Appendix:Ancient Greek words with English derivatives

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This is a list of Ancient Greek words with their derivatives in English. Each Ancient Greek word is shown in its citation form and in its root form. The citation form is the one commonly shown in dictionaries. The root form is the one that is often used to form compound words. Both citation form and root form are shown in classical transliteration. They are shown in polytonic orthography, an orthography that shows the breathings and fuller range of accents.

Contents

Α[edit]

(h)a

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἄβυσσος (ἄbussos) abussos ἄβυσσ- abyss- bottomless abyss, abyssal
ἀγγεῖον (angeîon) angeion ἄγγειο- angio- vessel angiosperm, angiocardiography
ἄγγελος (ἄngelos) angelos ἄγγελ- angel- messenger angel, evangelist
ἄγω (ἄgō) agein ἄγω- agō- to drive, lead pedagogue, anagoge, mystagogue
ἅγιος (ἅgios) hagios ἁγιο- hagio- holy hagiography
ἄγκυρα (ἄnkura) ankyra ἄγκυρ- anchor- anchor anchoring, anchorage
ἀγορά (agorá) agora ἀγορ- agor- marketplace agoraphobia
ἀγρός (ἀgrós) agros ἀγρο- agro- tilled land agrobiology, agronomics, agriculture, agrology
ἀγωνία (agōnía) agōnia ἀγωνι- agōn- agony agonize, antagonistic, agony
ἀήρ (aḗr) aēr ἀέρο- aero-
air-
air aerodynamics, anaerobic
airplane
αθλητής (athlētḗs) athlētēs αθλητ- athlet- contestant in the games athlete, athletics
αἷμα (haîma) haima αἳμ- em-
hem-
blood anemia, anemic, hemophilia, hemorrhage
αἰσθητικός (aisthētikós) aisthētikos αἰσθη- aisthē- to perceive aesthetic, anaesthesia
Ἀκαδημία (Ἀkadēmía) Akadēmia Ἀκαδημ- akadēm- the school where Plato taught,
the field of Academos
academy, academic
ἄκανθος (ἄkanthos) akanthos ἄκανθ- akanth- thorn plant acanthous, acanthocephala
ἀκάρι (ἀkári) akari ἀκαρ- akar- a kind of mite acarid, acariasis
ἀκμή (ἀkmḗ) akmē ἀκ- ac- highest point acme
ἀκόλουθος (ἀkólouthos) akoluthos ἀκόλουθ- akoluth- follower anacoluthon
ἀκούω (ἀkoúō) akouein ἀκουστικ- acoustic- to hear acoustics, acoustic nerve
ἄκρον (ἄκρον) akron ἀκρο- acro- edge, topmost acronym, acrobat
ἀκτίς (ἀktís) aktis ἀκτινo- aktino- ray actinometer, actinozoa, actinium
ἀλέξω (ἀléksō) alexein ἀλεξ- alex- to ward off Alexander, alexipharmic
ἀλληγορέω (allēgoréō) allēgorein ἀλληγορ- allēgor- to interpret allegorically allegory
ἄλληλον (ἄllēlon) allēlon ἀλληλο- allēlo- of one another allelomorph, parallel
ἄλλος (ἄllos) allos ἀλλο- allo-
alle-
other, different allotropy, allocholesterol
allergy
ἅλς (ἅλς) hals ἁλ- hal- salt halogen
ἄλφα (ἄlpha) alpha ἄλφα- alpha- alpha alphabet
ἀλώπηξ (ἀlṓpēks) alōpēx ἀλωπ- alop- fox alopecia
ἀμαύρωσις (ἀmaúrōsis) amaurōsis ἀμαυρω- amauro- blacken amaurosis fugax
ἀμβλύς (ἀmblús) amblus ἀμβλυ- ambly- dim amblyopia, amblygonite
ἄμβροτος (ἄmbrotos) ambrotos ἀμβρο- ambro- immortal ambrosia, ambrotype
ἄμβων (ἄmbōn) ambōn ἀμβω- ambo- raised edge ambo
ἀμμωνιακός (ἀmmōniakós) ammōniakos ἀμμονια- ammōnia- from Ammōn ammonia, ammoniacal
ἀμνησία (ἀmnēsía) amnēsia ἀμνησ- amnēs- oblivion amnesia, amnesty
ἀμνός (ἀmnós) amnos ἀμν- amn- lamb amnion, amniotic
