User:Dan Polansky/Notes

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Why should I and others contribute Czech translations to English Wiktionary:

Do you want to help us building the Czech part of English Wiktionary? See Wiktionary:About Czech and Wiktionary:Requested entries:Czech.

Summary of benefits for Czech native speakers; see detail in User:Dan Polansky/Motivation:

  • Translations CZ <-> EN, the language with vast information resources
  • Translations CZ <-> Any
  • English definitions
  • Czech synonyms
  • English synonyms
  • English semantic network – synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms, hypernyms, meronyms, holonyms
  • Czech related terms
  • English related terms
  • English etymologies – suggest the etymologies for Czech non-native words such as "argumentace"
  • Browsing by topic categories – such as "Communication"
  • Pictures – get an idea
  • Patterns in language families
  • Metaphors in different languages
  • Links to Wikipedia
  • Basis for non-Czech Wiktionaries
  • Everything else – all kinds of information artifacts for other languages including Latin, Ancient Greek, German, Spanish, French, Chinese, documented in the world's lingua franca—English, which has replaced Latin as the language of international scientific communication


Adjectives with multiple genders:

  • Example: noční.
  • Problem: currently, set like noční m. But it also applies to feminine and neuter.
  • Solutions:
No. Solution Note
1 noční m f n
  1. nocturnal
At this point, I seem to prefer this one.
2 noční m, f, n
  1. nocturnal
I have seen this at some entries, created manually.
3 noční m

noční f

noční n

  1. nocturnal
Takes a lot of space. What is the advantage, after all?
4 noční
  1. nocturnal
Rather not. As Czech has gendered adjectives, the genders of the entry should be more explicit.
  • Model language: unknown.
  • Handling in the cs-adj template: new gender 'a', meaning all, used like { { cs-adj|g=a } }.
  • To be decided, if possible by modeling on other languages, and consulting other people.

Comparatives and superlatives in Czech adjectives

  • case: snazší, snadnější; nejsnazší, nejsnadnější
  • markup on the inflection line: undetermined


Ancient Greek[edit]

  • Diacritics (also W:Greek_alphabet#Greek_in_Unicode)
    • acute –  ́ – άέίόύώή
    • circumflex – ͂ – ᾶῖῦῶῆ – example words: γλῶσσα, ἰῶτα
    • rough breathing mark – ̔ – ἁἑἱὁἡὑ – All words which start with a vowel have a breathing mark, says WT:AAGR
    • smooth breathing mark – ᾽ – ἀἐἰὀἠὐ – All words which start with a vowel have a breathing mark, says WT:AAGR
    • diaeresis – ¨ – example word: Καϊάφας
    • macron – ˉ – āēī – Should not be used in an entry title, says WT:AAGR
    • breve – ˘ – ăĕĭ – Should not be used in an entry title, says WT:AAGR
  • Combined diacritics
    • acute and smooth breathing mark – ἄἔἴ – ἔτος
    • circumflex and smooth breathing mark – ἦ - ἦθος
  • Romanization(*)
    • omega -> ō
    • etha -> ē
  • Recent changes
  • People: Atelaes (grc-1), Flyax (el), Omnipaedista (grc-3)
  • Verification


  • BP: "Russian noun stuff", April 2009 - the value of animacy information in Russian entries

Anonymous editing[edit]

  • BP, "Preventing creation of new entries by anons", November 2010




  • Articles in the definitions, such as "A " in "A man-made body of water."
    • Also "The " in some proper nouns and "To " in verbs.
  • Lexicographical precedent
  • Distinguishing nouns and verbs
  • Indication of countability
  • BP: "Redundant articles?", August 2009


Blocking policy[edit]



Category types, for the purpose of "cs:" vs "Czech ":

Category Example Note
  • Category
  • Topical category
Category:cs:Linguistics, Category:cs:Colors
  • Non-topical category
A category whose title refers to words, not to the objects to which they refer (Colors), neither to branch of science (Linguistics). Parent category: Category:Language?
  • PoS category
Category:French adjectives
  • Etymology category
Category:cs:Etymology, subcategory Category:cs:English derivations The example should better be named "Czech words by etymology"?,
  • Personal name category
Category:German surnames, Category:German given names

There is a work in progress on a tool for MediaWiki that should enable wholesale renaming of categories. See Google Summer of Code 2008.

Well, Category:Colors is not really a topical category in a very narrow sense; the relationship between its members and its title is "is-a". Compare to the topical category of Category:Physics. But making this kind of distinction may be unfeasible or too complex.

Category for categories[edit]

There is a host of terms that I would like to see in a common category. It is just that I do not know any name for that category. The terms that I mean are the vague synonyms for category, used in various contexts:

Term Context Note
category Philosophy ; Mathematics ; Topology
type Philosophy ; Mathematics ; Programming ; Sociology
class Programming ; Sociology ; Transportation
group Mathematics ; Sociology ; Computing
family Biology
genus Biology
genre Literature ; Media

Solved. See Wikisaurus:class.

Change of state[edit]

  • Generic: make <adjective> (active, subject is operator), get <adjective>, become <adjective> (passive, subject is operand), turn to <noun> (active and passive)
  • -en: embolden, darken, blacken, harden, ...


