fret

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See also: FRET and frêt

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English frēten (to eat; to devour, eat up; to bite, chew; to consume, corrode, destroy; to rub, scrape away; to hurt, sting; to trouble, vex), from Old English fretan (to eat up, devour; to fret; to break, burst),[1] from Proto-Germanic *fraetaną (to consume, devour, eat up), from Proto-Germanic *fra- (for-, prefix meaning ‘completely, fully’) (from Proto-Indo-European *pro- (forward, toward)) + *etaną (to eat) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ed- (to eat)).

The word is cognate with Dutch vreten, fretten (to devour, hog, wolf), Low German freten (to eat up), German fressen (to devour, gobble up, guzzle), Gothic 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (fraitan, to devour), Swedish fräta (to eat away, corrode, fret); and also related to Danish fråse (to gorge).

Verb[edit]

fret (third-person singular simple present frets, present participle fretting, simple past fretted or fret or freet or frate, past participle fretted or (usually in compounds) fretten)

  1. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) (transitive, obsolete or poetic) To consume, to devour, to eat.
    • c. 1370–1390, [William Langland], “Passus. xviii. de visione”, in The Vision of Pierce Plowman [...], imprinted at London: By Roberte Crowley, dwellyng in Ely rentes in Holburne, published 1550, OCLC 837479643, folio lxxxxix, verso:
      At the beginning God gaue the dome him ſelfe / That Adam and Eue and all them that ſewed, / Shuld dye down right and dwell in pyne after, / If that they touched a tree and the frute eaten, / Adam afterwarde agaynſt hys defence / freet of that frute, and forſake as it were, / The loue of our lord and his lore bothe, []
      At the beginning God gave the judgment himself / That Adam and Eve and all them that ensued, / Should die down right and dwell in pain after, / If that they touched a tree and the fruit ate, / Adam afterward against his warning / Ate of that fruit, and forsook, as it were, / The love of our Lord and his lore both, []
    • 1594, William Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece:
      And with the wind in greater fury fret:
      The petty streams that pay a daily debt []
    • 1609, Philemon Holland, Livy:
      'Their hearts alreadie fretted and cankered at the very roote, for the last disgrace received'.
    • 1727-1728, Proteus Echo, page 75:
      And could we let a Light into their Bosoms, we should see them generally fretted and cankered with this secret and corroding Venom.
  2. (transitive) To chafe or irritate; to worry.
    • 1676, Richard Wiseman, “[A Treatise of Tumors.] Of an Herpes”, in Severall Chirurgical Treatises, London: Printed by E. Flesher and J[ohn] Macock, for R[ichard] Royston bookseller to His Most Sacred Majesty, and B[enjamin] Took at the Ship in St. Paul's Church-yard, OCLC 228770265, page 80:
      A Perſon of Honour, of a full Body abounding with ſharp Humours, was ſeized with an Herpes on his right Leg. [] [I]t inflamed and ſwelled very much, many Wheals aroſe, and fretted one into another, with great Excoriation.
    • 1835, Sir Astley Paston Cooper, Lectures on the Principles and Practice of Surgery:
      Which disease generally arises from the use of a pipe, and the manner in which it happens is this:—the adhesive nature of the clay of which the pipe is made, causes it to adhere to the lip; at length the cuticle becomes torn off, and the continued irritation frets the sore into true cancerous disease.
  3. (transitive) To make rough, to agitate or disturb; to cause to ripple.
    to fret the surface of water
  4. (transitive) To cut through with a fretsaw, to create fretwork.
  5. (transitive, intransitive) To gnaw; to consume, to eat away.
    • 1677, Edward Browne, An Account of Several Travels Through a Great Part of Germany:
      The greatest trouble they have is by dust, which spoileth their Lungs and Stomachs, and frets their Skins.
    • 1881, Frederick William Robertson, "The Human Race" and Other Sermons:
      You may see the surges wear and fret away the basement of the cliff against which they dash themselves, and the mass of broken rock falls into the depth and disappears, and then it is carried away by the tide as it retires.
    • 1886, Transactions of the Pathological Society of London, page 159:
      Vegetations, massive, tough, and often calcareous have formed upon these valves, and as they were drive to and fro by the blood-stream have fretted the parts with which they came into contact, and aneurysm at these spots has been the frequent result.
  6. (transitive, intransitive) To be chafed or irritated; to be angry or vexed; to utter peevish expressions through irritation or worry.
  7. (intransitive) To be worn away; to chafe; to fray.
    A wristband frets on the edges.
    • 1893, A. Fraser-Macdonald, Our Ocean Railways:
      This, as Maury remarks, "suggested the idea that there was no running water nor abrading forces at play upon the bed of the deep sea, and consequently, if ever an electric cord were lodged upon the telegraphic plateau, there it would lie in cold abstraction; without anything to fret, chafe or wear, save alone the tooth of time."
  8. (intransitive) To be anxious, to worry.
    • 1813Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.
      "That is right. You could not have started a more happy idea, since you will not take comfort in mine. Believe her to be deceived, by all means. You have now done your duty by her, and must fret no longer."
      With this answer Elizabeth was forced to be content; but her own opinion continued the same, and she left him disappointed and sorry. It was not in her nature, however, to increase her vexations by dwelling on them. She was confident of having performed her duty, and to fret over unavoidable evils, or augment them by anxiety, was no part of her disposition.
    • 1882, The Living Age, volume 154, page 24:
      It fretted the young man even to think of such a possibility.
    • 1913, Joseph C[rosby] Lincoln, chapter 5, in Mr. Pratt’s Patients, New York, N.Y.; London: D. Appleton and Company, OCLC 35623305, OL 5535161W, pages 115–116:
      Of all the queer collections of humans outside of a crazy asylum, it seemed to me this sanitarium was the cup winner. But, after all, I shouldn't have expected nothing different. When you're well enough off so's you don't have to fret about anything but your heft or your diseases you begin to get queer, I suppose.
  9. (intransitive) To be agitated; to rankle; to be in violent commotion.
    Rancour frets in the malignant breast.
    • 1789, John Gillies, A View of the Reign of Frederick II. of Prussia:
      Beyond Tabor, the small river Luschnitze frets over craggy rocks, covered with thick woods, through which you continue your journey for three German miles []
    • 1864, Ocean Lays; or the sea, the ship, and the sailor:
      Conflicting tides that foam and fret / And high their mingled billows jet
    • 1891, F. E. Chadwick, Ocean Steamships, page 194:
      The sea frets itself around it and gurgles in the cavern; ledges and reefs abut on it.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

