patent

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Patent

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

An 1855 reprint of the Scottish inventor James Watt’s 1769 patent (sense 1.2.2) for the separate condenser – a device to lessen the consumption of steam in steam engines.

Etymology 1[edit]

The noun is derived from Middle English patent (document granting an office, property, right, title, etc.; document granting permission, licence; papal indulgence, pardon) [and other forms],[3] which is either:[4]

For the derivation of Anglo-Norman and Middle French patente (adjective) in lettre patente, see etymology 2 below.

The verb is derived from the noun.[5]

Noun[edit]

patent (countable and uncountable, plural patents)

  1. (law)
    1. An official document granting an appointment, privilege, or right, or some property or title; letters patent.
    2. (specifically)
      1. (originally) A grant of a monopoly over the manufacture, sale, and use of goods.
      2. A declaration issued by a government agency that the inventor of a new invention has the sole privilege of making, selling, or using the claimed invention for a specified period.
        • 2013 June 8, “Obama goes troll-hunting”, in The Economist[1], volume 407, number 8839, London: Economist Group, ISSN 0013-0613, OCLC 805074337, archived from the original on 26 March 2019, page 55:
          The solitary, lumbering trolls of Scandinavian mythology would sometimes be turned to stone by exposure to sunlight. Barack Obama is hoping that several measures announced on June 4th will have a similarly paralysing effect on their modern incarnation, the patent troll.
    3. (US, historical) A specific grant of ownership of a piece of real property; a land patent.
  2. (by extension) A product in respect of which a patent (sense 1.2.2) has been obtained.
  3. (uncountable) Short for patent leather (a varnished, high-gloss leather typically used for accessories and shoes).
  4. (figuratively)
    1. A licence or (formal) permission to do something.
    2. A characteristic or quality that one possesses; in particular (hyperbolic) as if exclusively; a monopoly.
  5. (gambling) The combination of seven bets on three selections, offering a return even if only one bet comes in.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

patent (third-person singular simple present patents, present participle patenting, simple past and past participle patented)

  1. (transitive, law)
    1. To (successfully) register (a new invention) with a government agency to obtain the sole privilege of its manufacture, sale, and use for a specified period.
      • 2013 June 21, Karen McVeigh, “US Rules Human Genes Can’t be Patented”, in The Guardian Weekly[2], volume 189, number 2, London: Guardian News & Media, ISSN 0959-3608, OCLC 1060180436, page 10:
        The US supreme court has ruled unanimously that natural human genes cannot be patented, a decision that scientists and civil rights campaigners said removed a major barrier to patient care and medical innovation.
    2. (US, historical) To obtain (over a piece of real property) a specific grant of ownership.
  2. (transitive, figuratively) To be closely associated or identified with (something); to monopolize.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English patent, patente (wide open; clear, unobstructed; unlimited; of a document: available for public inspection) [and other forms],[6] from Anglo-Norman and Middle French patent (modern French patent), and directly from their etymon Latin patēns (open; accessible, passable; evident, manifest; exposed, vulnerable), the present active participle of pateō (to be open; to be accessible, attainable; to be exposed, vulnerable; of frontiers or land: to extent, increase), from Proto-Indo-European *peth₂- (to spread out; to fly).[1]

Adjective[edit]

patent (comparative more patent, superlative most patent)

