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See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈戈戈竹 (IIIH), four-corner 23202, composition𠫯)

  1. take part in, intervene
  2. three
  3. uneven
  4. name of a constellation
  5. ginseng

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 164, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3098
  • Dae Jaweon: page 372, character 28
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 387, character 23
  • Unihan data for U+53C3

Chinese[edit]

simpl.
trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (參), Pronunciation (1/5)

Initial: 生 (21)
Final: 侵
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 所今切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiɪm/ /ʂi̯əm/ /ʃiəm/ /ʃim/ /ʂim/ /ʃĭĕm/ /ʃjem/
Character (參), Pronunciation (2/5)

Initial: 初 (19)
Final: 侵
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 楚簪切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃʰiɪm/ /ʈ͡ʂʰi̯əm/ /t͡ʃʰiəm/ /ʈ͡ʂʰim/ /ʈ͡ʂʰim/ /t͡ʃʰĭĕm/ /t͡ʃʰjem/
Character (參), Pronunciation (3/5)

Initial: 清 (14)
Final: 覃
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 倉含切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰʌm/ /t͡sʰăm/ /t͡sʰᴀm/ /t͡sʰəm/ /t͡sʰəm/ /t͡sʰɒm/ /t͡sʰɒm/
Character (參), Pronunciation (4/5)

Initial: 心 (16)
Final: 談
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 蘇甘切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/ /sam/ /sɑm/ /sɑm/
Character (參), Pronunciation (5/5)

Initial: 清 (14)
Final: 覃
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 七紺切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰʌmH/ /t͡sʰămH/ /t͡sʰᴀmH/ /t͡sʰəmH/ /t͡sʰəmH/ /t͡sʰɒmH/ /t͡sʰɒmH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system (2011)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
cān ‹ tshom › /*N-sˁrum {*N-sˁr[u]m}/ three
cān ‹ tshom › /*s-l̥ˁum {*s-l̥ˁ[u]m}/ accumulate
cān ‹ tshom › /*tsʰˁum {*[tsʰ]ˁ[u]m}/ straight
cēn ‹ tsrhim › /*tsʰrum {*[tsʰr][u]m}/ uneven
shēn ‹ srim › /*srum {*sr[u]m}/ (name of constellation)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1081 3 /*sʰluːm/
1088 3 /*sʰluːms/
1094 3 /*sloːm/
1103 3 /*sʰrum/ 同嵾
1108 3 /*srum/

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cham, sam) (hangeul , , revised cham, sam, McCune-Reischauer ch'am, sam, Yale cham, sam)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tham, sâm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.