Appendix:English pronunciation

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English

The following tables show the IPA and enPR/AHD symbols which are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Canadian English (CanE), Australian English (AuE) and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English.

An image of an old version of these tables is available.

Vowels

This vowel table lists both monophthongs and diphthongs.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg RP Flag of the United States.svg GenAm Flag of Canada.svg CanE Flag of Australia.svg AuE Flag of New Zealand.svg NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ɐː ä father, palm
æ, a æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ, æɹ ɛɹ æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry[3]
eɪ, ɛi æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː är arm, bard
(ɛə) ɛː ɛɹ, eɹ ɛɹ âr hair, there[4][5][3]
ɛ e ĕ bed[6]
ɛɹ ĕr merry[3]
i ē ease, see
ɪ ɪ, i ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
ɪ̈ , ɨ ə ɘ roses
(ɪə) ɪː ɪɹ, iɹ ɪə, ɪː ĭr, îr near, here, serious[5]
aɪ, ɑi[7] (ʌɪ) ɑe ī my, rice
ɒ, ɔ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɒ, ɔ ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
(ɔə) ɔː, oː , ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse[5]
ɔː, oː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː, oː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ, oi ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
ʊ o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
(ʊə) ɵː ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr tour, tourism[5]
u ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
(ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
ʌ ɐ ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝ ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird[8]
ə ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[9]
  1. ^ RP /æ/ is sometimes transcribed /a/, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ See bad–lad split for more discussion of the vowel /æ/ in Australian English.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 In many accents in the United States and most accents in Canada, some or all of the vowels of Mary, marry, and merry are merged (the Marymarrymerry merger). If all three are merged, the resulting vowel is usually transcribed /ɛɹ/. In accents that distinguish all three, marry has /æɹ/, merry has /ɛɹ/, and Mary has /eɹ/.
  4. ^ An older alternative symbol to RP /ɛː/ is /eə/, reflecting the mid height of the vowel in earlier RP, and the fact that it was a centring diphthong.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 RP in the early 20th century had five centring diphthongs /ɑə eə ɪə ɔə ʊə/. Of these, /ɔə/ formerly contrasted with a long vowel /ɔː/. All of them are now generally pronounced as long monophthongs (pure vowels) /ɑː ɔː ɛː ɪː ɵː/ (monophthongization). However, many words that formerly had /ʊə/ (= /ɵː/) are now pronounced with /ɔː/. /ɑə/ monophthongized first, very early in the 20th century, then /ɔə/, and more recently the rest.
  6. ^ RP /ɛ/ is sometimes transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in the Collins English Dictionary.
  7. ^ /aɪ/ is also transcribed (e.g. by Oxford University Press) as /ʌɪ/
  8. ^ /əː/ is sometimes used as an alternative to /ɜː/, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press, and /ər/ as an alternative to /ɝ/, for example in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  9. ^ /ɚ/ is sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].

In order to allow Module:syllables to count syllables, the disyllabic sequence /iə/ must be transcribed with a period to mark the syllable break – /i.ə/ – so that it will not be confused with the New Zealand diphthong /iə/.

Consonants

IPA enPR / AHD examples
b b but, web, rubble
t͡ʃ ch chat, teach, nature
d d dot, idea, nod
f f fan, left, enough, photo
ɡ g get, bag
h h ham
ʍ (hw)[1] hw which
d͡ʒ j joy, agile, age
k k cat, tack
x ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
l l left
l̩ (əl)[2] l little
m m man, animal, him
m̩ (əm)[2] m spasm, prism
n n note, ant, pan
n̩ (ən)[2] n hidden
ŋ ng singer, ring
p p pen, spin, top, apple
ɹ[3] r run, very
s s set, list, ice
ʃ sh ash, sure, ration
t t ton, butt
θ th thin, nothing, moth
ð th this, father, clothe
v v voice, navel
w w wet
j y yes
z z zoo, quiz, rose
ʒ zh vision, treasure
  1. ^ Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Some phonologists dispute that /l̩/, /n̩/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
  3. ^ Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.

Fortis and lenis

The so-called voiceless and voiced obstruents are more properly fortis and lenis. Each member of a fortis–lenis pair is distinguished from the other by various articulatory and auditory features, but not consistently by voicing or lack of it.

In most dialects of English, the fortis (voiceless) stops and affricate /p t tʃ k/ are always voiceless, and are aspirated [pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʰ] at the beginning of a word and at the beginning of a stressed syllable. Vowels and sonorants immediately preceding syllable final fortis obstruents are usually pronounced shorter than before lenis obstruents, as in bet vs. bed and bent vs. bend. This phenomenon is known as pre-fortis clipping.

The lenis (voiced) stops and affricate /b d dʒ ɡ/ are always unaspirated. Lenis obstruents /b v ð d z dʒ ʒ ɡ/ are often devoiced at the beginning or end of words, but are fully voiced between voiced vowels and sonorants.

The fortis–lenis distinction is neutralized in a few cases.

Initial consonant clusters consisting of /s/ and a stop (as in spill, still, skill) are typically analyzed as having a fortis stop, which agrees with the spelling, but may equally well be analyzed as having a lenis stop (i.e., *sbill, *sdill, *sgill). The stop is both voiceless and unaspirated, and there is no additional phonetic feature that establishes it as either fortis or lenis.

In addition, American English has a sound change known as intervocalic alveolar flapping, in which /t d/ are both pronounced as an alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels or liquids and when not at the beginning of a stressed syllable, and /nt/ between vowels may be pronounced as a nasalized alveolar flap, [ɾ̃]. The fortis stop /t/ loses its distinctive voicelessness, and essentially becomes lenis. Flapping causes latter and ladder to both be pronounced as [ɫæɾɚ], and causes winter to be pronounced as [wɪ̃ɾ̃ɚ], minimally distinct from winner [wɪ̃nɚ].

Other symbols

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

IPA enPR
(AHD)
indicates
ˈ (ˈa) ʹ () primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
ˌ (ˌa) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress) before the primary stress,
tertiary stress after the primary stress as in battlefield /ˈbætəlˌfiːld/
a.a a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

Note

The enPR was previously called AHD, but was renamed per 2007-02/Renaming AHD and 2007-02/Renaming AHD (run-off).

See also

References

  • Gimson, A. C. (1980) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, 3rd edn. edition, London: Edward Arnold, ISBN 0-7131-6287-2
  • Kenyon, John Samuel (1950) American Pronunciation, 10th edn. edition, Ann Arbor: George Wahr
  • Kenyon, John S.; Thomas A. Knott (1944/1953) A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-047-7
  • Wells, J. C. (2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 2nd edn. edition, Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 0-582-36468-X

External links