Structure of the topics and options:

  • Topics or questions, then options
    • T1: topic: the placement of Chinese translations in the "====Translation====" section of the "==English==" section
      • O11: option: use "* Chinese" and "** Mandarin" and "** Min Nan"
      • O12: option: use "* Mandarin" and "* Min Nan", to the exclusion of "* Chinese", making the two stand apart
      • O13: option: use "* Mandarin" and "* Min Nan"; let Chinese redirect to Mandarin by using "* Chinese: See Mandarin"
      • O14: option: use "* Mandarin Chinese" and "* Min Nan Chinese", to the exclusion of "* Chinese", making the two stand apart
      • O15: option: other, unspecified
    • T2: topic: the naming of Chinese L2 headings
      • O21: option: allow "Chinese", "Mandarin", "Min Nan" at the headings of level 2, with "Chinese" defaulting to mean "Mandarin"
      • O22: option: discourage "Chinese" at the headings of level 2; only use "Mandarin", "Min Nan", etc.
      • O23: option: have "Mandarin Chinese", "Min Nan Chinese" at the headings of level 2
      • O24: option: other, unspecified


The following coinages of mine are, of course, not entered into Wiktionary:

  • paretovská optimalita; English: Pareto optimality; replaced form: Pareto optimalita
  • řadice; English: tuple; replaced form: uspořádaná n-tice; other meaning: some kind of device; models: řada, dvojice, trojice, seřazený, řádek (in a database table)
  • přitahovač; English: attractor; replaced form: atraktor; other meaning of "přitahovač": a specific muscle; models: přitažlivý, přitažlivost, přitahovat
  • dušeléčba; English: psychotherapy; replaced form: psychoterapie; models: vodoléčba. Alternative: ducholéčba.
  • potlačovač; English: inhibitor; replaced Czech form: inhibitor; see also tlumič
  • en:hash function: míchací funkce, zamíchací funkce, gulášová funkce (preferred; "mám v tom pěknej guláš"; "hash" is also a kind of food from chopped meat), kašová funkce (but: kaše need not be mixed up, and does not consist of discrete pieces).
  • en:debugger: ladička (to debug - ladit; already denotes the tuner of musical instruments), mucholapka ("má to ještě své mouchy", both bug and moucha are insects)
  • protizánětlivo - antiflogistikum; model: léčivo
  • protibolestivo - analgetikum; model: léčivo
  • nervopřenašeč - neurotransmiter; attestable form: neuropřenašeč
  • lékoléčba - farmakoterapie
  • okolékař - oftalmolog; model: okohybný, but contrast to očividný
  • okoměřič - optometrista; model: okohybný, zeměměřič
  • daňoplátce - daňový poplatník; English: taxpayer; but beware of the confusion with the lexal term "plátce daně"
  • buňkáč - spreadsheet; is a sheet that consists of cells - buňky; used Czech terms: tabulkový procesor, tabulkový kalkulátor; alternative: tabulkáč, but it has three syllables, whereas buňkáč has only two.
  • foun - phone, telephone; phonetic transcription of the English "phone"; no more foreign than the actually used "telefon"; alternative coinage: "fón"; models: "fajn" from English "fine", "tramvaj" from English "tramway", or "sendvič" from English "sandwich"; other models in Category:Czech terms derived from English
  • volač - phone; coined as a device for "volání" using the suffix "ač"
  • chytrofon - smartphone; model: mikrofon; is a compound just like "smartphone"; has some Google hits: google:chytrofon
  • chytrovolač - smartphone, using "volač" from above

Collective noun[edit]


  • collocation – 2. The statistically significant collocation of particular words in a language. 1. The grouping or juxtaposition of things, especially words or sounds.
  • WP-def: A sequence of words or terms which cooccur more often than would be expected by chance.
  • A collocation of two words need not be a phrase; the collocated words need not come next to each other[verify].
    • "Little and few are also incomplete negatives; note the frequent collocation with no: there is little or no danger."
  • Collocation
  • See also #Object model


  • Czech compounds
    • Examples: barvoslepý, cechmistr, cukrovar, Černobyl, černovlasý, darmošlap, hlavolam, hlavonožec, chámovod, kamenolom, kazisvět, kávovar, Krakonoš, krátkozraký, krkolomný, kulomet, modrooký, mrakodrap, větrolam, muchomůrka, názvosloví, prostopášný, prostovlasý, prvočíslo, prvouka, psovod, rodokmen, ropovod, světlomet, šeroslepý, štítonoš, tlučhuba, vejcovod, veselohra, věrolomný, větroplach, vodovod, zlatohlávek, vakovlk, kočkopes, rodokmen
    • hyponymy of Czech terms for "compound":[2][3][4][5]
      • složenina
        • složenina pravá - složenina vlastní (barvoslepý, vodovod; separation into parts generates invalid words)
        • složenina nepravá - složenina nevlastní - spřežka (sebepoznání, chvályhodný, cechmistr?)
  • German compounds: Wetterlage, Todesangst? (=Tod+es+Angst), Inhaltsverzeichnis? (=Inhalt+s+Verzeichnis), Arbeitsvertrag? (=Arbeit+s+Vertrag); see Category:German compound words.
  • Danish compounds: barnevogn = barne- (from barn) + vogn
  • English compounds: bitmap, eareache, headache, hilltop, hitmaker, hivemind, laptop, notebook, shoemaker, sunburn, sunrise, sunset, sunspot, toothache, troublemaker; see Category:English compound words
  • English non-compounds: nasogastric[verify]; see also WT:TR#nasogastric, July 2009
    • That's odd.
    • In Czech, words usually need to be inflected before they can be compounded.
    • In Latin, words may also need to be inflected before they can be compounded[verify].
    • "nasogastric" is a Latin-based word.
    • I don't see "naso-" and "laryngo-" as a prefixes; subjective assessment?
    • I see prefixes as preposition-like morphemes.
  • Patterns:
  • See also #Morphology
  • W:Compound (linguistics)
  • W:English compound
  • W:Classical compound