ἀμοιβή (ἀmoibḗ) amoebē ἀμοιβή- amoeb- change amoeba, amoebic
ἄμορφος (ἄmorphos) amorphos ἄμορφ- amorph- shapeless amorphous, amorphism
ἄμυλον (ἄmulon) amylon ἄμυλ- amyl- starch amyl, amyl alcohol
ἀμφιβάλλω (ἀmphibállō) amphiballein ἀμφιβo- amphibo- to throw on either side, to doubt amphibole, amphibology
ἀμφί (ἀmphí) amphi ἀμφι- amphi- on both sides amphibious, amphioxus
ἀμφίβολος (ἀmphíbolos) amphibolos ἀμφιβολ- amphibol- doubtful amphibole, amphibolite
ἀμφιθέατρον (ἀmphithéatron) amphitheatron ἀμφιθέατ- amphitheat- theater amphitheater, amphitheatric
ἀμφικτυονία (ἀmphiktuonía) Amphiktyonia ἀμφικτυονι- amphiktyoni- theater Amphictyony, amphictyonic
ἀμφορεύς (ἀmphoreús) amphoreus Ἀμφορ- amphor- bearer amphora
ἀμφότερος (ἀmphóteros) amphoteros ἀμφότερ- amphoter- each of two amphoteric
ἀνά (ἀná) ana ἀνα- ana- again, backward, upward anabolism, anachronism, anaplasia
ἀναθεματίζω (ἀnathematízō) anathematizein ἀναθεμα- anathema- ban, curse, or excommunication anathema, anathematize
ἀνάκλισις (ἀnáklisis) anaklisis ἀνακλει- anakli- to lean back anaclitism, anaclisis
ἀναλέγω (ἀnalégō) analegein ἀναλε- anale- to gather analects
ἀναληπτικός (ἀnalēptikós) analeptikos ἀναληπτ- analept- restorative analemma, analeptic
ἀνάλογος (ἀnálogos) analogos ἀνάλογ- analog- proportionate analog, analogy
ἀναλύω (ἀnalúō) analuein ἀνάλυ- analy- to loosen, to simplify analysis, analytical
ἄναρθρος (ἄnarthros) anarthros ἀναρθρ- anarthr- not articulated anarthria, anarthrous
ἄναρχος (ἄnarkhos) anarkhos ἀναρχ- anarch- without a ruler anarchy, anarchism
ἀνατολή (ἀnatolḗ) anatolē ἀνατολ- anatol- East Anatolia, Anatolian
ἀνατομία (ἀnatomía) anatomia ἀνατομι- anatomi- dissection anatomy, anatomical, anatomist
ἀνατρέπω (ἀnatrépō) anatrepein ἀνατρεπ- anatrep- to reverse anatropous
ἀναχρονισμός (ἀnakhronismós) anachronismos ἀναχρονισ- anachronis- wrong time reference anachronistic, anachronism
ἄνεμος (ἄnemos) anemos ἄνεμο- anemo- wind anemometer, anemone
ἀνήρ (ἀνήρ) anēr ἀνδρ- andr- man (male human) androgen, android
ἄνθος (ἄνθος) anthos ἀνθο- antho- flower anthology, chrysanthemum
ἄνθρωπος (ἄνθρωπος) anthrōpos ἀνθρωπο- anthrōpo- human being anthropology, anthropomorphism
ἀνιέναι (ἀniénai) anienai ἀνι- ani- to go up anion
ἄνισος (ἄnisos) anisos ἀνισο- aniso- unequal, dissimilar anisotropic, anisometric, anisometropia
ἄνοδος (ἄnodos) anodos ἄνοδ- anod- way up anode, anodising
ἀντί (ἀntí) anti ἀντι- anti- opposite, counter antidote, antimatter, antiaircraft
ἀντιτίθημι (ἀntitíthēmi) antitithenai ἀντιθ- antith- to oppose antithesis, antithetical
ἀντίφωνος (ἀntíphōnos) antiphonos ἀντιφων- antiphon- sounding in answer antiphon, anthem
ἄντρον (ἄntron) antron ἀντρ- antr- cave, cavity antrum
ἀντωνυμω (ἀntōnumō) antōnymein ἀντωνυμ- antonym- to have an opposite denomination antonym, antonymous
ἀνώμαλος (ἀnṓmalos) anōmalos ἀνώμαλ- anōmal- uneven anomaly
ἀνώνυμος (ἀnṓnumos) anōnumos ἀνόνυμ- anonym- nameless anonymity, anonymous
ἄξιος (ἄksios) axios ἀξιο- axio- worthy axiology, axiom
ἄξων (ἄksōn) axōn ἀξο- axo-
axi-
axis axoneme , axoplasm, axisymmetric
