'n

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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Contraction of and.

Conjunction[edit]

’n

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ’n’.
    fish 'n chips
    rock 'n roll

Etymology 2[edit]

Contraction of than.

Conjunction[edit]

’n

  1. Nonstandard form of than.
    • 1865, Mark Twain, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County:
      The feller took the box again, and took another long, particular look, and give it back to Smiley, and says, very deliberate, "Well, I don’t see no p’ints about that frog that's any better’n any other frog."
    • 1969, Anne Warner, Susan Clegg and her friend Mrs. Lathrop (page 87)
      She says you may laugh ’f you feel so inclined, but there ain’t no such big difference between your leg ’n’ a dead rat but what it ’ll pay you to mark her words. She says ’f it don’t do no more ’n eat the skin off it ’ll still be pretty hard for you to lay there without no skin ’n’ feel the plaster goin’ in more ’n’ more.
    • 2010, Arnan Heyden, Daughters of Agendale (page 228)
      What I can give ya is this bit o’ knowledge: there be things in this world that no one can explain. There are things bigger ’n mountains, bigger ’n oceans, bigger ’n fields an’ night skies filled with stars, bigger ’n kings, or queens…

Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch een, 'n.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ə/
  • (file)

Article[edit]

ʼn (indefinite)

  1. (indefinite article) a, an

Usage notes[edit]

  • This word is not capitalized at the beginning of a sentence and the following word is capitalized instead.

Asturian[edit]

Preposition[edit]

’n

  1. (obsolete) Contraction of en.
    Toi viviendo’n Cangues
    I’m living in Cangues

Usage notes[edit]

While this contraction still reflects the elision that often occurs in en when it is between a word ending in a vowel and a word beginning in a consonant, this spelling was dropped by the Academy of the Asturian Language in 1990. Thus, the normative spelling of the above example is now Toi viviendo en Cangues.

See also[edit]


Bavarian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Merged unstressed form of an and en or den.

Article[edit]

'n m

  1. a (accusative)
  2. the (accusative)

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unstressed form of eam.

Pronoun[edit]

'n

  1. him
  2. it (dative)

See also[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

’n

  1. Contraction of ne.

Usage notes[edit]

'n is the reduced (reduïda) form of the pronoun. It is used after verbs ending with vowel.

Declension[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

’n

  1. Contraction of een.

Notes[edit]

If 'n begins a sentence, the first letter of the following word is capitalised instead.


German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • n (non-standard)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Contraction of ein. Like virtually all traditional German dialects, colloquial standard German distinguishes the indefinite article from the numeral for “one”. The specific form ’n has spread from the North southward and is thus of chiefly Low German origin. Most High German dialects use forms without the final -n, such as [ə] or [a], at least for the basic form (i.e. the masculine and neuter nominative). These pronunciations are sometimes heard in colloquial standard German as well, but ’n is clearly the commonest form.

Article[edit]

’n

  1. (colloquial) Alternative form of ein (a, an)
  2. (colloquial) Alternative form of einen (a, an)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Contraction of denn.

Adverb[edit]

’n

  1. (colloquial) short for denn (used for general emphasis)
    Wann wärst’n hier?
    So, when would you be here?

Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Preposition[edit]

'n

  1. (literary) Alternative form of in.
  2. (colloquial) Pronunciation spelling of in.

Etymology 2[edit]

Article[edit]

'n m

  1. (colloquial) Pronunciation spelling of un.

Numeral[edit]

'n m

  1. (colloquial) Pronunciation spelling of un.

Etymology 3[edit]

Adverb[edit]

'n

  1. (colloquial) Pronunciation spelling of non.

Ligurian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Apheresis of un (a, an, article).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ŋ/ (when followed by a consonant)
  • IPA(key): /n/ (when followed by a vowel)

Article[edit]

'n m (feminine 'na, 'n')

  1. a, an (male)

Low German[edit]

Article[edit]

’n

  1. Contraction of den.

Pronoun[edit]

’n

  1. Contraction of en.

Sicilian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Apheresis of in, from Latin in.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ŋ/ (when followed by a consonant)
  • IPA(key): /n/ (when followed by a vowel)

Preposition[edit]

'n

  1. in

Welsh[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Particle[edit]

’n

  1. Alternative form of yn (used after a vowel).
    Mae hi’n darllen.She is reading.
    Mae hi’n gysglyd.She is sleepy.
    Mae hi’n ferch.She is a girl.

Etymology 2[edit]

Contraction of ein (our).

Determiner[edit]

'n (triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel)

  1. our (used after vowels).
    Dyna’n harian ni.
    That's our money.

Pronoun[edit]

'n (triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel)

  1. us (as the direct object of a verbal noun or verb)
    Mae e yma i’n harfarnu.
    He's here to appraise us.
    Fe’n magwyd yng ngefn gwlad.
    We were brought up (lit. One brought us up) in the countryside.

Usage notes[edit]

  • In formal Welsh, the contraction 'n is a valid form of ein found after mostly functional vowel-final words. In colloquial Welsh, ein is often contracted to 'n after almost any vowel-final word.
  • Pronomial 'n (and ein) can occur before any verbal noun. Before verbal, pronomial 'n is found only in formal language after certain vowel-final preverbal particles, such as fe, a, ni, na, oni and pe.

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “'n”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Zealandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

An unstressed variety of eên.

Determiner[edit]

'n

  1. a (indefinite article)