Context labels[edit]

  • Wiktionary:Context labels
  • Category:Context labels
  • Classification - from Wiktionary:Context labels
    • Topical labels -- identify usage in a technical or specialized subject field: medicine, banking, etc.
    • Regional labels -- identify dialect or regionalism: Australia, Flemish, etc.
    • Grammatical context labels -- identify the part of speech or grammatical function of the sense: auxiliary, uncountable, etc.
    • Usage labels -- identify other contexts: archaic, obsolete, historical, slang, vulgar, colloquial, formal, informal, etc.
    • Qualifiers -- modify other context labels: chiefly, etc.
  • Definitions
  • Votes
  • Positions
    • Removal of pseudo-context labels - Michael Zajac, EncycloPetey
    • Keeping of pseudo-context labels - probably supported by Stephen G. Brown
  • Discussions
    • BP, "{{colloquial}} and {{informal}} tags", December 2007
    • BP, "template:mammal", October 2009
    • BP, "Template:bird (et al.)", December 2009
  • Qualifiers - Category:Usage context labels
    • {{rare}}
    • {{nonstandard}} - Definition missing. Examples missing.
    • {{colloquial}} - For terms that (a) likely arose via casual conversational language, and (b) are likely to be used primarily in casual conversation rather than in more formal written works, speeches, and discourse. Compare similar tag informal. Examples: TODO; counterexamples: TODO. [ Appendix:Glossary ]
    • {{informal}} - For terms that are used primarily in a familiar or casual context; terms for which a clear, formal equivalent that is employed in its place in formal contexts often exists. Compare similar tag colloquial. [ Appendix:Glossary ]
    • {{slang}} - For (a) language unique to a particular (i) profession or (ii) subject, (b) specialized language of a social group, sometimes used to make what is said unintelligible to those who are not members of the group. Slang is usually outside of conventional usage, and is mostly inappropriate in formal contexts. Subgroups: jargon; cant[verify]. Examples: TODO; counterexamples: TODO. [ Appendix:Glossary ]
      • "Low, vulgar, unauthorized language; a popular but unauthorized word, phrase, or mode of expression; also, the jargon of some particular calling or class in society; low popular cant; as, the slang of the theater, of college, of sailors, etc." [Webster 1913]
      • "1. The cant words or jargon used by thieves, peddlers, beggars, and the vagabond classes generally; cant." [Century 1911]
      • "2. In present use, colloquail words and phrases which have originated in the cant or rude speech of the vagabond or unlettered classes, or, belonging in form to standard speech, have acquired or have had given them restricted, capricious, or extravagantly metphorical meanings, and are regarded as vulgar or inelegant." [Century 1911]
    • colloquial-hits in the dump 20100119 of "{{colloquial": 2744
    • informal-hits in the dump 20100119 of "{{informal: 2383
    • {{dated}} - still in occasional use, but now unfashionable.
    • {{archaic}} - no longer in general use, still found in some contemporary texts, and generally understood by educated people
    • {{obsolete}} - no longer in use, and no longer likely to be understood
  • Pseudo-context templates
    • {{mammal}} - see its RFDO
    • {{reptile}}
    • {{amphibian}}
    • organic compound, pharmaceutical drug, protein, fish, bird, amino acid, birds, carbohydrate, carbohydrates, chemical compound, inorganic compound, chemical element, element, chess piece, city, coenzyme, color, colour, computer language, genre, genres, insect, mushroom, mushrooms, plant, plants, enzyme[8]



Customizing of appearance of Wiktionary:


Sources on the Czech languages, especially Czech grammar:

Czech section - contributors[edit]

User Contribs Tongue Czech Entries Since Last CS Contrib Note
User:Duncan MacCall contribs native CZ August 2008
User:Karelklic contribs native CZ September 2008
User:-xfi- contribs native CZ July 2006 Dec 2007
User:Shoehorn contribs native CZ? August 2004 May 2007
User:V-ball contribs native EN Nov 2006 April 2007 Few Czech edits
User:PullUpYourSocks contribs March 2006 July 2007

Czech Wiktionary - activity[edit]

The only person regularly adding entries to the Czech Wiktionary is currently -xfi-, at the rate of 1.43 entries per day based on the last 14 days activity. As of 20 December 2007

Czech on other Wiktionaries[edit]

Language Date # Czech Nouns Note Link
DE 4.2.2008 1200 Czech nouns
DE 20.2.2009 1220 Czech nouns
FR 4.2.2008 700 Czech nouns
FR 20.2.2009 1400 Czech nouns
CS 4.2.2008 1600 Many foreign words included. Czech nouns, Recent Changes
CS 20.2.2009 2330 Many foreign words included. Czech nouns, Recent Changes
RU 19.2.2008 700 Czech nouns
RU 20.2.2009 1270 Czech nouns
PL 19.6.2009 Czech terms: 8200 Czech terms



  • genus, differentia
  • format
  • A <noun>.
  • An <noun>.
  • To <verb>.
  • A <genus> such that <differentia>, including <subclass>, exemplified by <example>.
  • A <genus> such that <differentia> such as <example>.
  • A <differentia> <genus>.
  • The quality or state of being <adjective>.
  • <definition> ; <alternative phrasing of a definition of the same sense>; <one more phrasing>.
  • <genus-differentia definition>; <synonym>.
  • gloss vs non-gloss ("A four-wheeled motor vehicle" vs "A term denoting four-wheeled motor vehicles")

Order of definitions:


The adverbs for degrees, some for scales between 0.0 and 1.0, other for open-ended scales, estimated:

  • not at all
  • slightly, a bit, a little, marginally, somewhat
  • quite
  • moderately
  • rather
  • distinctly, markedly, considerably, significantly
  • very, a lot
  • extremely, exceedingly
  • utterly, wholly, absolutely, fully, thoroughly, totally, completely, entirely

They come under the broader head of terms specifying a quantity.

