa tomeissa
elative tomista tomeista
illative tomiin tomeihin
adessive tomilla tomeilla
ablative tomilta tomeilta
allative tomille tomeille
essive tomina tomeina
translative tomiksi tomeiksi
abessive tomitta tomeitta
instructive tomein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of tom (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative tomini tomini
accusative nom. tomini tomini
gen. tomini
genitive tomini tomieni
partitive tomiani tomejani
inessive tomissani tomeissani
elative tomistani tomeistani
illative tomiini tomeihini
adessive tomillani tomeillani
ablative tomiltani tomeiltani
allative tomilleni tomeilleni
essive tominani tomeinani
translative tomikseni tomeikseni
abessive tomittani tomeittani
instructive
comitative tomeineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative tomisi tomisi
accusative nom. tomisi tomisi
gen. tomisi
genitive tomisi tomiesi
partitive tomiasi tomejasi
inessive tomissasi tomeissasi
elative tomistasi tomeistasi
illative tomiisi tomeihisi
adessive tomillasi tomeillasi
ablative tomiltasi tomeiltasi
allative tomillesi tomeillesi
essive tominasi tomeinasi
translative tomiksesi tomeiksesi
abessive tomittasi tomeittasi
instructive
comitative tomeinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative tomimme tomimme
accusative nom. tomimme tomimme
gen. tomimme
genitive tomimme tomiemme
partitive tomiamme tomejamme
inessive tomissamme tomeissamme
elative tomistamme tomeistamme
illative tomiimme tomeihimme
adessive tomillamme tomeillamme
ablative tomiltamme tomeiltamme
allative tomillemme tomeillemme
essive tominamme tomeinamme
translative tomiksemme tomeiksemme
abessive tomittamme tomeittamme
instructive
comitative tomeinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative tominne tominne
accusative nom. tominne tominne
gen. tominne
genitive tominne tomienne
partitive tomianne tomejanne
inessive tomissanne tomeissanne
elative tomistanne tomeistanne
illative tomiinne tomeihinne
adessive tomillanne tomeillanne
ablative tomiltanne tomeiltanne
allative tomillenne tomeillenne
essive tominanne tomeinanne
translative tomiksenne tomeiksenne
abessive tomittanne tomeittanne
instructive
comitative tomeinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative tominsa tominsa
accusative nom. tominsa tominsa
gen. tominsa
genitive tominsa tomiensa
partitive tomiaan
tomiansa
tomejaan
tomejansa
inessive tomissaan
tomissansa
tomeissaan
tomeissansa
elative tomistaan
tomistansa
tomeistaan
tomeistansa
illative tomiinsa tomeihinsa
adessive tomillaan
tomillansa
tomeillaan
tomeillansa
ablative tomiltaan
tomiltansa
tomeiltaan
tomeiltansa
allative tomilleen
tomillensa
tomeilleen
tomeillensa
essive tominaan
tominansa
tomeinaan
tomeinansa
translative tomikseen
tomiksensa
tomeikseen
tomeiksensa
abessive tomittaan
tomittansa
tomeittaan
tomeittansa
instructive
comitative tomeineen
tomeinensa

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish tom (bush, tuft; hillock, knoll).

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular toim, nominative plural toim or tomacha)

  1. bush, shrub
    Synonym: tor
  2. clump, tuft, tussock
    Synonym: tortóg
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular toma, nominative plural tomanna)

  1. Alternative form of taom (fit, paroxysm)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Verb[edit]

tom (present analytic tomann, future analytic tomfaidh, verbal noun tomadh, past participle tomtha)

  1. Alternative form of tum (dip, immerse)
Conjugation[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
tom thom dtom
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, § 291, page 104

Javanese[edit]

Other scripts
Carakan ꦠꦺꦴꦩ꧀
Roman tom

Etymology[edit]

From Old Javanese tom, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *taʀum.

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. indigo (plant)

Descendants[edit]

  • Ternate: tom

Further reading[edit]

  • The Linguistic Center of Yogyakarta (2015), “tom”, in Kamus Basa Jawa (Bausastra Jawa) [Javanese Language Dictionary (Javanese Dictionary)] (in Javanese), Yogyakarta: Kanisius, →ISBN


Komo[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. spear

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Determiner[edit]

tom

  1. locative masculine/neuter singular of ten

Maranao[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. human body louse

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom

  1. Alternative form of tome (empty)

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom (uncountable)

  1. Alternative form of tome (freetime)

Etymology 3[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom

  1. (Southwest, southern West Midlands) Alternative form of tame (tame)

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tómr.