fret (plural frets)

  1. Agitation of the surface of a fluid by fermentation or some other cause; a rippling on the surface of water.
    • 1857, Margaret Oliphant, The Days of My Life: An Autobiography, page 313:
      The place was a little below Gravesend, quite out of the fret and bustle of the narrower river, and there was not even a steamboat pier to disturb the quiet of this cluster of harmless houses, though they watched upon their beach the passage of great navies down the greatest thoroughfare of England.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Addison to this entry?)
  2. Agitation of the mind marked by complaint and impatience; disturbance of temper; irritation.
    He keeps his mind in a continual fret.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Pope
      Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret.
    • 1837, The Quarterly Review, volume 58, page 524:
      It was our good fortune last autumn to escape from the feverish excitement and moral tension of this vast metropolis, from the hurry and fret of business, the glut of pleasure, the satiety of delight, the weariness of politics, and the exhausting duties of our critical function []
    • 1897, Beverly Carradine, The Sanctified Life, page 192:
      And the preacher who delivered the discourse went home and fretted; his wife, children and servants being witnesses. Sanctification takes the spirit of fret out of the heart.
    • 1980, Renaissance Papers, page 50:
      In her effort to cheer Rosalind, Celia compares these frets to burs, meaning the rough and prickly flowerheads: "They are but burs, cousin, thrown upon thee in holiday foolery."
  3. Herpes; tetter (any of various pustular skin conditions).
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Dunglison to this entry?)
    • 1860, Robert Jacob Jordan, Skin diseases and their remedies, page 57:
      Under this head are ranged varicella (chicken-pox), sudamina, eczema (red fret), herpes (fret), scabies (itch).
    • 1867, Mackenzie's Ten Thousand Receipts, page 112:
      In speaking of the medicine for gripes, or the flatulent colic sometimes termed fret, Mr. White mentions, domestic remedies may be employed when proper medicines cannot be procured in time.
  4. (mining, in the plural) The worn sides of riverbanks, where ores or stones containing them accumulate after being washed down from higher ground, which thus indicate to miners the locality of veins of ore.
    • 1802, “An account of the Tin Mines of Cornwall, and the manner of working them”, in The Philosophical Transactions Abridged, volume 1:
      Then we observe the frets in the banks of rivers that are newly made by any great land flood, which usually are then very clean, to see if happily we can discover any metalline stones in the sides and bottoms thereof, together with the cast of the country (i. e. any earth of a different colour from the rest of the bank), which is a great help to direct us which side or hill to search into.

