Appendix:List of Proto-Pakanic reconstructions

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The following list of 213 reconstructed Proto-Pakanic forms is from Hsiu (2016).

List[edit]

No. Gloss Proto-Pakanic Pre-Pakanic Bolyu Bugan (Nala) Bugan (Manlong)
1 hand *ti tjɔ3ti3; ti3 tie⁵⁵ tje⁴⁴
2 left *ɕit < *cit ɕit7 pə⁰ɕi̱⁵⁵ pɯ⁵⁵ɕi̱⁵⁵
3 right *cam tɕəm3 pə⁰ɕa⁵⁵ pɯ⁵⁵ɕa⁵⁵
4 foot *ʑoŋʔ < *ɟoŋʔ ʑɔŋ3 ʑuŋ³¹ ʑo̱ŋ⁵⁵
5 walk, to *ɲaʔ ɲe6 ɲa̱⁵⁵ ɲa̱³¹
6 skin *ɓuŋ < *ɓur mbuŋ3 buŋ⁵⁵/³¹ mboŋ⁵⁵
7 belly *puŋʔ puŋ4ɕi5 ɕe⁴⁴po̱ŋ²⁴
8 bone *ʑaʔ < *ɟaʔ pau4ʑe3 ɕa³⁵ ʑa̱²⁴
9 intestines *ɕɛ < *cɛ laːi6ɕi5 ŋguaŋ¹³ɕɛ¹³ ŋguaŋ²⁴ɕe²⁴
10 liver *ɓuːŋ mbuːŋ3 bou³¹ mbou³¹
11 breast *ɲinʔ ɲin5 nɛ³⁵ nɛ̱⁵⁵ 'milk'
12 fear, to *ʑu < *ju ʑu6 ɕɔ³³ ɕo⁴⁴
13 blood *saːm saːm5 sɑ³³ sa⁴⁴
14 head *ɓuʔ mbu3 pə⁵⁵bop³¹ mbo̱u³¹
15 hair (of head) *suk suk7mbu3 sa̱ŋ⁵⁵ sa̱ŋ³¹mbo̱u³¹
16 feather *suk suk7 sa̱ŋ³⁵ sa̱ŋ³¹
17 nose *maŋʔ lɔŋ2mi6 pə⁵⁵mã̱³¹ pɯ⁵⁵maŋ³¹
18 smell, to (detect odor) *tseŋʔ < *ceŋʔ tsan5 tsa̱n³⁵ tse̱ŋ²⁴
19 mouth *tɔk lɔŋ2tɔk7 tũ̱i⁵⁵ to̱ŋ³¹
20 tongue *lim lɔ6lim4 pə⁵⁵lai³³ pu⁵⁵lei⁴⁴
21 laugh, to *mjoʔ mi1 mi̱o³¹ mjo̱³¹
22 weep, to *ʑaːm < *jaːm ʑaːm4 ʑɑ³³ ʑa⁴⁴
23 vomit, to *ʔuːk ʔu:k7 a̱u⁵⁵ a̱u³¹
24 spit, to *ɓjoʔ < ɓroʔ mbjɔ3 mde̱¹³ bdei²⁴
25 eat, to *tsɔʔ < *cɔʔ tsɔ3 tso̱u³¹ tsṵ³¹
26 cook, to *taŋ taŋ3 taŋ³¹ taŋ³¹
27 bite, to *canʔ < *camʔ tɕən5 tsa̱¹³ tɕa̱²⁴
28 ear *caːiʔ lɔ6tɕjaːi3 pə⁵⁵tsɛ³⁵ pɯ⁵⁵tɕɛ̱²⁴
29 eye *mat ɬaːi5mat8 pə⁵⁵mɛ̱³³ pɯ⁵⁵mɛ̱³¹
30 sleep, to *ɲaŋʔ ɲəŋ4 naŋ³³ na̱ŋ⁴⁴
31 dream *boː paːu2 mbo³¹ mbo³¹
32 sit, to *ɲam ʑam5 ɲa³³ ɲa⁴⁴
33 stand, to *ɲɔʔ nau2 ɲɔ̱⁵⁵/¹³ ɲo̱³¹
34 male; man *pauʔ qa0puɔ3 pə⁵⁵pau⁵⁵ pɯ⁴⁴po̱u³¹
35 female; woman *mau qa0muɔ4 pə⁵⁵mou³³ pɯ⁴⁴mou⁴⁴
36 house *ɲɔʔ ɲɔ2 ɲu⁵⁵ ɲo̱u⁵⁵
37 name *maŋ mi6 pə⁵⁵maŋ³³ maŋ³¹
38 rope *caʔ tɕʰɔ6ʔɔ5 tɕa³³ tɕa̱⁴⁴