Examples of use:

  • rather useless
  • utterly useless


Derived terms[edit]


Dictionary notes[edit]

  • a heading in some entries: facade and façade, resume and résumé
  • level: probably level 4; TBR
  • order and position: unclear; TBR
  • absent in WT:ELE
  • Appendix:Dictionary notes


  • English: auntie, toughie
  • German: Hörnchen, Häuschen
  • Czech: keřík, stromek, stromeček, tetička
  • W:Diminutive#English


  • RFD "free variable", July 2009; Some of the concerned entries: algebraic number, algebraic integer, bound variable, cardinal number, complex number, free variable, imaginary number, rational number, real number, transcendental number, free software, open set, closed set, complete graph, normal distribution.
  • BP: "Drop encyclopedic categories", August 2009; I posted a taxonomy of categories there based on Mzajac's terminology.


Encyclopedicity of dictionary:

  • encyclopedicity of inclusion of entries ("We can't include the term "A B C", as that would be too encyclopedic.")
  • encyclopedicity of definitions
  • encyclopedicity of illustrations alias images
  • encyclopedicity of categories ("We should drop topic categories such as 'Communication', as these are too encyclopedic")




Right-floating conjugation templates:

  • BP: "Questions concerning the use, naming and placement of inflection, declension and conjugation templates for FL languages.", January 2009
    • "...I think the right-floating table idea is a good one" --Ruakh
    • "I dislike the right-floating boxes, and don't think they should ever be built into the inflection line." --EncycloPetey
    • "Right hand templates are completely unacceptable, and I very much want to see them all go away." --Atelaes
  • BP: "Wiktionary:Writing templates", April 2009
    • "If it's small, float right and don't hide." --Conrad.Irwin at Wiktionary:Writing templates
    • "...I for one prefer to avoid floating conjugation templates." --Dan Polansky
    • "I agree on the non-floating." --Bequw
    • "Non-floating templates are better." --EncycloPetey


Front ends[edit]

Wiktionary front ends (also frontends, downstream consumers):

  • Wapedia - complete Wiktionary, including non-English words, Wikisaurus, and de.wikt and fr.wikt but not pl.wikt
  • - complete Wiktionary, including non-English words, Wikisaurus
  • Ninjawords - only English terms; not all definitions included

See also Wiktionary:Mirrors.


  • All from No.1 to people (No.140)

All Czech entries[9], including entries with form-of definitions only
Date Entries Rank
2010-09-23 18092 19
2010-08-24 17879 20
2010-06-14 17785 19
2010-04-03 17511 18
27 March 2010 17483 17
26 February 2010 17407 16
2009-11-30 16280 -
2008-05-20 9400 12
2008-03-16 8600+ 12
2008-03-03 8300+ 12
2008-02-13 7600- 12
2008-01-16 6500- 13
2008-01-02 6000- 13
2007-11-20 4700- 17
2007-10-16 3500+ 18

Czech gloss definitions[10]
Date Count
2010-09-23 19861
2010-08-24 19647
2010-06-14 19548
3 April 2010 19,238
27 March 2010 19,217
26 February 2010 19,136
6 January 2010 18,824
31 December 2009 18,149
30 November 2009 18,010

Czech nouns[11]
Date Count
2 October 2010 10830
31 August 2010 10737
30 June 2010 10686
31 May 2010 10642
30 April 2010 10578
31 March 2010 10527
28 February 2010 10503
31 January 2010 10389
31 December 2009 10053
30 November 2009 9864
31 October 2009 9802
30 September 2009 9767
31 August 2009 9681
31 July 2009 9562
30 June 2009 9450
31 May 2009 9167
3 May 2009 8987
31 March 2009 8818
28 February 2009 8540
31 January 2009 8252
31 December 2008 7984
30 November 2008 7687
31 October 2008 7373
30 September 2008 7065
31 August 2008 6852
3 August 2008 6553
3 July 2008 6400
15 June 2008 6200
30 April 2008 5900
31 March 2008 5700
29 February 2008 5200
31 January 2008 4500
31 December 2007 3900-
30 November 2007 3500+
31 October 2007 2800+
30 September 2007 2400-
31 August 2007 2200-
31 July 2007 1900+
30 June 2007 1600-
12 June 2007 1400-
19 May 2007 1200+