  1. Conspicuous; open; unconcealed.
    Synonym: overt
    • 1856, John Lothrop Motley, “Sowing the Wind”, in The Rise of the Dutch Republic. A History. [], volume I, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers, [], OCLC 1138660207, part II (Administration of the Duchess Margaret. 1559–1567.), page 240:
      At the departure of Philip he had received instructions, both patent and secret, for his guidance as stadholder of Holland, Friesland, and Utrecht.
    1. (baking) Of flour: fine, and consisting mostly of the inner part of the endosperm of the grain from which it is milled.
    2. (medicine) Open, unobstructed; specifically, especially of the ductus arteriosus or foramen ovale in the heart, having not closed as would have happened in normal development.
      She has a patent ductus arteriosus that will require surgery to close.
    3. (medicine, veterinary medicine) Of an infection: in the phase when the organism causing it can be detected by clinical tests.
  2. Explicit and obvious.
    Synonyms: express, monosemous, unambiguous; see also Thesaurus:explicit, Thesaurus:obvious
    Those claims are patent nonsense.
    • 1916 March, “The Reconciliation of Government with Liberty. By John W[illiam] Burgess, Ph.D., Ju.D., LL.D. Scribner & Sons, New York. 1915. Pp. 410. [book review]”, in The Ecclesiastical Review: A Monthly Publication for the Clergy, volume IV (6th Series; volume LIV overall), number 3, Philadelphia, Pa.: American Ecclesiastical Review; The Dolphin Press, ISSN 0271-6836, OCLC 718545999, pages 373–374:
      Again we read at page 174: “Instead of the Universal Roman Catholic Church there existed after 1650 the National Catholic Churches of Spain, France, Austria, Poland, etc. more subject to the Royal supremacy than to the Papal, not, however, so completely as in England.” This is obviously an exaggeration. There never existed in the countries mentioned, least of all in Spain, any National Catholic Church. There would not have existed any such contradictorially-named organization even in England had it not been for the lechery of Henry VIII. Other similar misstatements might be noticed here and there. The author's intention, however, to be just is patent and his success in this respect is noteworthy.
  3. (archaic)
    1. Especially of a document conferring some privilege or right: open to public perusal or use.
      letters patent
    2. Appointed or conferred by letters patent.
  4. (botany) Of a branch, leaf, etc.: outspread; also, spreading at right angles to the axis.
  5. (law) Protected by a legal patent.
    Synonym: patented
    a patent right    patent medicines
    • 1707, J[ohn] Mortimer, “Of Madder”, in The Whole Art of Husbandry; or, The Way of Managing and Improving of Land. [], 2nd edition, London: [] J[ohn] H[umphreys] for H[enry] Mortlock [], and J[onathan] Robinson [], published 1708, OCLC 13320837, book V, page 125:
      Madder is eſteemed a very rich Commodity, and what will turn to good profit; ſo that in King Charles I's Time it was made a Patent Commodity.
    • 1824 March 26, [Lord Byron], Don Juan. Cantos XV. and XVI., London: [] [C. H. Reynell] for John and H[enry] L[eigh] Hunt, [], OCLC 560104685, canto XVI, stanza XXVI, page 74:
      [H]e took up an old newspaper; / The paper was right easy to peruse; / He read an article the king attacking, / And a long eulogy of "Patent Blacking."
    • 1836 March – 1837 October, Charles Dickens, “Is Wholly Devoted to a Full and Faithful Report of the Memorable Trial of Bardell against Pickwick”, in The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, London: Chapman and Hall, [], published 1837, OCLC 28228280, page 368:
      "Yes, I have a pair of eyes," replied Sam, "and that's just it. If they wos a pair o' patent double million magnifyin' gas microscopes of hextra power, p'raps I might be able to see through a flight o' stairs and a deal door; but bein' only eyes you see, my wision's limited."
    • 1853, Pisistratus Caxton [pseudonym; Edward Bulwer-Lytton], chapter III, in “My Novel”; Or Varieties in English Life [], volume I, Edinburgh; London: William Blackwood and Sons, OCLC 457185834, book second, page 103:
      There, were also a small mouse-trap; a patent corkscrew, too good to be used in common; fragments of a silver tea-spoon, that had, by natural decay, arrived at a dissolution of its parts; []
  6. (by extension, figuratively) To which someone has, or seems to have, a claim or an exclusive claim; also, inventive or particularly suited for.
    • 1836 March – 1837 October, Charles Dickens, “How Mr. Winkle, when He Stepped Out of the Frying-pan, Walked Gently and Comfortably into the Fire”, in The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, London: Chapman and Hall, [], published 1837, OCLC 28228280, page 405:
      ["]Ben, my fine fellow, put your hand into the cupboard, and bring out the patent digester." Mr. Benjamin Allen smiled his readiness, and produced from the closet at his elbow a black bottle half full of brandy.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 patent, adj.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020; “patent, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  2. ^ patent” in Stuart Berg Flexner, editor in chief, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd rev. and updated edition, New York, N.Y.: Random House, 1993, →ISBN; reproduced on Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  3. ^ patent(e, n.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  4. ^ patent, n.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2021; “patent, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  5. ^ patent, v.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, April 2020; “patent, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  6. ^ patent(e, adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent m (plural patents)

  1. patent

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent m

  1. patent (declaration issued by a government to an inventor)

Derived terms[edit]


Danish[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent n (singular definite patentet, plural indefinite patenter)

  1. patent

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Middle French patente, from lettres patentes (letter in which a privilege is granted), from Latin litterae patentes.

Noun[edit]

patent n (plural patenten, diminutive patentje n)

  1. patent [from 16th c.]
    Synonym: octrooi
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Indonesian: paten
  • Papiamentu: patènt

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from German patent, originating in student slang. Related to etymology 1.