39 needle *gaːp qaːp8 ŋga̱⁵⁵ ŋga²⁴
40 hunt, to *ɕuʔ tsi4hu1 tsɔ̱³¹ɕɔ̱³⁵ dou⁴⁴ɕua̱²⁴
41 shoot, to *taŋʔ tɯ2 taŋ³¹ te̱i²⁴
42 pound, to *tan < *tam tan5 tɑn³⁵ ten²⁴
43 throw, to *vaŋ vəŋ2 pʰan³¹ pʰen³¹
44 fall, to *lat lat8 la̱i⁵⁵ lɛ̱i³¹
45 dog *tsɔ < *cɔ tsu5 tsau³³ tsau⁴⁴
46 bird *sanʔ san5 sau³³ sa̱u⁴⁴
47 egg *tʰam tʰam1 tʰam³³ tʰen⁵⁵
48 wing *kaŋ qaŋ3 kaŋ⁵⁵mba̱n³⁵ kaŋ⁵⁵
49 meat *ɕjo < *cjo ɕjɔ5 ɕu³³ ɕou⁴⁴
50 oil *ɲi ɲi4 ɲi³³ ɲi⁴⁴
51 louse *ben pi5 mban³³ mbɛn⁴⁴
52 mosquito *ɲau ɕaːp7ʑau5 ɲa³¹ ɲua³¹
53 fish *kɔ qɔ5 se⁵⁵qou³³ ɕi̱³¹kou⁴⁴
54 leaf *lɔʔ lɔ6ʔɔ5 lo̱u¹³ lo̱u²⁴
55 root *ɣiʔ < *riʔ ʑi6 ɣa̱ɯ¹³ ɣɯ²⁴
56 water *ɗa nde5 da³⁵ nda²⁴
57 salt *mjaːn mjaːn1 mia³¹ mja³¹
58 sky *kɔ qɔ3 pə⁰qou⁵⁵ pu⁴⁴ku⁴⁴
59 month *maːi maːi1 mai⁵⁵ mei⁴⁴
60 star *bɔʔ pau4 bɔ⁵⁵mo³³ mbo̱⁴⁴mo⁴⁴
61 rain *kʰɔ qɔ3muɔ2; nde5qo3 kʰou³⁵ kʰau⁵⁵
62 wind *tʰaŋ qa3təŋ3 tʰaŋ³⁵ tʰaŋ⁵⁵
63 heavy *maːiʔ maːi1 mo̱³¹ mo̱³¹
64 light *taːnʔ taːn4 ndɑ̱³³ nda̱⁴⁴
65 smoke *kui se5kui5 kui³³ kui⁴⁴
66 ash *ɓouʔ mbai3 bo̱u³¹se³¹ mbo̱u³¹
67 big *tʰɔ tʰau1 tʰɔ³¹ tʰo³¹
68 thin *lap lap10 la̱⁵⁵ lã̱³¹
69 thick *man man1 mən³¹ mən³¹
70 narrow *kɔŋ kɔŋ3 kʰy⁵⁵ kʰui⁴⁴
71 sick *ku qu3 kɔ³¹ ko³¹
72 good *laːɯ laːu2 lɯ³¹ lɯ³¹
73 night *paːiʔ qa4paːi5 po⁵⁵ po̱³¹
74 daytime *han qa3han1 o³³hɛ⁵⁵ ɯ⁴⁴hɛ⁵⁵
75 year *namʔ nam1 nam⁵⁵ he̱i³¹
76 this *ni ni3 ni³³ nei⁴⁴
77 that *ɗɔʔ ndɯ3 dɔ̱¹³
78 near *ta to3 ta³¹ dã³¹
79 I *ʔoːʔ ʔaːu3 ɔ³¹ o̱³¹
80 you (sg.) *mɯ mi2 mɯ³¹ mɯ³¹
81 he/she *ʔi ʔi3 i³¹ i³¹
82 we (excl.) *pai pai3 pɛ³¹ pɛ³¹
83 you (pl.) *maːi maːi2 mi³¹ mei³¹
84 who? *ɓai mbai5 bɛ³⁵ mbɛ²⁴
85 one *mo mə2 mə⁵⁵; bɔ⁵⁵ bo⁴⁴
86 two *ɓi mbi3 biɔ³¹; bi³¹ mbjo³¹
87 three *paːi paːi3 ptse³¹ pi³¹
88 four *puːn puːn5 pau³³ pau⁴⁴
89 five *mi me4 mi³³ mi⁴⁴
90 six *pjuʔ < *pruʔ piu5 pi̱o³³ pjo̱³¹