ἀόριστος (ἀóristos) aoristos ἀοριστ- aorist- indefinite aoristic, aorist
ἀορτή (ἀortḗ) aortē ἀορτ- aort- the great artery aortic, aorta
ἀπάτη (ἀpátē) apatē ἀπατ- apat- deceit apatite, apatosaurus
ἁπλούς (ἁploús) haplous ἁπλο- haplo- single haploid, haplodiploid
ἀπό (ἀpó) apo ἀπο- apo- away from apology, apostrophe, apocrypha
ἀπόγειον (ἀpógeion) apogeion ἀπογει- apogei- far from the earth apogee, apogean
ἀποκαλύπτω (ἀpokalúptō) apokaluptein ἀποκαλυπ- apocalyp- to reveal apocalypse
ἀποκόπτω (ἀpokóptō) apokoptein ἀποκoπ- apokop- to cut apocopation, apocopate
ἀπολογία (ἀpología) apologia ἀπολογ- apolog- apology apology, apologize, apologue
ἀπόμιξις (ἀpómiksis) apomixis ἀπομιξ- apomix- without mixing apomixis, apomictic
ἀποπλήσω (ἀpoplḗsō) apoplēssein ἀποπλη- apople- to cripple by a stroke apoplexy, apoplectic
ἀποστάτης (ἀpostátēs) apostatēs ἀποστατ- apostat- defector apostate, apostasy
ἀποστέλλω (ἀpostéllō) apostellein ἀποστ- apost- to send apostle, apostolic
ἀράχνη (ἀράχνη) arakhnē ἀραχνη arakhnē- spider arachnid
ἄργιλλος (ἄrgillos) argillos ἀργιλ- argil- clay argillite, argillaceous
Ἂρης (Ἂrēs) Arēs ἀρεο- areo- Mars areocentric, areology
ἀριθμός (ἀrithmós) arithmos ἀριθμ- arithm- number arithmetic, logarithm
ἄριστος (ἄριστος) aristos ἀριστο- arist- best aristocracy
ἁρμονία (ἁrmonía) harmonia ἁρμονι- armoni- agreement, harmony harmony, enharmonic
ἁρρυθμία (ἁrrhuthmía) arrhuthmia ἁρρυθμ- arrythm- lack of rhythm arrhythmia, arrhythmic
ἀρχαῖος (ἀρχαῖος) arkhaios ἀρχαιο- arkhaio- ancient archaeology, archetype
ἀρχή (ἀρχή) arche ἀρχη- archi- chief, authority archbishop, anarchy
ἀρχιτέκτων (ἀrkhitéktōn) arkhitektōn ἀρχιτεκτ- architect- chief builder architecture, architect
ἄρωμα (ἄrōma) arōma ἀρωμα- aroma- spice aroma, aromatic compounds
ἀσθένεια (ἀsthéneia) astheneia ἀσθεν- asthen- weakness asthenia, asthenopia
ἀσπάραγος (ἀspáragos) aspharagos ἀσπαραγ- asparag- asparagus asparagine acid
ἀσπίς (ἀspís) aspis ἀσπ- asp- shield asp
ἄσθμα (ἄsthma) asthma ἀσθμα- asthma- asthma asthmatic
ἄσυλον (ἄsulon) asulon ἀσυλ- asyl- sanctuary asylum
ἀσφυξία (ἀsphuksía) asphuxia ἀσφυξ- asphyx- stopping of the pulse asphyxiant
ἀστήρ (ἀστήρ) astēr ἀστερ- aster- star asteroid, asterisk, disaster
ἄστρον (ἄστρον) astron ἀστρο- astro- constellation astronomy, astronaut
ἀτμόσφαιρα (ἀtmósphaira) atmosphaera ἀτμοσφαιρ- atmospher- vapor + sphere atmosphere, atmospheric
Ἄτλας (Átlas) Atlas ἀτλα- atla- name of a Titan atlas, Atlantic
ἄτομος (ἄτομος) atomos ἀτομ- atom- un + cut atomic, atomizer
αὐθεντικός (αὐthentikós) authentikos αὐθεντικ- authentic- original authentication, authentic
αὐστηρός (αὐstērós) austēros αὐστηρ- auster- harsh, bitter austerity
αὐταρχία (αὐtarkhía) autarchia αὐταρχ- autarch- absolute governing autarchy, autarchic
αὐτάρκεια (αὐtárkeia) autarkia αὐτάρκ- autark- self-sufficiency autarky
αὐξάνω (αὐksánō) auxanein αὐξ- aux- to increase auxin, auxesis,
αὐτός (αὐτός) autos αὐτο- auto- self (reflexive pronoun) autonomy, automatic
ἀφαιρέω (ἀphairéō) aphairein ἀφαιρ- apher- take away apheresis, hemaphairesis
ἁψίς (ἁpsís) hapsis ἁψ- aps- arch apse, apsidal

