地震

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Chinese[edit]

 
earth; ground; field
earth; ground; field; place; land; (subor. part. adverbial); ‑ly
shake; shock; sign in trigram
trad. (地震)
simp. #(地震)
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Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (7) (23)
Final () (15) (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Baxter dijH tsyinH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/diɪH/ /t͡ɕiɪnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/diH/ /t͡ɕinH/
Shao
Rongfen
/djɪH/ /t͡ɕjenH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/diH/ /cinH/
Li
Rong
/diH/ /t͡ɕiĕnH/
Wang
Li
/diH/ /t͡ɕĭĕnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱiH/ /t͡ɕi̯ĕnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhèn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dei6 zan3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ dijH › ‹ tsyinH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[l]ˁej-s/ /*tər-s/
English earth, ground clap of thunder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 14808 1367
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'els/ /*tjɯn/

Noun[edit]

地震

  1. earthquake (Classifier: m;  m c)
    地震活動地震活动  ―  dìzhèn huódòng  ―  seismic activity
    臺灣發生地震台湾发生地震  ―  Táiwān fāshēng dìzhèn le.  ―  There was an earthquake in Taiwan.
    發生地震大陸藝人為了救災共襄盛舉舉辦演唱會 [MSC, trad.]
    发生地震大陆艺人为了救灾共襄盛举举办演唱会 [MSC, simp.]
    Fāshēng le dà dìzhèn, Dàlù jí Gǎng, Ào, Tái sān dì yìrén wèile jiùzāi gòngxiāngshèngjǔ, jǔbàn le duō chǎng yǎnchànghuì. [Pinyin]
    After the major earthquake, artists from the Mainland, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan all worked together to perform several concerts to collect funds for disaster relief.
  2. (figuratively, usually in politics or business) shifting or shuffling of posts
    官場地震官场地震  ―  guānchǎng dàdìzhèn  ―  a major change in government officials

Synonyms[edit]

  • (literary, or in compounds) (zhèn)

Verb[edit]

地震

  1. (impersonal) to have an earthquake
    臺灣地震台湾地震  ―  Táiwān dìzhèn le.  ―  There was an earthquake in Taiwan.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (地震):

Others:

See also[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
しん
Grade: S
goon

/di t͡ɕin//d͡ʑiɕiɴ/

From Old Japanese, in turn from Middle Chinese compound 地震 (MC dijH tsyinH). First cited to a text from 734.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

()(しん) (jishinぢしん (disin)?

  1. [from 734] earthquake
Synonyms[edit]
  • (obsolete) 地震(ない) (nai), 地震(なえ) (nae)
Derived terms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]
Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ない
Grade: 2 Grade: S
jukujikun

/nawi/ → */nawʲi//naji//nai/

From Old Japanese. First cited to 720 in the Nihon Shoki.[1]

Apparently this term semantically first referred to the ground, and was used most in constructions like "the ground shakes". Over time, this shifted via metonymy to refer to the shaking itself.[1]

May be a compound of () (na, ground, possibly an apophonic form of ni, "earth, soil") + () (i, being, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of () (iru, to be, in a location; in modern Japanese, used of animate objects)).[1][2]

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

地震(ない) (naiなゐ (nawi)?

  1. [720 – ???] (obsolete) an earthquake
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 94)
      於弥能姑能耶賦能之魔柯枳始陀騰余瀰(おみのこのやふのしばかきしたとよみ)那為(なゐ)我與釐拠魔耶黎夢之魔柯枳(がよりこばやれむしばかき) [Man'yōgana]
      (おみ)()八符(やふ)柴垣(しばかき)下動(したとよ)(なゐ)()()()れむ柴垣(しばかき) [Modern spelling]
      omi no ko no yafu no shibakaki shita-toyomi nai ga yorikoba yaremu shibakaki
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    • 1212, Hōjōki[4]
      また、(おな)じころかとよ、おびたゝしく(おほ)地震(なゐ)ふること(さぶら)き。[...] (おそ)れのなかに(おそ)るべかりけるは、(ただ)地震(なゐ)なりけりとこそ(おぼ)()しか。[...] よのつね、(おどろ)くほどの地震(なゐ)()(さん)(じふ)()ふらぬ()はなし。
      Mata, onaji koro ka to yo, obi-tatashiku ō-nai furu koto saburaki. ...osore no naka ni osoru-bekarikeru wa, tada nai narikeri to koso oboe-ji shi ka. ...yo no tsune, odoroku-hodo no nai, ni-san-jūdo furanu hi wa nashi.
      (please add an English translation of this example)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
なえ
Grade: 2 Grade: S
jukujikun

/nawi/ → */nawʲi//naji//naje//nae/

Appears in the Nippo Jisho.

Shift from nai, historical nawi (see above).[1][2] First cited to the late 1400s.[1]

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

地震(なえ) (nae

  1. [from late 1400s] (obsolete or regional, Kagoshima) an earthquake
    ()きななえ()れば、(おそ)ろしいよ。
    Okina nae ga kureba, osoroshii yo.
    If a big earthquake occurs, it will be terrifying.
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 455:
      [5]
      Naye. ナエ(地震) 地震.Nayega yuru. (地震が揺る) 地震がする.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 地震”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ Nishio, Minoro (1212) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Hōjōki, Tsurezuregusa, Iwanami Shoten, published 1957, →ISBN
  5. ^ Doi, Tadao (1603–1604) Hōyaku Nippo Jisho (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1980, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

地震 (jijin) (hangeul 지진)

  1. Hanja form? of 지진 (earthquake).

Related terms[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun[edit]

地震

  1. chữ Hán form of địa chấn (earthquake).