弟子

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Chinese[edit]

younger brother
 
child; son; (noun suffix)
child; son; (noun suffix); small thing; seed; egg; 1st earthly branch; 11 pm-1 am; midnight
simp. and trad.
(弟子)
alternative forms 弟仔 Min Bei
anagram 子弟

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Initial () (7) (7) (13)
Final () (39) (39) (19)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () IV IV III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/deiX/ /deiH/ /t͡sɨX/
Pan
Wuyun
/deiX/ /deiH/ /t͡sɨX/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɛiX/ /dɛiH/ /t͡sieX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dɛjX/ /dɛjH/ /t͡sɨX/
Li
Rong
/deiX/ /deiH/ /t͡siəX/
Wang
Li
/dieiX/ /dieiH/ /t͡sĭəX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱieiX/ /dʱieiH/ /t͡siX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ dejX › ‹ tsiX › ‹ tsiX ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁəjʔ/ /*[ts]əʔ/ /*tsəʔ/
English younger brother 1st earthly branch child; gentleman, master

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
No. 2294 2297 17857
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*diːlʔ/ /*diːls/ /*ʔslɯʔ/
Notes

Noun[edit]

弟子

  1. disciple; follower
  2. (dialectal Mandarin, Min Bei, dialectal Wu) younger brother

Synonyms[edit]

  • (disciple):
edit

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (弟子):
  • Japanese: 弟子(でし) (deshi)
  • Korean: 제자 (弟子, jeja)
  • Vietnamese: đệ tử (弟子)

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
てい
Grade: 2

Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 弟子 (MC deiX t͡sɨX). Probably the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

弟子(ていし) (teishi

  1. a disciple, an apprentice
  2. (Buddhism) on a mala or Buddhist rosary, the ten small beads closest to the end of the portion that hangs free from the largest bead

Anagrams[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2

Grade: 1
on’yomi

Appears to be a shift from teishi above, adopting the 慣用音 (kan'yōon, customary reading) of de for the first character. This is now the most common reading for the disciple, apprentice sense.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

弟子(でし) (deshi

  1. an apprentice, a disciple

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
おと
Grade: 2
こ > ご
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (oto, younger, cognate with (otōto, younger brother), itself from oto + (hito, person)) +‎ (ko, child).[2] The ko changes to go as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

弟子(おとご) (otogo

  1. the youngest child
  2. short for 弟子月 (otogo-zuki, “December” in the lunar calendar)
Synonyms[edit]

(youngest child):

(December):

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

弟子 (jeja) (hangeul 제자)

  1. Hanja form? of 제자 (disciple; pupil).

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

弟子

  1. Hán tự form of đệ tử (disciple; underling).