Β[edit]

b

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
βάρβαρος (bárbaros) barbaros βαρβαρο- barbaro- stranger, non-Greek barbarian
βαρύς (barús) barus βαρυ- baru- heavy baritone, baryon, hyperbaric
βίος (bíos) bios βιο- bio- life biology, amphibian, symbiosis
βραχύς (brakhús) brachus βραχυ- brachu- short brachycephalic

Γ[edit]

g

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
grc|γαῖα]], [[γῆ}} gaia, gē γεα- gea- earth geology, Gaia, geometry
γάμος (gámos) gamos γαμ- gam- marriage polygamy, gamete
γέννησις (génnēsis) genesis γέν- gen- to give birth, beget genesis, genetic
γιγνώσκω (gignṓskō) gignōskein γνῶ- gnō-
gnē-
to know diagnostic, agnostic
γίγας (gígas) gigas γιγ- giga- huge, enormous giga- (prefix) as in gigabyte, gigantic, giant
γράφω (gráphō) graphein γραφ- graph- to write graphic, graphite, geography
γυνή (gunḗ) gunē γυναικ- gunaik- woman polygyny, gynecology misogynist

Δ[edit]

d

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
δῆμος (dêmos) dēmos δημο- dēmo- district, its inhabitants, commoners democracy, demographic
δόξα (dóksa) doxa δοξ- dox- glory, opinion doxology, orthodox, paradox
δράσις (drásis) drasis δρασ- dras- action drastic, anadrastic

Ε[edit]

(h)e

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἒθνικος (èthnikos) ethnikos εθνικ- ethnic people, tribe ethnicity, ethnic
εἰκών (eikṓn) eikon εἰκών icon icon, picture, painting icon, iconicity, iconoclast
ἕλιξ (héliks) helix ἑλικ- helic- helix helix, helicopter, helicity
ἑπτά (heptá) hepta ἑπτα- hepta- seven heptarchy, heptagon, heptameter
ἔργον (érgon)  ?  ?  ? work energetic, energize, energy, ergonomic, ergonomics, George, synergy, synergism, synergistic
εὖ () eu εύ- eu- well eudemonia, eulogy, euphemism, euphoria

Ζ[edit]

z

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ζῷον (zōîon) zōōon ζωο- zōo- animal zoology
ζευγνῡμι (zeugnūmi) zeugnumi ζευγμ- zeugma to yoke zeugma

Η[edit]