Adjective[edit]

patent (comparative patenter, superlative patentst)

  1. excellent, exquisite [from mid 19th c.]
    Synonyms: geweldig, voortreffelijk
Inflection[edit]
Inflection of patent
uninflected patent
inflected patente
comparative patenter
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial patent patenter het patentst
het patentste
indefinite m./f. sing. patente patentere patentste
n. sing. patent patenter patentste
plural patente patentere patentste
definite patente patentere patentste
partitive patents patenters

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

patent (comparative patenter, superlative am patentesten)

  1. clever
  2. ingenious

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From German Patent (patent) or German patent (clever; ingenious).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɒtɛnt]
  • Hyphenation: pa‧tent
  • Rhymes: -ɛnt

Noun[edit]

patent (plural patentek or patentok)

  1. snap fastener, press stud
    Synonym: nyomókapocs
  2. (archaic) patent (official document)
    Synonym: szabadalom

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative patent patentok
accusative patentot patentokat
dative patentnak patentoknak
instrumental patenttal patentokkal
causal-final patentért patentokért
translative patenttá patentokká
terminative patentig patentokig
essive-formal patentként patentokként
essive-modal
inessive patentban patentokban
superessive patenton patentokon
adessive patentnál patentoknál
illative patentba patentokba
sublative patentra patentokra
allative patenthoz patentokhoz
elative patentból patentokból
delative patentról patentokról
ablative patenttól patentoktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
patenté patentoké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
patentéi patentokéi
Possessive forms of patent
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. patentom patentjaim
2nd person sing. patentod patentjaid
3rd person sing. patentja patentjai
1st person plural patentunk patentjaink
2nd person plural patentotok patentjaitok
3rd person plural patentjuk patentjaik

or

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative patent patentek
accusative patentet patenteket
dative patentnek patenteknek
instrumental patenttel patentekkel
causal-final patentért patentekért
translative patentté patentekké
terminative patentig patentekig
essive-formal patentként patentekként
essive-modal
inessive patentben patentekben
superessive patenten patenteken
adessive patentnél patenteknél
illative patentbe patentekbe
sublative patentre patentekre
allative patenthez patentekhez
elative patentből patentekből
delative patentről patentekről
ablative patenttől patentektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
patenté patenteké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
patentéi patentekéi
Possessive forms of patent
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. patentem patentjeim
2nd person sing. patented patentjeid
3rd person sing. patentje patentjei
1st person plural patentünk patentjeink
2nd person plural patentetek patentjeitek
3rd person plural patentjük patentjeik

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ patent in Tótfalusi, István. Magyar etimológiai nagyszótár (’Hungarian Comprehensive Dictionary of Etymology’). Budapest: Arcanum Adatbázis, 2001; Arcanum DVD Könyvtár →ISBN

Further reading[edit]


Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

patent

  1. third-person plural present active indicative of pateō

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From a short form of lettres patentes, from Anglo-Norman lettre patente (open letter), from Latin littera patens.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /paˈtɛnt/, /ˈpatɛnt/

Noun[edit]

patent (plural patentes)

  1. A letter conferring a privilege or status.
  2. Such a privilege or status conferred.
  3. (rare) A letter conferring other advantages.
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle French patent, from Old French, from Latin patēns.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /paˈtɛnt/, /ˈpatɛnt/

Adjective[edit]

patent

  1. (rare) open, unconfined, unrestricted
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent

  1. Alternative form of patene

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology[edit]

Short form of Anglo-Norman lettre patente.

Noun[edit]

patent n (definite singular patentet, indefinite plural patent or patenter, definite plural patenta or patentene)

  1. patent

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

Etymology[edit]

Short form of Anglo-Norman lettre patente.

Noun[edit]

patent n (definite singular patentet, indefinite plural patent, definite plural patenta)

  1. patent

References[edit]


Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Etymology[edit]

From French patente, from Latin patēns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent m inan

  1. patent (official declaration that someone is the inventor of something)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • patent in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • patent in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French patent.

Adjective[edit]

patent m or n (feminine singular patentă, masculine plural patenți, feminine and neuter plural patente)

  1. patent

Declension[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sh

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pǎtent/
  • Hyphenation: pa‧tent

Noun[edit]

pàtent m (Cyrillic spelling па̀тент)

  1. patent (official declaration that someone is the inventor of something)

Declension[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

patent n

  1. patent

Declension[edit]

Declension of patent 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative patent patentet patent patenten
Genitive patents patentets patents patentens

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]