91 seven *peiʔ pei3 po̱u³¹ po̱u³¹
92 eight *saːmʔ saːm5 sã³³ sa̱⁴⁴
93 nine *ɕinʔ < *cinʔ ɕən5 ɕi³³ ɕi̱⁴⁴
94 ten *maːn < *maːl maːn2 mã³¹ ma³¹
95 hundred *ʑɔ < *ɟɔ mə0ʑɔ2 ʑiu³¹ ʑou³¹
96 gold *hiʔ hi3 hi̱³⁵ he̱i²⁴
97 iron *luːn luːn2 lou³³ lou⁴⁴
98 pig *tan tan5 tau³³ tau²⁴
99 tiger *kuiʔ kui5 tə̱⁵⁵qɔ̱³³tʰɔ⁵⁵ tɯ⁵⁵qo̱⁴⁴
100 horse *laŋʔ ljiŋ2 lã³¹; laŋ³¹ la̱ŋ³¹
101 cattle *laiʔ lai1 li⁵⁵ le̱i⁵⁵
102 pangolin *ɓoːʔ mbaːu3 bo³¹ mbo̱³¹
103 ant *ɣen < *gen ɣan2 ɣen³¹ ɣeŋ³¹
104 grasshopper *dzaːn < *dzaːr < *caːr muɔ4tsjaːn4 ndza³³ ɲdʑa⁴⁴se̱n³¹
105 tree *saːɯʔ saːu3 saɯ³¹ sɯ̱³¹
106 sugarcane *ʔɔŋ ʑe3pai3 ʔɔŋ¹³ oŋ²⁴pjo²⁴
107 bamboo shoot *ɓaŋʔ mbɔŋ3 baŋ³¹ mba̱ŋ³¹
108 vegetables *tʰuʔ tu3 tʰu⁵⁵ tʰu̱⁴⁴
109 face *pʰja ɬe1 ptsʰa³³ pʰtsʰa⁴⁴
110 die, to *pja:t ɬiːt7 ptsa⁵⁵ ptsa̱³¹
111 fruit *pjeːiʔ ɬa:i5ʔɔ5 ptse̱³³ ptsei⁴⁴
112 snake *kaŋ ɬaŋ3 qaŋ³⁵ qaŋ⁵⁵
113 steal, to *ɕenʔ < *cenʔ ɕən5 se̱n³⁵ ɕin²⁴
114 excrement *ʔiʔ ʔi5 a̱i³³ ai⁴⁴
115 urine *t-caːŋ tjaːŋ4 tsʰə³¹ tɕʰɯ³¹
116 fart *saːŋ sjaːŋ5 sa³³ sa⁴⁴
117 snow *cimʔ qa3tɕim5 te⁵⁵tsi³³ ti⁵⁵tɕi̱⁴⁴
118 field *tiʔ mat8ti3 ta̱ɯ³⁵ tɯ̱²⁴
119 well *loŋ lɔŋ2nde5 luŋ³³da³⁵ loŋ⁴⁴
120 flea *mjo mjɔ2 miou³¹ mjau³¹
121 taro *xɔ < *rɔ muɔ4hu5; ɬaːi5hu5 ɲa³³xau³³ ɲa⁴⁴hau⁴⁴
122 melon *tanʔ ɬaːi5tan5 te⁵⁵ta̱n³³ 'pumpkin' ti⁵⁵den⁴⁴
123 bean *tuk tuk8 toŋ⁵⁵ ndo̱ŋ³¹
124 mushroom *pʰaːŋ pʰjaːŋ6 pʰa³³ pʰa⁴⁴
125 lips *ban pan2 man³¹ men³¹
126 navel *sanʔ lɔŋ2san5 pə⁵⁵san³³ pɯ⁵⁵se̱n⁴⁴
127 road *koŋ kɔ5 ho⁵⁵tɕu³³ xoŋ⁴⁴tɕou⁴⁴
128 fox *kʰaːn qaːn5 tei⁵⁵qʰa⁴⁴
129 sweet *lim lim5 lɛi³³ lai⁴⁴
130 sour *p-cat tsjat7 ptsɛ³¹ pje³¹
131 bitter *caŋʔ tɕaŋ5 tsaŋ³³ tsa̱ŋ⁴⁴
132 spicy *ɲam ɲam2 ŋo⁴⁴
133 salty *ŋam ŋam2 ŋa³³ ŋa⁴⁴
134 drunk *caŋ ɕaːn3tɕjuŋ5 ɕa³¹ ɕa³¹
135 medicine *suʔ su3 sɔ³¹ so̱³¹
136 door *coŋʔ tɔk7tɕɔŋ2 ŋa⁵⁵ʑu̱ŋ³¹ ŋa⁴⁴ɲdʑoŋ³¹