(h)ē

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἡγεμών (hēgemṓn) hēgemōn ἡγεμον- hēgemon- leader hegemony
ἥλιος (hḗlios) hēlios ἡλιο- hēlio- sun / sun-god helium, heliotropic, heliocentric, perihelion
ἠώς (ēṓs) ēōs ἠο- ēo- dawn Eocene

Θ[edit]

th

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
θεός (theós) theos θε- the- a god theology, atheism
θερμός (thermós) thermos θερμ- therm- hot hypothermiaisotherm, thermoelectric, Thermos (brand of vacuum flask))

Ι[edit]

(h)i

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ἰατρός (iatrós) iatros ἰατρο- iatro- physician iatrogenicpsychiatrist
ἴδιος (ídios) idios ἰδι- idi- one’s own, private idiolect, idiom, idiosyncracy
ἱερός (hierós) hieros ἱερο- hiero- sacred hierarchy, hieroglyph
ἰχθύς (ikhthús) ikhthus ἰχθυ- ikhthu- fish ichthyology, ikhthus

Κ[edit]

k, c

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
κακός (kakós) kakos κακο- kako- bad cacophony
κλέπτω (kléptō) kleptō κλεπτ- klept- to steal kleptocracy, kleptomaniac
κλῶνος (klônos) klōnos κακο- klōn- branch, twig clone, cloning
κόσμος (kósmos) kosmos κοσμ- kosm- order, the universe, jewell cosmography, cosmetic, microcosm
κράτος (krátos) kratos κρατ- krat- power, rule autocrat, democracy, bureaucracy
κρίνω (krínō) krinō  ?  ? to separate; to order; to judge; etc. crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism, criticize, critique
κυβερνάω (kubernáō)  ?  ?  ? to steer, drive, govern cybernetics, govern, governance, governess, government, governor, gubernatorial
κύβος (kúbos) kubos  ?  ? cube, die cube, cubic, cubical, cubism, cubist, cuboid
κύκλος (kúklos) kuklos  ?  ? circle, ring acyclic, anticyclone, bicycle, bicyclic, bike, cycle, cyclic, cycloid, cycloidal, cyclone, encyclical, encyclopedia, encyclopedic, encyclopedist, epicycle, epicyclic, epicycloid, hypocycloid, monocyclic, motorcycle, polycyclic, recyclable, recyclability, recycle, tricyclic, unicycle

Λ[edit]

l

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
λαμβάνω (lambánō) lambanō  ?  ? to take acatalepsy, acataleptic, astrolabe, catalepsy, cataleptic, dilemma, epilepsy, epileptic, lemma, lemmatization, lemmatize, monosyllable, nympholepsy, nympholept, polysyllable, sublemma, syllabary, syllabic, syllabification, syllabify, syllable, tetralemma, trilemma
λίθος (líthos) lithos λιθο- litho- stone lithography, neolithic
λόγος (lógos) logos λογο- logo- thought, word eulogytheology, logic, logorrhea

Μ[edit]

m

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
μακρός (makrós) makros μακρο- makro- long macron, macrobiotic
μέγας (mégas) megas μεγ- mega- big, large mega- (prefix), as in megabyte
μέλας (mélas) melas μελαν- melan- pigmented, black, ink melanin, melanoma, Melanesia
μέταλλον (métallon) metallon μεταλλ- metal- metal medal, metallic, metalloid
μικρός (mikrós) mikros μικρο- mikro- small microphone, microscope
μνῆστις (mnêstis) mnēstis μνη- mne- memory amnesia, amnesty, mnemonic
μόνος (mónos) monos μονο- mono- alone, solitary, forsaken monotony, monolog, monk
Μοῦσα (Moûsa) Mousa μουσ- mous- a patron goddess of the arts muse, music, museum
μωρός (mōrós) mōros μωρο- mōro- dull, foolish, stupid, slow moron, oxymoron

Ν[edit]

n

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ναυτικός (nautikós) nautikos ναυτ- naut- sailor, ship nautical, astronaut
νέος (néos) neos νεο- neo- new, young neon, neologism

Ξ[edit]

x

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ξένος (ksénos) xenos ξενο- xeno- strange, stranger, guest xenophobia
ξύλον (ksúlon) xulon ξυλ- xul- wood xylophone, xylem