Etymology 2[edit]

Frets on the neck of a guitar

From Middle English frēten (to adorn, decorate, ornament), from Old French freté,[2] freter, fretter (to fret (decorate with an interlacing pattern)), from Old French fret (from fraindre (to break), from Latin frangō (to break, shatter), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (to break)) + Old French -er (suffix forming verbs) (from Latin -āre, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃enh₂- (to burden, charge)).

Verb[edit]

fret (third-person singular simple present frets, present participle fretting, simple past and past participle fretted)

  1. (transitive) To ornament with relief (raised) work.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Spenser
      whose skirt with gold was fretted all about
    • (Can we date this quote?) Shakespeare
      Yon grey lines, / That fret the clouds, are messengers of day.
  2. (transitive) To variegate; to diversify
  3. (transitive, music) Musical senses.
    1. To fit frets onto (a musical instrument).
      to fret a guitar
    2. To press down the string behind a fret.
      • 2015, Drew Turrill, Don't Fret - Learn Lead Guitar the Easy Way, page 2:
        Note that right next to the headstock, the boxes may utilize some open notes in place of fretting with the pointer finger because the nut will effectively fret the notes for you (see video and tablature below).
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

fret (plural frets)

  1. An ornamental pattern consisting of repeated vertical and horizontal lines, often in relief.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Evelyn
      His lady's cabinet is adorned on the fret, ceiling, and chimney-piece with [] carving.
    • 1943, Homes and Gardens, volume 25, page 40:
      Remove spills from grill frets with a cloth and brush the frets with a stiff brush when dry and cold.
    • 2007, Nancy Edwards, A Corpus of Early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales:
      Square unit of nondescript frets which interlace in the centre to form a cruciform shape.
  2. (heraldic charge) A saltire interlaced with a mascle.
    • 1766, The Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Diapered:
      This chiefly obtains on bordures, which are diapered or fretted over, and the frets charged with things proper for bordures.
  3. (music) One of the pieces of metal, plastic or wood across the neck of a guitar or other string instrument that marks where a finger should be positioned to depress a string as it is plucked.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin fretum (channel, strait).

Noun[edit]

fret (plural frets)

  1. A channel, a strait; a fretum.
    • (Can we date this quote?) (Please provide the book title or journal name):
      But the farther you sayle West from Island towards the place, where this fret is thought to be, the more deepe are the seas: which giueth vs good hope of continuance of the same Sea with Mar del Sur, by some fret that lyeth betweene America, Groneland and Cataia.
    • 1753, Joseph Addison, Remarks on Several Parts of Italy:
      The Channel of this last River is white with Rocks, and the Surface, of it for a long Space, cover'd with Froth and Bubbles; for it runs all along upon the Fret, and is still breaking against the Stones that oppose its Passage.
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Of unknown origin.

Noun[edit]

fret (plural frets)

  1. (Northumbria) A fog or mist at sea, or coming inland from the sea.
    • 2008, Trezza Azzopardi, Winterton Blue: A Novel, page 14:
      The wind brings a fret off the ocean; not cold, but achingly damp.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ frēten, v.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 18 February 2018.
  2. ^ frēten, v.(2)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 18 February 2018.

Anagrams[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch furet, fret, from Old French furet, from Vulgar Latin *fūrittus, diminutive of Latin fūr (thief).

Noun[edit]

fret m (plural fretten, diminutive fretje n)

  1. ferret, Mustela putorius furo
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From English fret.

Noun[edit]

fret m (plural frets, diminutive fretje n)

  1. (music) fret, on the neck on for example a guitar

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch vrecht, from Old Dutch *frēht, from Proto-Germanic *fra- + *aihtiz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

fret m (plural frets)

  1. (shipping) Freight, cargo fees: the cost of transporting cargo by boat.
  2. (by extension) Rental of a ship, in whole or in part.
  3. Freight, cargo, payload (of a ship).
    • 2008 March 9, Reuters, “L'ATV Jules Verne né sous une bonne étoile”,
      Il n'y aura plus alors que les vaisseaux Progress russes pour emmener du fret à bord de la station spatiale, et les Soyouz pour les vols habités.
      So there will only be the Russian Progress shuttles to take freight aboard the space station, and the Soyuz for manned flights.

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

frēt

  1. Romanization of 𐍆𐍂𐌴𐍄

Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

fret

  1. past participle of fraindre

Noun[edit]

fret m (oblique plural frez or fretz, nominative singular frez or fretz, nominative plural fret)

  1. charge (demand of payment in exchange for goods or services)