Appendix:List of Proto-Semitic stems

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of Proto-Semitic stems (triconsonantal roots and extensions) with their reflexes in several Semitic languages (i.e. actually-pronounced forms with vowels, as opposed to Semitic pure consonantal roots). Only stems attested in Akkadian, or with cognates in other Afro-Asiatic groups, can be confidently included in Proto-Semitic; others must be placed in West Semitic. There is some controversy in Semitic linguistics over the sibilants' pronunciation.


Proto-Semitic Stems[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Ge'ez Mehri Phoenician
earth *ʼarṣ́- erṣet- ʼarḍ- ʼéreṣ ʼarʻ-ā  ?  ? ʼarṣ,ʼirṣ
father *ʼab- ab- ʼab- ʼāḇ ʼab-ā ʼab ḥa-yb ʼab,bu
god *ʼil-(āh)- il- ʼilāh- ʼēl-(ôh)- ʼalāh-ā - - ʼel-, ʼil-(uh)-
grape/wine[1][2] *wayn- - wayn- yáyin ('wine') - wayn- - yen
house *bayt- bītu, bētu bayt- báyiṯ, bêṯ bayt-ā bet beyt, bêt bet,beyt bit
lord *baʻl- bēlu baʻl- báʻal b·ʻ·l baʻāl bâl baʻl
king *mal(i)k- mal(i)ku malik- méleḵ malk-ā - - malk,milk
milk *ḥalīb- ḫilpu ḥalīb-, ḥalab- ḥālāḇ ḥalb-ā ḥalīb - ḥaleb
name *šm- šum- ism- šēm šm-ā sim ham šēm
peace *šalām- šalām- salām- šālôm šlām-ā salām səlōm šolōm, šolem
sun *śamš- šamšu šams- šémeš šemš-ā - - šamš
tree *ʻiṣ́- iṣu, iṣṣu ʻiḍ-at- ʻēṣ - ʻiṣ 'aʻā ʻiṣ
water *may-/*māy- māy- máyim mayy-ā māy ḥə-mō mem,meym, may

Body parts[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
blood *dam- damu dam- dām dm-ā dam - dom
eye *ʻayn- īn- ʻayn- ʻáyin ʻayn-ā ʻayn ʼāyn ʻeyn,ʻen
hand *yad- id- yad- yāḏ ʼīdā ʼid ḥayd yad, yid, id
heart *lib(a)b- libb- lubb- lēḇ(āḇ) lebb-ā libb ḥa-wbēb lib
tongue *lišān-/*lašān- lišān- lisān- lāšôn leššān-ā lissān əwšēn lošun, lašun
tooth *šinn- šinn- sinn- šēn šenn-ā śinn* - šinn-

Animal names[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
bull *ṯawr- šūru ṯawr- šôr (> 'ox') tawr-ā sōr - šūr
camel *gam(a)l- gammal- (gaml-) ǧamal- gāmāl gaml-ā gamal gəmmōl gemāl, gamāl
dog *kalb- kalb- kalb- kéleḇ kalb-ā kalb  ? kalb
ewe *raḫil- laḫru riḫl(at)- rāḫēl - - - -
  • Note: "ś" is used to transliterate Ge'ez śin, which could represent either "ś" or "s," depending on the word and time period.

Proto-West-Semitic Stems[edit]

This is a list of cognates for which no Akkadian cognate is known or attested.

English PWS Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
wasp *dVb(V)r- dabr-, dibr- dəḇôrāh (> "bee") debbōr-ā, debbor-t-ā - - dobrot
holy *ḳudš- quds- qōḏeš qudš-ā qiddūs - quddoš,qudš
son *bn- ibn- bēn br-ā - bər, ḥə-brē bin
white *laban- laban "milk" lāḇān - - lbōn labōn

References[edit]

  1. ^ D. Jordan, An Offering of Wine, Doctoral Thesis, The Department of Semitic Studies, University of Sydney (2002)
  2. ^ Online Etymology, "Wine"

See also[edit]

External links[edit]