Ο[edit]

(h)o

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
οἶνος (oînos) oinos οἶνο- oeno- wine oenophile, oenomel
ὁδός (hodós) hodos ὁδο- hodo- road hodometer, odometer
ὀλίγος (olígos) oligos ὀλιγο- oligo- few, little oligarchy, oligopoly
ὁμός (homós) homos ὁμο- homo- same homogenized, homonym, homosexual
ὅμοιος (hómoios) homoios ὅμοιο- homoio- similar homeopathy
ὀξύς (oksús) oxus ὀξυ- oxu- sharp, pointed, acid, keen oxygen, oxymoron, oxycephaly
ὄργανον (órganon) organon ὄργαν- organ- an instrument, tool, implement organ, organelle, organic, organist, organism, organization, organize, organon
ὀρθός (orthós) orthos ὀρθο- ortho- straight, correct, right orthography, orthogonal, orthopedic, orthodox

Π[edit]

p

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
πάθος (páthos) pathos παθ- path- suffering, disease pathology, pathos, telepathy, apathy, sympathy
παιδεία (paideía) paideia παιδεια- paideia- education, culture encyclopaedia
παῖς (paîs) pais παιδ- paid- boy, child paediatrician, pedophilia
παλαιος (palaios) palaios παλεο- paleo- old paleontology
πᾶς (pâs) pas παν, πανσο;- pan-, panto- all, complete pantheism, pantomime
πατήρ (patḗr) pater πατρ- patr- father patriarch
περί (perí) peri περι- peri around perimeter, periscope
πόλος (pólos) polοs πολ- pol- axis, sky North Pole, polar, polarize
πολύς (polús) polus πολυ- polu- many, much polygon, Polynesia, polyp, polytonic
πρόγραμμα (prógramma) programma πρόγραμμ- programm- program/schedule programmer, multiprogramming

Ρ[edit]

r(h)

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ῥεύμα (rheúma) rheuma ῥεύμ- rheum- a flowing, rheum rheumatism, rheum
ῥίς (rhís) rhis ῥιν- rhin- nose rhinoceros, rhinoplasty

Σ[edit]

s

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
σαῦρος (saûros) sauros σαυρο- sauro- lizard dinosaur
σκοπός (skopós) skopos σκοπ- skop- observer scope, bishop, telescope
σοφία (sophía) sophia σοφια- sophia- knowledge, wisdom philosophy, sophistry

Τ[edit]

t

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
τῆλε (têle) tēle τηλε- tēle- distant telephone, telepathy
τόξον (tókson) toxon τοξ- tox- archer’s bow, poison toxin, toxophily

Υ[edit]

(h)u, (h)y

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ὕδωρ (húdōr) hudor ὑδρο- hudro- water hydrodynamics, hydrolysis
ὕπνος (húpnos) hupnos ὑπνο- hupno- sleep hypnotism

Φ[edit]

ph

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
φιλία (philía)
φίλος (phílos)
philia,
philos
φιλια-
φιλο
-
philia-,
philo-
friendship
friend
philia,
Philadelphia, philosophy
φόβος (phóbos) phobos φοβο- phobo- irrational fear
fear
phobia, Phobos,
φυτόν (phutón) phuton φυτο- phuto- plant neophyte
φωνή (phōnḗ) phōnē φωνη- phōnē- voice microphone, phone, phoneme, phonemic, phonetic, phonetics, phonograph, telephone

Χ[edit]

kh, ch

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
χαίτη (khaítē) khaitē χαιτη- khaitē- loose, flowing hair polychaete
χρόνος (khrónos) khronos χρον- khrono- time chronology, chronometer, anachronism

Ψ[edit]

ps

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ψυχή (psukhḗ) psukhē ψυχη- psukhē- spirit, mind, soul psyche, psychology

Ω[edit]

(h)ō

Citation form Root form Meaning English Derivative
ᾠόν (ōión) ōon ὠο- ōo- egg oocyte, oology
ὥρα (hṓra) hōra ὡρα- hōra- season, hour horoscope

See also[edit]

External links[edit]