137 pillar *ɣaŋ < *raŋ muɔ4ɣaŋ2 ɣaŋ³¹ ɣaŋ³¹
138 trousers *pɛʔ pi3 pɛ̱¹³ pɛ̱²⁴
139 shoes *nauʔ nau6 na̱u⁵⁵ na̱u³¹
140 cloth *nen nən4 nen³³ nen⁴⁴
141 clothing *peʔ pʰje1 pɯ̱⁵⁵lio̱³¹ bi⁴⁴
142 umbrella *laŋ ljiŋ1 laŋ⁴⁴
143 arrow *ɓa mbɔ3 'bow' sa⁵⁵ nau⁴⁴mbou⁴⁴
144 suona *limʔ le3ljim5 le̱n³¹
145 dinner *paːiʔ qʰe1paːi5 tso̱u⁵⁵po̱³¹ po³¹
146 speech *to tɔ2 to⁵⁵ to⁴⁴
147 grave *lap lap8 mə⁰lo̱u³¹ mu⁴⁴lau³¹
148 strength *ɣək < *rək ɣək8 ɣo⁴⁴
149 beam *tsoʔ < *coʔ ʑe3tso3 tso̱u¹³ɲiu¹³ 'beam wood' tso²⁴ɲo̱u⁵⁵
150 village *gɔ qɔ2 ŋqu³³ ŋgu⁴⁴
151 drum *buŋʔ puŋ2lai6 bam³⁵ mbe̱n²⁴
152 gong *tsanʔ tsuŋ2tsan2 tse̱i⁴⁴
153 blow, to *pʰu pʰu1 pʰɔ³¹ pʰɔ³¹
154 burn, to (intr.) *ɗɔʔ ndau5 tɔ̱¹³ to̱⁴⁴ (of fire); ndo⁴⁴ (of mountains)
155 green *ɕaŋ < *caŋ ɕaŋ3 ɕaŋ³¹ ɕaŋ³¹
156 bed *ɲaŋʔ kɔ5ɲəŋ4 hɔŋ¹³naŋ³³ xɔŋ⁵⁵na̱ŋ⁴⁴
157 pond, pool *kau nde5ɣau2 kʰɯ³⁵ 'large pond' kau³¹
158 cave *loŋ lɔŋ2tɔ5 loŋ³³ loŋ⁴⁴
159 muntjac *koŋ kɔŋ5 tɕioŋ³³ tɕoŋ⁴⁴
160 eagle *laːŋʔ muɔ4ljaːŋ4 lou³⁵ lo̱u²⁴
161 centipede *xaŋ < *raŋ hə6 se³¹xaŋ⁵⁵; ptsi³¹xaŋ⁵⁵; pə⁰ta⁵⁵ pi³¹haŋ⁵⁵
162 claw *cjoʔ tjai6 bia̱ŋ³⁵; pə⁰tɕiu⁵⁵ pu⁴⁴tɕo̱³¹
163 ginger *cɯŋʔ tɕəŋ3 tsʰɯ¹³ tɕʰɯ̱²⁴
164 millet *saŋ saŋ5 saŋ³³ saŋ⁴⁴
165 ears (of grain) *kaːn qaːn5 qa²⁴
166 thorn *pɔk pɔk7 paŋ⁵⁵ pa̱ŋ³¹
167 body *ɓaŋ mbu3mbaːi5 baŋ³³ mbaŋ⁴⁴
168 chin *keːŋ laːp8qeːŋ5 la⁰kə³³ ti³¹kɯ⁴⁴
169 fist *bau pau4tsʰap10 tje⁴⁴mbou⁴⁴
170 chest *nuʔ qɔ4ni6 ha⁵⁵nu̱³¹ xa̱⁵⁵nou³¹
171 stomach *ɗoŋ ndan3 tai³¹ loŋ⁵⁵
172 pus *tuŋʔ tuŋ3 tɔ̱ŋ³⁵ toŋ⁴⁴
173 orphan *nɔ qa0nɔ6 ɲa³³nou³³ ɲa⁴⁴nou⁴⁴
174 blanket *paːmʔ paːm2 pa̱²⁴
175 axe *kun kʰun1 bou³¹kan¹³ ken⁴⁴
176 plow *coŋ tɕɔŋ2 tɕuŋ³³ tɕoŋ⁴⁴
177 drill *tsoŋ < *coŋ tsɔŋ2 tsoŋ⁵⁵ tsoŋ⁴⁴
178 basket *ɗaːiʔ ndaːi5 ta̱i³¹
179 candle *kɔ qaːn2qɔ3 qou³⁵ ku²⁴
180 ink *mak mak8 ma̱ŋ³¹
181 lick, to *lɛmʔ ljim4 lɛ¹³ lɛ̱²⁴