# {{form of|Swiss Standard German spelling|genießen}}


  • Case: swimming, climbing, doing, phasing, sleeping
  • An -ing-form usually has a noun and a verb form section.
  • An occurrence of an -ing-form such as "swimming" can be
    • (a) present participle (a verb form, "I am swimming", "I have been swimming")
    • (b) gerund (a verb form acting in part like a noun, "I like swimming", "Swimming is good for your health")
    • (c) noun ("building" – structure, "being" – creature; "several launchings"?)
  • Modification:
    • using an adjective
    • using an adverb
  • Object-taking[Brett]:
    • opening the shop
    • the opening of the shop
  • Should each gerund have a noun section?
  • Definition and clarification
    • "A gerund is a verb form that acts as a noun."[12]
    • "A gerund is the -ing form of a verb used as a noun."[13]
    • "Adams (1973:24) points out that in the gerund, the categories of noun and verb have a meeting-point."[14]
    • "A gerund is the verbal noun identical in form with any participle, simple or compound, that contains the termination -ing."[15]
    • A gerund is not a string of letters but a particular ocurrence of that string in a sentence.
    • The term "swimming" cannot be determined to be a gerund or a present participle without a sentence in which it occurs and a location in that sentence, ...
      • much like that the term "fire" cannot be determined to be a noun or a verb without its occurrence in a sentence.
  • Case: swimming at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • {{gerund of}}
  • {{present participle of}}
  • Category:English present participles
  • Discussions
  • References




  • {{google}}
  • {{b.g.c.}}
  • {{google|type=web|search string}}
  • {{google|type=books|search string}}
  • {{google|type=scholar|search string}}
  • {{google|type=patents|search string}}
  • {{google|type=groups|search string}}
  • {{google|type=news|search string}}
  • {{google|type=archive|search string}}
  • {{google|type=images|search string}}
  • {{google|type=blogs|search string}}
  • {{google|type=video|search string}}
  • {{google|type=maps|search string}}
  • {{google|type=finance|search string}}
  • Category:Linking templates



  • Multiple images layed out side by side:
{| style="float: right; clear:right;"
|[[Image:Beinecke-library-pillar.jpg|thumb|right|100 px|Beinecke library pillar]]
|[[Image:Pelham's Pillar.jpg|thumb|right|100 px|Pelham's pillar]]
|[[Image:Roman pillar ruins.jpg|thumb|right|100 px|Roman pillar ruin]]
  • [[Image:Burberry_handbag.jpg|thumb|Handbag]]
  • Pixel width. Better leave pixel width unspecified; the width of thumb pictures depends on user's style sheet.
  • Period. No period after single-element captions. See Wiktionary:Beer_parlour#Formatting_captions_of_pictures of October 2008.


  • {{inactive}} - for no longer active pages; for archiving as it were; "This page is no longer active. It is being kept for historical interest."




  • Category:English interjections
  • Category:Onomatopoeia
  • oops - acknowledging a minor mistake
  • ouch - pain
  • argh - annoyance, dismay, embarrassment or frustration
  • blah - mild frustration
  • brr - coldness
  • er - hesitation in speech
  • uh - confusion or uncertainty.
  • uh-oh - error, concern, awareness of a problem, or surprise
  • oh - surprise; and several other senses
  • aah - surprise; joyful pleasure
  • eh - a tag question much like "isn't it?"
  • eh - a request for repetition or clarification much like "what?"




Lexical item[edit]

Possible hyponymy structure for lexical item:

  • lexical item
    • sentence
      • proverb – "don't cry over spilled milk"
      • phrase – "good morning", "how are you?", "merry Christmas", "don't mention it"; ambiguous term
    • morpheme
      • prefix
      • suffix
      • combining form?
      • ...
    • non-sentence and non-morpheme; term?; space-enabled word?
      • single-word term – "car", "swim"
      • multi-word term – "black hole", "look after"
      • ---
      • noun
        • common noun
        • proper noun (see)
      • adjective
      • pronoun
      • numeral
      • verb
      • adverb
        • pro-adverb – "here", "now"
        • adjective-stemming adverb – "weakly", "pointedly"
      • conjunction
      • preposition (see)
      • particle
      • interjection – "oops", "ouch"



  • 1998, R. R. K. Hartmann and Gregory James, Dictionary of Lexicography, Routledge
  • 2000, Henri Béjoint, Modern Lexicography
  • 2003, R. R. K. Hartmann, Lexicography

Lexicographical products:

  • Single-language dictionary with definitions, example quotations, and etymology, such as Century 1911
  • Etymology dictionary, featuring mainly etymologies
  • Bilingual translation dictionary
  • Dictionary of place names?
  • Dictionary of idioms?
  • Dictionary of collocations?
  • ...


Male vs masculine[edit]

  • "Male given names" vs "Masculine given names"
  • My position: "male given names" is correct; in this phrase "male" is a noun used attributively; English given names do not have grammatical gender.
  • Opposing position: "male given names" is grammatically incorrect; English given names have grammatical gender.
  • BP: "Name appendices", December 2009



  • dobro, zlo, krásno, komično
    • adjective-derived nouns, but not qualities it seems; qualities gone agents?
    • compare to German: "Das Gute hat gesiegt"
    • compare to English good—The forces or behaviors that are the enemy of evil.
    • "boj mezi dobrem a zlem"; "je to jen pro tvoje dobro"; "zdroj jistého komična"
    • "krásno" vs "krása"; "dobro" vs "dobrota"
  • How to write a dictionary definition -


Moby thesaurus[edit]





Negation, especially in prefixes, in English:

  • Prefixes
    • non:
    • non-:
    • un-: undo, unattractive, unsound, unequal, untreated
    • in-: incredible, intractable, intolerable, inconsistent, incongruous
    • il-: illegal, illogical, illegible
    • ir-: irrelevant, irresistible, irrational
    • im-: impossible, improbable, impractical, impenetrable
  • The preference of "non" over "non-" or the other way around varies.