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommere, indefinite superlative tommest, definite superlative tommeste)

  1. empty

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tómr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommare, indefinite superlative tommast, definite superlative tommaste)

  1. empty
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse taumr.

Noun[edit]

tom m (definite singular tommen, indefinite plural tommar, definite plural tommane)

  1. Alternative form of taum; (pre-2012) alternative form of taum
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Oksapmin[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. water

References[edit]

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty). Akin to Old Norse tómr (empty), whence Icelandic tómur (empty).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tōm

  1. empty
  2. (figuratively) free from
    Ðæt hīe mōstun mānweorca tōme lifgan and tīres blǣd ēcne āgan.
    That they might live free from wicked works and own the eternal reward of glory.

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Old Javanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *taʀum.

Noun[edit]

tom

  1. indigo (plant)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • "tom" in P.J. Zoetmulder with the collaboration of S.O. Robson, Old Javanese-English Dictionary. 's-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff, 1982.

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin tomus, from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m inan (diminutive tomik, augmentative tomisko or tomiszcze)

  1. volume (single book of a publication issued in multi-book format)
    Synonyms: wolumen, wolumin

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • tom in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • tom in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably a semi-learned borrowing from Latin tonus (and influenced by som; compare the Spanish ton, variant of the standard tono, which underwent a similar change, influenced by son, respectively), from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos, tone), from τείνω (teínō, to stretch). Cf. also trom, a possible doublet.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (plural tons)

  1. tone or pitch (property of sound determined by the frequency)
  2. (music) tone (interval of a major second)
  3. (music) key

See also[edit]

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French tome, from Latin tomus.

Noun[edit]

tom n (plural tomuri)

  1. volume

Declension[edit]

Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish tom (bush, tuft; hillock, knoll).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m (genitive singular tuim, plural toman or tomannan)

  1. round hillock or knoll, rising ground, swell, green eminence
  2. any round heap
  3. tuft of anything
  4. bush, thicket
  5. anthill
  6. (Islay) stool
  7. volume of a book
  8. bank
  9. grave
  10. (medicine, rare) the plague
  11. conical knoll

Slovene[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tọ̑m m inan

  1. tome

Inflection[edit]

The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. tóm
gen. sing. tóma
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
tóm tóma tómi
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
tóma tómov tómov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
tómu tómoma tómom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
tóm tóma tóme
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
tómu tómih tómih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
tómom tómoma tómi

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • tom”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tómr.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

tom (comparative tommare, superlative tommast)

  1. empty
    tomma tunnor skramlar mest
    empty barrels make the most noise (those who complain most vigorously, are the least important)
Declension[edit]
Inflection of tom
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular tom tommare tommast
Neuter singular tomt tommare tommast
Plural tomma tommare tommast
Masculine plural3 tomme tommare tommast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 tomme tommare tommaste
All tomma tommare tommaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic
Antonyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Used in Swedish since 1697. From French tome, Latin tomus (section of larger work), from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos, section, roll of papyrus, volume), from τέμνω (témnō, I cut, separate). Cognate with English tome.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom c

  1. A tome, a volume (in a series of books), a (thick) book.
Declension[edit]
Declension of tom 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tom tomen tomer tomerna
Genitive toms tomens tomers tomernas
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Ternate[edit]

tom

Etymology[edit]

From Javanese ꦠꦺꦴꦩ꧀ (tom), from Old Javanese tom.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom (Jawi توم)

  1. indigo (Indigofera tinctoria)

References[edit]

  • Frederik Sigismund Alexander de Clercq (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate, E.J. Brill
  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Indo-European *tewh₂- (to swell). Compare Middle Irish tomm (clump, hill).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

tom m or f (plural tomau)

  1. dung, excrement, faeces
    Synonym: cach
  2. manure, compost
  3. filth, muck, mire

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
tom dom nhom thom
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “tom”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

White Hmong[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Hmong-Mien *dəp (to bite); compare Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ketep (id), whence Indonesian ketip (dime, dite).[1]

Verb[edit]

tom

  1. to bite

Etymology 2[edit]

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Considered native Hmongic by Ratliff, though no reconstructed proto-form is given.[2]

Preposition[edit]

tom

  1. at, there (nearby)

References[edit]

  • Heimbach, Ernest E. (1979) White Hmong — English Dictionary[1], SEAP Publications, →ISBN, pages 322-3.
  1. ^ Ratliff, Martha (2010) Hmong-Mien language history (Studies in Language Change; 8), Camberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics, →ISBN, pages 237; 283.
  2. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20101031002604/http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/25

Zuni[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

tom

  1. Second person singular possessive (medial position)
    your
  2. Second person singular object
    you

Related terms[edit]