182 twist, to (a rope) *pʰja pʰjaːi1 pʰja³¹
183 wring, to (a towel) *pat pjit7 pa̱³⁵ pa̱³¹
184 run, to *kʰaːt qaːt8 qʰa̱i⁵⁵ qʰe̱i³¹
185 carry on back, to *paʔ pe5 pa̱³³/³⁵ pua²⁴
186 sell, to *seːi saːi3 se³¹ sei³¹
187 steam, to *kʰoː qʰaːu4 kʰau³¹
188 scoop, to (water) *kʰoːʔ qaːu3 kʰo̱²⁴
189 wash, to *laːi laːi4 le¹³ li⁴⁴
190 comb, to *tsi tse4 tsi³¹ tɕi³¹
191 weave, to (basket) *taːn taːn3 da³¹
192 answer, to *ʔoʔ ʔiu3 o̱³¹
193 borrow, to (money) *ɗan ndan5 nda²⁴
194 give, to *ti tɔ5 ta̱³⁵ti⁵⁵ ti⁵⁵
195 divide, to *sanʔ san5 sa̱i³⁵ sei²⁴
196 go, to *ʑɔʔ < *ɟɔʔ ʑu2 jau³¹ ʑa̱u³¹
197 soak, to *taŋ təŋ3 daŋ²⁴
198 float, to *buʔ pu2 mbou³¹ po̱u³¹
199 split, to (intr.) *ɓɛnʔ mbjɔ5 mbɛ̱n⁴⁴; bjaŋ²⁴
200 turn, spin, to *vanʔ pin³³ va̱n³⁵ ve̱n³¹
201 lay, to (egg) *ten tu4 tʰen³¹
202 tall *ɣoʔ < *roʔ ʑɔu4 ɣo³³ ɣo̱⁴⁴
203 deep *kau ɣau2 kou³¹ kau³¹
204 straight (not crooked) *pjoʔ pjai3 pio³¹ pjo̱³¹
205 gray *luːk luːk8 lu³¹
206 raw (meat) *ʔɔ ʔau5 ɔ³³; ɲu³³ o⁴⁴
207 stinky *tseŋʔ < *ceŋʔ tsan5 tsa̱n³³ tse̱ŋ⁴⁴
208 classifier (general) *buːŋ puːŋ3 mbou⁴⁴
209 pair *tsom < *com tsɔu4 tsam³³ tsen²⁴
210 double *caːŋ tɕjaːŋ2 tɕaŋ⁵⁵
211 just now *cɯŋ tɕəŋ5mbaːi5 tɕɯ³¹
212 also, too *le le2 lɛ²⁴
213 no, not *mau mau4 mə⁵⁵ mɯ⁵⁵

References[edit]

  • Hsiu, Andrew. 2016. A preliminary reconstruction of Proto-Pakanic. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  • Li, Xulian [李旭练]. 1999. A Study of Lai (Bolyu) [倈语硏究]. Beijing: Minzu University Press [中央民族大学出版社].
  • Li, Yunbing [李云兵]. 2005. A study of Bugeng [Bugan] [布赓语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  • Li, Jinfang [李锦芳]. 2006. Studies on endangered languages in the Southwest China [西南地区濒危语言调查研究]. Beijing: Minzu University.
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