Negative words[edit]

  • Category:English words with negative connotations
  • Category:English words with positive connotations
  • Positive adjectives: good, right, correct, beautiful, nice, gorgeous, intelligent, reliable, happy, merry, healthy, successful, true, faithful, genuine, interesting, entertaining, rich, sufficient, noble, desirable, advisable, benevolent, benefactor, beneficient, clean, pure, excellent, perfect, flawless, spotless, stainless, immaculate, magnificent, magnanimous, super, wonderful, great, amazing, extraordinary, grateful, satisfactory, comfortable, praiseworthy, knowledgable, tasty, optimal, ideal, legitimate, lawful, pleasant, pleasurable, pleasing, fruitful, fertile, productive, effective, efficient
  • Negative adjectives: bad, wrong, incorrect, ugly, dark, dull, stupid, unreliable, unhappy, sad, ill, failed, false, unfaithful, fake, boring, poor, beggarly, lacking, base, lowly, ignoble, undesirable, malevolent, malefactor, harmful, dirty, filthy, distasteful, regrettable, pitiable, disheartening, abject, contemptible, despicable, mean-spirited, vile, evil, worthless, cowardly, degenerate, mean, dishonorable, reproachful, shameful, disgraceful


  • The term "unsourced" is frequently used in English Wikipedia. Googling finds 2E6 hits.
  • The term "unsourcedness" has only 8 hits though.
  • salient: salient point, salient feature
  • sentence structure - frequent term

Noun form[edit]


{{cs-noun form}}

# {{form of|Genitive singular|akronym|lang=cs}}
# {{form of|Dative singular|akronym|lang=cs}}
# {{form of|Locative singular|akronym|lang=cs}}
  • The formatting of kola:
# {{form of|Genitive singular|kolo|lang=cs}}
# {{form of|Nominative plural|kolo|lang=cs}}
# {{form of|Accusative plural|kolo|lang=cs}}
# {{form of|Vocative plural|kolo|lang=cs}}

'''Akrobaten''' {{m}}

# {{genitive of|[[Akrobat]]|lang=de}}

# {{plural of|[[Akrobat]]|lang=de}}

# {{form of|Accusative singular masculine|jenž|lang=Czech}}


Numeral vs number[edit]

Object model[edit]



Project Prefix
Wikipedia W:
Wibibooks B:
Wikisource S:
Wikiquote Q:
Meta M:
Wikiversity V:
Wikinews N:
Wiktionary D:, Wikt:, Wiktionary:


  • Enter objects of adjectives into usage notes, if deemed instructive. (Tentative.)
  • Enter subjects of verbs into usage notes, if deemed instructive. (Tentative.)
  • Enter attributes of nouns into usage notes, if deemed instructuve. (Tentative.)
    • Example in knowledge: Adjectives often used with "knowledge": extensive, deep, superficial, theoretical, practical, useful, working, encyclopedic, public, private, scientific, tacit, explicit, general, specialized, special, broad, declarative, procedural, etc.
    • Example in controversial: Nouns often used with "controversial": topic, subject, work, author, method, etc.


Part-of-speech heading[edit]

  • part of speech heading, level-2 heading in Wiktionary entries and sometimes level-3 heading
  • values: (see also Wiktionary:Entry layout explained/POS headers)
    • noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition
    • proper noun, numeral, cardinal number, article, determiner, prefix, suffix, idiom, proverb
    • acronym, abbreviation, initialism, symbol, letter
  • notes
    • numerals
      • "three", "four", ..., "ten" have "cardinal number"
      • "eleven" has "number"
      • "five" and "hundred" have "numeral"
      • -
      • "twelfth", "sixteenth", "seventeenth" have "numeral"
      • "fourth", "thirteenth", "eighteenth" have "adjective"
    • phrases and idioms
  • discussions
  • see also #Phrase

Phrasal verbs[edit]


  • several meanings
  • in one meaning, it may include one or more words instead of sharply requiring at least two words (so these are technically two meanings, one including single words, another excluding them)
  • see also #Set phrase
  • sometimes used in L2 headings as PoS
    • alternative: "Idiom"
    • alternative: "Interjection" - a misnomer IMHO in most cases
  • Category:Phrasebook
  • discussions
    • TR: 'all the "good"s', October 2009


  • Wiktionary:Phrasebook
  • Appendix:English phrasebook
  • Category:Phrasebook
  • BP, Phrasebook entries, February 2010
  • CFI, section "Idiomacity"
    • "Phrasebook entries are (a) very common expressions that are (b) considered useful to non-native speakers. Although these are included as entries in the dictionary (in the main namespace), they are not usually considered in these terms. For instance, What's your name? is clearly a summation of its parts."

