Appendix:English pronunciation

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The following tables show the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and the English pronunciation (enPR) or American Heritage Dictionary (AHD) symbols that are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Canadian English (CanE), Australian English (AuE), and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English. An image of an old version of these tables is available.


For a fuller list of dialects, see International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects.

Non-rhotic dialects (RP, Australia, New Zealand) do not pronounce what was historically a syllable-final r; instead they have a schwa (/ə/), centering diphthong (ending in /ə̯/), or a long vowel (ending in ː). Rhotic dialects (General American and Canadian) pronounce the syllable-final r. Also, they make no vowel length distinction, so none of their vowels end in the length symbol ː.

This vowel table below lists the standard phonemic vowel notations in each accent and contains both monophthongs and diphthongs. Variations of notation within the same accent are also listed.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
ɑː ɑ ɒ, ɑ ɐː, aː ä father, palm
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː, aː är arm, bard, starry, start
æ, a æ æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran, trap[1][2]
æɹ, aɹ æɹ, ɛɹ ɛɹ æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry, marry, paragraph[3]
æɪ ā day, pain, hey, weight, face
ɛː, ɛə eɹ, ɛɹ ɛɹ iə, eə âr hair, there, fairy, vary, Mary, square[4][5][6][3]
ɛ e ĕ bed, egg, meadow, dress[7]
ɛɹ ĕr very, error, merry[3]
i ē ease, see, siege, ceiling, fleece
ɪə, ɪː ɪɹ ɪə iə, iːə îr near, here, serious[5][6]
ɪ, i, iː i (ē) city, happy, everyday, mania, geography[8]
ɪ ə ĭ sit, city, bit, will, kit
ɪ ə (ĭ) roses, spotted, secure
ɪɹ əɹ ĭr mirror, Sirius
(ʌɪ) ɑɪ ī my, rice, pie, hi, Mayan, price[9]
ɒ ɑ ɒ, ɑ ɔ, ɒ ŏ not, wasp, cot, lot
ɒɹ ɑɹ (rarely ) ɔɹ, ɒɹ ŏr borrow, sorry, sorrow, tomorrow (sometimes morrow)[10]
ɒɹ (regionally ɑɹ) ɔɹ, ɒɹ ŏr horror, forest, orange, quarrel, warrior[10][11][12]
ɔːɹ oːɹ ôr forum, glory
ɔː ôr horse, north,[5] hoarse, force[12]
ɔː ɔ (with the cot-caught merger: ɑ) ɒ, ɑ ô law, caught, thought[13]
əʊ əʉ, ɐʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope, know, toe, goat
ɔɪ oi boy, noise, choice
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot, wolf
ʊə, ɔː ʊɹ ʊə ʉə, ʉːə, oː o͝or, ŏŏr tour, tourism, stoor, cure[5]
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through, goose
æɔ æʊ ou house, now, tower, mouth
ʌ ɐ, a ŭ run, enough, up, other, strut[14]
ɜː ɜɹ ɜː øː ûr fur, blurry, bird, swerve, nurse[15][16]
ə ə Rosa's, about, oppose, comma
ə əɹ ə ə, ɐ, a ər winner, enter, error, doctor, letter[16]
  1. ^ RP /æ/ is sometimes transcribed /a/, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ See badlad split for more discussion of the vowel /æ/ in Australian English.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 In many accents in the United States and most accents in Canada, some or all of the vowels of Mary, marry, and merry are merged (the Marymarrymerry merger). If all three are merged, the resulting vowel is usually transcribed /ɛɹ/. In accents that distinguish all three, marry has /æɹ/, merry has /ɛɹ/, and Mary has /eɹ/.
  4. ^ An older alternative symbol to RP /ɛː/ is /eə/, reflecting the mid height of the vowel in earlier RP, and the fact that it was a centring diphthong.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 RP in the early 20th century had five centring diphthongs /ɑə/, /eə/, /ɪə/, /ɔə/, /ʊə/. Of these, /ɔə/ in force formerly contrasted with a long vowel /ɔː/ in north, thought. All of them are now generally pronounced as long monophthongs (pure vowels) /ɑː/, /ɔː/, /ɛː/, /ɪː/, /ɵː/ (monophthongization). However, many words that formerly had /ʊə/ (= /ɵː/) are now pronounced with /ɔː/. /ɑə/ monophthongized first, very early in the 20th century, then /ɔə/, and more recently the rest.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Many speakers of New Zealand English, especially younger speakers, make no distinction between the vowels of near and square; see nearsquare merger for more discussion.
  7. ^ /ɛ/ is sometimes transcribed /e/ for RP—for example, in the Collins English Dictionary.
  8. ^ In some dictionaries such as the Longman and the Collins English dictionaries, /i/ is used as an archiphoneme to represent the neutralization of the distinction between /ɪ/ and /iː/ in this position.
  9. ^ For RP, /aɪ/ is also transcribed (e.g. by Oxford University Press) as /ʌɪ/.
  10. 10.0 10.1 The words borrow, sorry, sorrow, tomorrow, and, for some speakers, morrow, and words derived from these, are most often pronounced with /ɑɹ/ (like start) in GenAm, while other words like horror and forest are more often pronounced with /oɹ/ (like horse, hoarse). See e.g. borrow, sorry, horror, forest in Merriam-Webster.
  11. ^ This sequence only occurs before another vowel. In General American accents influenced by some American English dialects, such as eastern coastal American English, the /ɑɹ/ in forest and origin is distinguished from the /oɹ/ in horse and north, unlike in General American. See Mergers of /ɒɹ-/ and /ɔːɹ-/ for more details.
  12. 12.0 12.1 General American /oɹ/ is alternatively transcribed in other dictionaries as [oɚ, ɔɚ] (Merriam-Webster), /ɔːr/ (Cambridge, Longman), /ɔr/ (Collins), and /oʊr/ ( Discussed at Wiktionary:Beer parlour/2022/November#the vowel of floor, horse, etc in GenAm.
  13. ^ In varieties of General American where the vowels of lot and thought are merged (cotcaught merger), the merged vowel is transcribed /ɑ/.
  14. ^ Some linguists, such as Geoff Lindsey, former phonetics lecturer at University College London, and Will Styler, professor of linguistics at UC San Diego, argue that /ʌ/ is not distinct from /ə/ in General American. Compare the note about the nurse vowel, /ɜɹ ~ əɹ/.
  15. ^ For RP, /əː/ is sometimes used as an alternative to /ɜː/—for example, in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Similarly, some linguists, such as Will Styler, professor of linguistics at UC San Diego, argue that /ɜɹ/ is not phonemically distinct from /əɹ/ in General American and Canadian English. The two are traditionally transcribed this way for consistency with the Received Pronunciation transcription system and because they differ in aspects like stress. The Merriam–Webster Dictionary uses non-IPA "ər" (corresponding to IPA [ɜɹ, əɹ] for both /ɜɹ/ and /əɹ/. Compare the note about the strut vowel, /ʌ/ ~ /ə/. This has been discussed at Wiktionary:Beer parlour/2022/November#/ɝ/ vs /ɚ/ in GenAm.

In order to allow Module:syllables to count syllables, the disyllabic sequence /iə/ must be transcribed with a period to mark the syllable break – /i.ə/ – so that it will not be confused with the New Zealand diphthong /iə/.

Syllable-final /ɹ/ is sometimes replaced with /ɚ/: /ðɛɚ/ instead of /ðɛɹ/. In order to keep Module:syllables from counting /ɚ/ as a syllable, add the non-syllabic diacritic: /ðɛɚ̯/.

Some speakers do not contrast unstressed /ɪ/ and /ə/, or the two sounds may be in free variation. Some sources use the symbol ⟨ɨ⟩ or ⟨⟩ to indicate the vowel which results from the merger of, or which may be pronounced as either of, these sounds.[1][2]

To be added or sorted into the table above: bath, cloth.


IPA enPR / AHD examples
b b but, web, rubble
t͡ʃ ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough, photo
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[3] hw which
d͡ʒ j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
l l left
l̩ (əl)[4] l little
m m man, animal, him
m̩ (əm)[4] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
n̩ (ən)[4] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[5] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure
  1. ^ C. Upton; Kretzschmar; Konopka; Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation for Current English, (2001, Oxford University Press)
  2. ^ Key to Pronunciation ((Can we date this quote?)) “Oxford English Dictionary”, in (please provide the title of the work)[1], Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Some phonologists dispute that /l̩/, /n̩/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
  5. ^ Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is usually not a trill. For further information, see Pronunciation of English /r/.

Fortis and lenis

The so-called voiceless and voiced obstruents are more properly fortis and lenis. Each member of a fortis–lenis pair is distinguished from the other by various articulatory and auditory features, but not consistently by voicing or lack of it.

In most dialects of English, the fortis (voiceless) stops and affricate /p t tʃ k/ are always voiceless, and are aspirated ([pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʰ]) at the beginning of a word and at the beginning of a stressed syllable: for example, RP today [tʰəˈdeɪ], chain [tʃʰeɪn] and account [əˈkʰaʊnt]. Vowels and sonorants immediately preceding syllable final fortis obstruents are usually pronounced shorter than before lenis obstruents, as in bet vs. bed and bent vs. bend. This phenomenon is known as pre-fortis clipping.

The lenis (voiced) stops and affricate /b d dʒ ɡ/ are always unaspirated. Lenis obstruents /b v ð d z dʒ ʒ ɡ/ are often devoiced at the beginning or end of words, but are fully voiced between voiced vowels and sonorants.

The fortis–lenis distinction is neutralized in a few cases.

Initial consonant clusters consisting of /s/ and a stop (as in spill, still, skill) are typically analyzed as having a fortis stop, which agrees with the spelling, but may be analyzed equally well as having a lenis stop (i.e., *sbill, *sdill, *sgill). The stop is both voiceless and unaspirated, and there is no additional phonetic feature that establishes it as either fortis or lenis.

In addition, some dialects have a sound change known as intervocalic alveolar flapping, in which /t d/ are both pronounced as an alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels or liquids and when not at the beginning of a stressed syllable. Further, in American English, /nt/ between vowels may be pronounced as a nasalized alveolar flap, [ɾ̃]. The fortis stop /t/ loses its distinctive voicelessness, and essentially becomes lenis. Flapping causes latter and ladder to both be pronounced as [ˈɫæɾɚ], and causes winter to be pronounced as [ˈwɪɾ̃ɚ], similar to winner [ˈwɪ̃nɚ].

Other symbols

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

ˈ (ˈa) ʹ () primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ (ˌa) ' (a') secondary stress when before the primary stress;
unstressed full vowel when after the primary stress, as in battlefield (phonetically [ˈbætəlˌfiːld], phonologically /ˈbætəlfiːld/)
a.a a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]
̃ (ã) ɴ () nasalization, as in croissant /ˈkɹwæsɒ̃/

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

See also


  • Gimson, A. C. (1980) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, 3rd edn. edition, London: Edward Arnold, →ISBN
  • Kenyon, John Samuel (1950) American Pronunciation, 10th edn. edition, Ann Arbor: George Wahr
  • Kenyon, John S.; Thomas A. Knott (1944/1953) A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, →ISBN
  • Wells, J. C. (2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 2nd edn. edition, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, →ISBN

External links