Policy tasks[edit]

Tasks regarding change of policy, especially CFI:

  • Get the point "1. Clearly widespread use" removed from "Attestation" section: does not really define attestation and is redundant to the 3-attestation rule of the current point 3.; support unclear
  • Get the point "2. Usage in a well-known work" removed from "Attestation" section: unclear whether this gets support, although there should be less opposition after a recent vote; motivated by nonce words by Joyce
  • Get section "Vandalism" removed from CFI: vandalism is not content and has nothing to do with criteria for inclusion; it gets removed from the definition of "vandalism", regardless whether it is a new entry or an edit to any information class of an existing entry
  • Get section "Protologisms" removed from CFI: protologisms are already regulated in the "Attestation" section, as if a term is attested, it is not a protologism
  • Get section "Attestation vs. the slippery slope" removed from CFI: it is needless, and misleads; some argue that it requires "common use" of terms in order for them to be included, by implication of the phrasing of the section
  • Get the second paragraph of section "Wiktionary is not an encyclopedia" removed, the one that mentions "Houdini": very uncertain whether this could get support
  • Get section "Company names" removed: could get support, but very uncertain
  • Get section "Brand names" removed: unlikely to get support; a voted-on section
  • Get section "“Terms” to be broadly interpreted" renamed to "Termhood": keep section headings simple and non-sentence-like
  • Let the terms "attested" and "idiomatic" in section "General rule" link not to the mainspace but rather to the sections that define the terms, as [[#Attestation|attested]] and [[#Idiomaticity|idiomatic]], removing boldface from them
  • Obsolete spellings section: Clarify whether obsolete spellings should belong to "Alternative forms" (was "Alternative spellings") section; if they do belong there, maybe propose to move the section to the bottom of the page, or let the lists of spellings be formatted using ", " rather than bullet points.



  • "prepositional" is an alternative name for the sixth case.
  • The sixth case is now called "locative" in {{cs-decl-noun}}.


Proper noun[edit]

Hyponymy structure:

  • proper noun (Wikisaurus:name)
    • one-word proper noun – "York"
    • multi-word proper noun – "New Hampshire", "New Zealand"
    • ----
    • being or creature name
      • person name
        • first name – "Joe"
        • surname – "Newton"
          • surname uniquely identifying a notable person – "Newton", "Darwin", "Jefferson"
        • full name – "Joe Newton"
      • animal name
        • dog name – "Fido", "Rex"
        • cat name – "Felix"
      • mythological being name – "Zeus" (see also Wikisaurus:god)
    • place name (includes name of Wikisaurus:landforms and more)
      • continent name (managably many)
      • country name (managably many)
      • state name
      • district name
      • city name
      • town name
      • village name
      • street name
      • river name
      • lake name
      • mountain name
      • mountain range name
      • ...



Pseudo-hyponyms, seeming hyponyms[better term missing]:

  • Releaux triangle
  • love triangle
  • virtual reality
  • fool's gold
  • black hole

See also #Idiom.

Public domain sources[edit]


Suffixes for qualities alias properties or states or conditions:

  • -ness: goodness, darkness, kindness, brightness, completeness (tendency: Germanic roots?, but "completeness")
  • -ity: parametricity, generosity, acidity, subjectivity, additivity, separability (tendency: Latin roots?)
    • -ability: separability, repairability, enjoyability
    • -ivity: subjectivity, additivity, commutativity (rare: commutativeness)
  • -hood: likelihood, falsehood (mostly used for noun-derived qualities such as objecthood and parenthood)
  • -ry: bravery
  • -cy: normalcy


  • several, many, a lot, lots, a couple, much, plenty, loads, tons, a myriad
  • "There are several points I'd like to make."
  • "There are many people in the room."
  • "That is a lot of work."
  • "I've got a couple of remarks."
  • "Earth hosts a myriad of animals."
  • User:Dan Polansky/Number
  • #Degree

Quotation marks[edit]

  • BP: "Quotation marks and terminal punctuation", September 2009
    • Subject: '"quotation marks,"' or '"quotation marks",' ?
    • "logical quotation" vs "typesetter's quotation"
    • historical artefact resulting from protection of the smallest pieces of type for the comma[Doremítzwr]
    • ----
    • British - logical quotation
    • American - typesetter's quotation



Recent changes in Wiktionary:

Reflexive verbs[edit]

  • Put the meaning of těšit se to těšit entry, using the {{cs-reflexive}} teplate.
  • Even if no non-reflexive form exists, put to the non-reflexive form page, like in mračit se.
  • To těšit se, optionally put # {{reflexive of|těšit}}

  • Maybe create an entry for těšit se, instead of entering the term into the těšit entry. The Czech Wiktionary does it like that. Whether they have a written policy for that I do not know. A possible English model is the one of entering look forward into its own entry, which however is only distantly related to the case of těšit se.
  • However, not all the entries should get created; e.g. in holit and holit se, the use of se is completely orthogonal, as you can either "shave someone else" or "shave yourself". This is not the case with those collocations (are they collocations?) whose use is idiomatic, like těšit se, představit si.

Related terms[edit]

  • Related terms are defined as etymologically related.
  • Personal policy missing.
  • For problems with too many related terms, see žít, where the related terms živit, zažít and užít generate a host of terms related to them, resulting in a large list of items if made complete.
  • Many terms I am entering as related are in fact derived ones, but I, a non-linguist, cannot easily verify whether they really are.
  • I am now entering plenty of related (probably in fact derived) terms, as I am hiding them in the folding template, and they are so interesting.

Roget's thesaurus[edit]


Wiktionary Rooms:


  • Put translated adjectives in masculine only.
  • Put 'I' to the left and 'J' to the right in the translation template.[22]
  • Use (italic), not (italic). (Brackets outside italic.)
  • On example sentences, see [*].
  • In quotations, put comma after the year, despite the example.[23]


Set phrase[edit]


  • Markup: --~~~~
  • {{unsigned|Username or IP|0:00, 1 January 1970 (UTC)}}




See also Category:Reference templates.

Free Sources
Source Note
Webster 1913 {{R:Webster 1913}}, {{webster 1913}}
Century 1911 {{R:Century 1911}}
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica {{projectlink|1911|name of article}}
Wikisource Google search


Statistics pertaining to English Wiktionary:

  • Falsikon -- outdated, with last update in 2009; most popular Wikimedia projects, for all languages
  • Falsikon -- outdated, with last update in 2009; most popular pages at English Wiktionary

User edits - counters:

  • Kate's tool,, in particular - link broken
  • Soxred93-pcount, - broken; shows pie chart for the distribution of edits among namespaces




Group Template Note
English {{en-noun}}
{{alternative spelling of}}
{{webster 1913}}
{{R:Webster 1913}} Webster 1913
Requests {{delete}} Speedy deletion
{{rfd}} Careful deletion
{{rfv}} Verification of a meaning
{{rfc}} Cleanup
{{rfdate}} A date for this quote is being sought
Czech cs-imperfective form of {{cs-imperfective form of|perfective}}



Transitivity of verbs:

  • verb
    • intransitive verb
    • transitive verb
      • monotransitive verb -- taking only a direct object
      • ditransitive verb -- taking a direct and an indirect object
  • Transitivity excludes objects passed to the invoked verb after a prepositions


  • kočka, formatted using definitions.
  • kočka, formatted using translation and a gloss
The point is not to forbid definitions but to avoid them whenever possible.


  • Field Guide to Trolls
  • troll
    • A person who
      • posts to a newsgroup, bulletin board, etc.,
        • in a way intended to
          • anger other posters and to
          • cause drama, or
          • otherwise disrupt the group's intended purpose.

Some adverbs and pronouns[edit]

Some Czech pronouns and pro-adverbs used for quantification, and also for asking and pointing:

Time Space Way Person Thing Selection
by Attribute
by Picking
? kdy kde, kudy, kam jak kdo co jaký který
--> tehdy tam tak ten to takový
here teď, nyní tady, zde
not jindy jinde jinak jiný jiný
0 nikdy nikde nijak nikdo nic nijaký žádný
E někdy někde nějak někdo něco nějaký některý
málo málokdy málokde málokdo máloco málokterý
lec leckdy leckde leckdo leccos lecjaký leckterý
leda ledaskdo ledacos ledajaký
kde kdekdo kdeco kdejaký
mnoho mnohdy mnoho mnoho
všeli všelijak všelicos všelijaký
A vždy všude všichni všechno veškerý

Term frequencies[edit]

Gained using Google.

Term Date Frequency
fyzika 8.2.2008 3 600 000
ruka 8.2.2008 3 000 000
mikroskop 8.2.2008 450 000
"černá díra" 8.2.2008 90 000
"Kdo si počká, ten se dočká" 8.2.2008 20 000
"Hlad je nejlepší kuchař" 8.2.2008 4 300

Proposal: Terminology sections at Wikipedia articles[edit]

It could be made a common practice at Wikipedia that articles have a section defining all the non-trivial terms invoked in them. Admittedly, the content of this section would be redundant to Wiktionary and to all the Wikipedia articles defining the terms. However, the current possible practice of searching for the definitions of the unknown terms in the articles of the terms leads to opening many articles in a web browser when you only want to read a single article. A distraction is a result.

The formatting could be as follows:

Term Definition
Term Definition

Alternatively, the classic symbols for definitions ":" and ";" could be used, leading to a kind of list instead of a table. I find the table easier to read though. Also, it can be extended with Note column and with other columns.

Verbs - Perfective vs imperfective[edit]

  • Whether, when entering Czech translations of verbs into the pages with English entries, I should enter perfective or imperfective form of the word, is unclear. Sometimes, the imperfective is the obvious default, like dělat instead of udělat, zadělat or rozdělat. Elsewhere, the case is not so clear, such as in znepokojit vs znepokojovat.
  • Another issue is the possible duplication of entries such as znepokojit and znepokojovat. This duplication could perhaps be avoided, by making one of the entries the main one while letting the other one link to the first one, in the style of mračit se linking to mračit.
  • See {{cs-imperfective form of}}.

Verbs - subject and object reversed[edit]


Votes in Wiktionary:

  • User:Dan Polansky/Voting
  • Titles
    • Wiktionary:Votes/sy-2009-09/User:Razorflame for admin
    • Wiktionary:Votes/bt-2009-10/User:Di_gama_bot_for_bot_status
  • Titles - codes
    • "" - generic vote
    • pl - policy vote
    • sy - a new admin vote
    • bt - vote for a bot
    • bc - bureaucrat vote
    • cu - checkuser vote

My views on votes in Wiktionary:

  • Votes are a good thing; also executive votes are a good thing if the executive action is controversial.
  • Votes are timely: they ensure a collective decision is made within a given time frame, before a deadline.
  • Votes enable broader participation, as they are explicitly open for at least two weeks, or even for a month.
  • Votes make collective decisions traceable; they prevent editors from falsely claiming something is not a community decision when it in fact is.
  • Votes do not prevent discussions in Wiktionary. Most votes are started after a discussion has taken place in Beer parlour, and some of the discussion takes place directly in the votes.
  • -
  • It is better to vote on minor changes in WT:CFI and WT:ELE than to have WT:CFI and WT:ELE exposed to arbitrary changes against community consensus.

Webster 1913[edit]


Welcome templates for new users (Category:Welcome templates):




  • Clarification needed.
  • "black hole" is not a word; it is a two-word term[Dan].
  • "black hole" is a word[Mzajac][Lmaltier?]
  • de:Kenntnisstand - a word; is "state of knowledge" a word? space-freedom is key to wordness.

Word list[edit]

Word lists: