Appendix:Latin script/alphabets

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Alphabets[edit]

Alphabets based on Latin script may be formed by single letters and digraphs, with or without diacritics.

This list should include all alphabets that use Latin script, in their respective alphabetic orders.

English alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Æ Œ
æ œ
Usage
  • In Modern English: Æ, æ, Œ and œ are very rare and normally reserved for loan‐words, especially those from Greek or Latin. Otherwise, they are replaced by AE, ae, OE, and oe.

Old English (Anglo-Saxon) alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
A Æ B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T Þ Ð U Ƿ X Y
a æ b c d e f g h ı k l m n o p r ſ s t þ ð u ƿ x y
Usage
  • The start of sentences and words for God are rarely capitalized. Proper nouns are not capitalized.
  • þ and ð are both used to represent the same sound, /θ/ and /ð/ (Modern English th).
  • æ is used to represent the sound /æ/ (Modern English short a)
  • The Tironian nota, is a common abbreviation for and/ond.
  • A stroked þ is a common abbreviation for þæt.
  • A stroke over a letter indicates that an omitted m or n follows.
  • A stroke over g is shorthand for the ge- prefix. Þon̅ is shorthand for þonne.
Appearance
  • Two letters, wynn (ƿ) and thorn (þ) are borrowed Runic characters ( and respectively.)
  • The lowercase form of S is s at the end of words, and ſ elsewhere.
  • d has a rounded shape.
  • f sits below the baseline.
  • g has a distinctive Insular form (ᵹ).
  • ı is dotless.
  • r extends below the baseline.
  • t does not extend above the cross-stroke.
  • y is usually dotted (ẏ).

Albanian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
A B C Ç D Dh E Ë F G Gj H I J K L Ll M N Nj O P Q R Rr S Sh T Th U V X Xh Y Z Zh
a b c ç d dh e ë f g gj h i j k l ll m n nj o p q r rr s sh t th u v x xh y z zh

Bambara alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A B C D E Ɛ F G H I J K Kh L M N -N Ɲ Ŋ O Ɔ P R S Sh T U W Y Z
a b c d e ɛ f g h i j k kh l m n -n ɲ ŋ o ɔ p r s sh t u w y z

Basque alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
Dd Ll Rr Ts Tt Tx Tz
dd ll rr ts tt tx tz

The letters C, Q, V, W, Y and their lower case counterparts are used only in words borrowed from other languages.

Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č ć d đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Bosnian and Serbian may also be written in Cyrillic script.

Cheyenne alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
A E H K ' M N O P S Š T V X
a e h k ' m n o p s š t v x

High pitch:

Á á É é Ó ó

Mid pitch:

Ä ä Ë ë Ö ö

Whispered: (the tone and voice diacritics may be omitted in writting)

 â Ê ê Ô ô

Croatian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
A B C Č Ć D Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č ć d đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s š t u v z ž

Czech alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
A B C D E F G H Ch I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h ch i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Á Č Ď É Ě Í Ň Ó Ř Š Ť Ú Ů Ý Ž
á č ď é ě í ň ó ř š ť ú ů ý ž

Danish alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

The letters C, Q, W, X, Z and their lower case counterparts are used mainly in words borrowed from other languages.

Dutch alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y/IJ Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y/ij z

Esperanto alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ H Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V Z
a b c ĉ d e f g ĝ h ĥ i j ĵ k l m n o p r s ŝ t u ŭ v z

Estonian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š Z Ž T U V W Õ Ä Ö Ü X Y
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š z ž t u v w õ ä ö ü x y
Usage
  • Regardless of case, the letters C, F, Q, Š, W, X, Y, Z and Ž are normally reserved for loan‐words.

Faroese alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A Á B D Ð E F G H I Í J K L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú V Y Ý Æ Ø
a á b d ð e f g h i í j k l m n o ó p r s t u ú v y ý æ ø

Fijian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y
a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w y

Finnish alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

French alphabet[edit]

This is the normal French alphabet.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
É À È Ù Â Ê Î Ô Û Ë Ï Ü Ç Œ
é à è ù â ê î ô û ë ï ü ç œ

Galician alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
A B C D E F G H I L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V X Z
a b c d e f g h i l m n ñ o p q r s t u v x z

The letters J, K, W, Y and their lower case counterparts are used only in words borrowed from other languages.

German alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Ä Ö Ü
ä ö ü ß
Note about „ẞ“
  • The upper‐case form of „ß“ is often rendered simply as two letters: “SS”. Although the singular capital form exists, it is non‐standard.

Glosa alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Gothic alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
𐌰 𐌱 𐌲 𐌳 𐌴 𐌵 𐌶 𐌷 𐌸 𐌹 𐌺 𐌻 𐌼 𐌽 𐌾 𐌿 𐍀 𐍁 𐍂 𐍃 𐍄 𐍅 𐍆 𐍇 𐍈 𐍉 𐍊
a b g d e q z h þ i k l m n j u p r s t w f x ƕ o
  • Each letter also has a numeric value. The letters 𐍁 and 𐍊 are used only as numerals.

Haida alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
A Aa B Ch Chʼ D Dl Dz Ei G Ĝ H Hl I Ii J K Ḵʼ L ʼL M N Ng P S T Tl Tlʼ Ts Tsʼ U Uu W ʼW X Y Yaʼ
a aa b ch chʼ d dl dz ei g ĝ h hl i ii j k ḵʼ l ʼl m n ng p s t tl tlʼ ts tsʼ u uu w ʼw x y yaʼ

Hawaiian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
A E I O U H K L M N P W ʻ
a e i o u h k l m n p w ʻ

Although not part of the Hawaiian alphabet, the following letters are used in Hawaiian words: Ā, Ē, Ī, Ō, Ū, and their respective lowercase versions ā, ē, ī, ō, and ū. The letter T, along with t, can sometimes be found in the place of K and k; this practice is most common on the island of Niʻihau.

Hungarian alphabet[edit]

wikisource:Hungarian spelling - Alphabet

Official Hungarian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
A Á B C Cs D Dz Dzs E É F G Gy H I Í J K L Ly M N Ny O Ó Ö Ő P R S Sz T Ty U Ú Ü Ű V Z Zs
a á b c cs d dz dzs e é f g gy h i í j k l ly m n ny o ó ö ő p r s sz t ty u ú ü ű v z zs

Old Hungarian letters[edit]

The letters in the first column may be found in family names. Pronounce them the same as their modern counterparts in the second column.

  • aaá (e.g., Gaal)
  • é (e.g., Veér)
  • ö (e.g., Eötvös)
  • ewö (e.g., Thewrewk)
  • ó (e.g., Soós)
  • yi (e.g., Kölcsey)
  • chcs (e.g., Madách)
  • czc (e.g., Czuczor)
  • szs (e.g., Jósika)
  • tht (e.g., Csáth)
  • tscs (e.g., Takáts)
  • wv (e.g., Wesselényi)

Icelandic alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A Á B D Ð E É F G H I Í J K L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú V X Y Ý Þ Æ Ö
a á b d ð e é f g h i í j k l m n o ó p r s t u ú v x y ý þ æ ö

Ido alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Interlingua alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Italian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
À È É Ì Ò Ù
à è é ì ò ù

Lakota alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
A B Č Čh Čʼ E G Ǧ H Ȟ I K Kh L M N O P Ph S Š T Th U W Y Z Ž ʼ
a b č čh čʼ e g ǧ h ȟ i k kh l m n o p ph s š t th u w y z ž ʼ
Á É Í Ó Ú Áŋ Íŋ Úŋ
á é í ó ú áŋ íŋ úŋ

The acute accent marks the pitch accent on stressed vowels (which have a higher tone than nonstressed ones).

Latin alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v x y z
Notes about J, K, U, Y and Z
  • K is rare in Latin, and when it is used always precedes an a.
  • Both Y and Z were introduced solely for the writing of borrowed Greek words originally containing υ (upsilon) and ζ (zeta), respectively.
  • The rounded U was not introduced until the second century CE. Prior to that time the letter V served as both vowel and consonant.
  • The "long I", or J, similarly developed from I in the late Medieval and Renaissance periods.

Latvian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
A Ā B C Č D E Ē F G Ģ H I Ī J K Ķ L Ļ M N Ņ O P R S Š T U Ū V Z Ž
a ā b c č d e ē f g ģ h i ī j k ķ l ļ m n ņ o p r s š t u ū v z ž
Ch Ō Ŗ Uo
ch ō ŗ uo

Livonian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
A Ā Ä Ǟ B C D E Ē F G H I Ī J K L Ļ M N Ņ O Ȯ Ȱ Ö Ȫ Õ Ȭ P Q R Ŗ S Š T Ț U Ū V W X Y Ȳ Z Ž
a ā ä ǟ b c d e ē f g h i ī j k l ļ m n ņ o ȯ ȱ ö ȫ õ ȭ p q r ŗ s š t ţ u ū v w x y ȳ z ž

The letters ö (ȫ) and y (ȳ) represent phonemes that have fallen out of use in contemporary Livonian. They’ve been replaced with e (ē) and i (ī) respectively.

Lojban alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P R S T U V X Y Z
a b c d e f g i j k l m n o p r s t u v x y z . ' ,

Manx Gaelic alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y

Navajo alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
A B Ch Chʼ D Dl Dz E G Gh H Hw X I J K Kw ʼ L Ł M N O S Sh T Tłʼ Ts Tsʼ W Y Z Zh
a b ch chʼ d dl dz e g gh h hw x i j k kw ʼ l ł m n o s sh t tłʼ ts tsʼ w y z zh
Á Ą Ą́ É Ę Ę́ Í Į Į́ Ó Ǫ Ǫ́ Ń
á ą ą́ é ę ę́ í į į́ ó ǫ ǫ́ ń

Long vowels are indicated by doubling: aa, ee, ii, oo. The acute accent marks the high tone, and a rising tone is shown with the second vowel accented: aá, eé, ií, oó. A falling tone has the first vowel accented: áa, ée, íi, óo. If both are accented, it means a high flat tone: áá, éé, íí, óó. A low flat tone has no accents: aa, ee, ii, oo. The hook indicates a nasal vowel: ąą, ęę, įį, ǫǫ.

Nootka alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
A Aa B C Č Č̕ D E Ee H I Ii K K̕ʷ L Ł ƛ ƛ̕ M N Ŋ O Oo P Q Q̕ʷ S Š T U Uu W X X̣ʷ Y ʕ ʔ
a aa b c č č̕ d e ee h i ii k k̕ʷ l ł ƛ ƛ̕ m n ŋ o oo p q q̕ʷ s š t u uu w x x̣ʷ y ʕ ʔ

Norwegian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å
Â É È Ê Ó Ò Ô
â é è ê ó ò ô

Ojibwe alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
A Aa B Ch D E G H ' I Ii J K M N O Oo P S Sh T W Y Z Zh
a aa b ch d e g h ' i ii j k m n o oo p s sh t w y z zh

Polish alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
A Ą B C Ć D E Ę F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ó P Q R S Ś T U V W X Y Z Ź Ż
a ą b c ć d e ę f g h i j k l ł m n ń o ó p q r s ś t u v w x y z ź ż
Notes about Q, V and X

Letters Q, V and X do not belong to Polish alphabet but they can be found in certain foreign derived words and names, such as quasi, fax and video.

Portuguese alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Á À Â Ã É Ê Í Ó Ô Õ Ú Ü Ç
á à â ã é ê í ó ô õ ú ü ç
Notes about K, W and Y

K, W and Y are a part of the alphabet in countries where the orthographic agreement of 1990 came into effect, but are only seen in certain foreign derived words and names, such as kilowatt, whisky and faraday. Before the orthographic reform of 1911, y was used to represent the palatal approximant and to transliterate Greek υ; in both cases it was replaced with i.

Notes about ch, nh, lh, rr, ss, sc, , xc, xs, gu, qu, an, am, en, em, in, im, on, om, un and um.

All these groups of letters are digraphs. Gu and qu preceding e and i may be not digraphs, in Brazil before the orthographic agreement of 1990, and in other countries before the orthographic agreement of 1945, this was indicated by a trema over the u (ü).

Diacritical marks[edit]

Portuguese uses several diacritical marks to indicate special features in vowels. Letters with diacritics aren’t considered distinct letters.

  • ´ (acute, occurs over a, e, i, o and u) and ^ (circumflex, occurs over a, e and o) indicate stress. Stress is contrastive. For example, the word fábrica is stressed on , meaning “factory”, while fabrica is stressed on bri, meaning “he produces, manufactures”.
  • In vowels where a distinction between open and closed occurs, open is marked with ´ (acute), and closed with ^ (circumflex). (â /ɐ/, á /a/, ê /e/, é /ɛ/, ô /o/, ó /ɔ/).
  • ` (grave, occurs over a) indicates fusion with the preposition a, usually with the article a forming à (to the). In older orthographies, it was used to mark secondary stress in compound words.
  • ~ (tilde, occurs over a and o) indicates that the vowel nasalised. In most cases, however, nasality is indicated by an m or n in the syllable’s coda.
  • ¨ (trema) is used in loanwords. Previously it was used over u to indicate /w/ in the digraphs qüe, qüi, güe and güi.
  • Cedilla is not considered a diacritic, and only occurs under c (ç), where it is used to indicate soft c (/s/, as opposed to /k/) preceding the vowels a, o and u.

Romanian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
A Ă Â B C D E F G H I Î J K L M N O P Q R S Ș T Ț U V W X Y Z
a ă â b c d e f g h i î j k l m n o p q r s ș t ț u v w x y z

The letters Q, W, Y and their lower case counterparts were formerly considered not part of the alphabet and are used only in words borrowed from other languages.

Scottish Gaelic alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
A B C D E F G H I L M N O P R S T U
a b c d e f g h i l m n o p r s t u

Slovene alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
A B C Č D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S Š T U V Z Ž
a b c č d e f g h i j k l m n o p r s š t u v z ž

Spanish alphabet[edit]

This is the normal Spanish alphabet. However, words are not alphabetized by it. Please read the notes and sections below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r s t u v w x y z
Notes about Ñ

Ñ is the only new letter. It should always be alphabetized after N no matter where it appears in the word (e.g., muñeca goes after munífico). It is much like the Ñ in English (written N most of the time), seen only in words such as piñata or the original writing of canyon (cañon).

Notes about Ch, Ll, and Rr
The digraphs Ch and Ll are no longer part of the alphabet. In 1994, they stopped being alphabetized as if they were letters, and in 2010, they were dropped altogether.

Aside from Ch and Ll, rr is another common digraph that is no longer considered a part of the alphabet by the Spanish Academy.

Notes about K and W

K and W are a part of the alphabet but are only seen in certain foreign-derived words and names, such as karate and whisky.

Acute accents[edit]

Spanish uses an ´ (acute) diacritical mark over vowels to indicate a vocal stress on a word that would normally be stressed on another syllable. Stress is contrastive. For example, the word ánimo is normally accented on a, meaning "mood, spirit," while animo is stressed on ni meaning "I cheer," and animó is stressed on meaning "he cheered."

Additionally Spanish uses the acute mark to distinguish certain words which would otherwise look the same ("homographs"). The acute accent is used in various question words or relative pronoun pairs such as cómo and como (how), dónde and donde (where), and also in some other words such as (you) and tu (your), él (he/him) and el (the).

A E I O U Y
á é í ó ú ý

Diaeresis[edit]

Spanish uses a ¨ (diaeresis, two dots) diacritical mark over the vowel u to indicate that the u is pronounced in places where it would normally be silent. In particular, the u is silent in the letter combinations gue and gui, but in words such as vergüenza (shame) or pingüino (penguin), the u is in fact pronounced, forming a diphthong with the following vowel: [we] and [wi] respectively.

Swedish alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Å Ä Ö
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

Turkish alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z
a b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z
 ΠÛ
â î û

Vietnamese alphabet[edit]

quốc ngữ.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
A Ă Â B C D Đ E Ê G H I (J) K L M N O Ô Ơ P Q R S T U Ư V (W) X Y (Z)
a ă â b c d đ e ê g h i (j) k l m n o ô ơ p q r s t u ư v (w) x y (z)
J, W and Z are used only in foreign words; F rarely used by personal preference.
  • Flat tone is not marked
  • High rising tone is marked by an acute accent (ô+◌́= ố)
  • Low tone is marked by a grave accent (ô+◌̀= ồ)
  • Dipping-rising tone is marked by a hook above (ô+◌̉= ổ)
  • High rising glottalized tone is marked by a tilde (ô+◌̃= ỗ)
  • Low glottalized tone is marked by a dot below (ô+◌̣= ộ)

Vilamovian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
A Ao B C Ć D E F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ö P Q R S Ś T U Ü V W Y Z Ź Ż
a ao b c ć d e f g h i j k l ł m n ń o ö p q r s ś t u ü v w y z ź ż
Notes about Ć, Ń, Q, Ź and Ż

Letters Ć, Ń, Q, Ź and Ż are used in loanwords.

Võro alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Š T U V W Õ Ä Ö Ü X Y Z Ž
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s š t u v w õ ä ö ü x y z ž

Welsh alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
A B C CH Ch D DD Dd E F FF Ff G NG Ng H I J K L LL Ll M N O P PH Ph R RH Rh S T TH Th U W X Y Z
a b c ch d dd e f ff g ng h i j k l ll m n o p ph r rh s t th u w x y z
Notes about J, K, X and Z

Letters J, K, X and Z are not normally part of the Welsh alphabet but they can be found in certain foreign derived words and names, such as jam, kilometr, pelydr X and zinc.

Notes about CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH and TH

Double letters CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH and TH are classed as single letters in the alphabet and are sorted in the order above. In mixed case writing, where one of these letters occurs where a standard letter would be capitalised (e.g. at the start of a sentence) only the first letter is capitalised - "Llanelli", "yng Nghymru", "Rhagfyr", etc.

West Frisian alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
A B C D E F G H I/Y J K L M N O P R S T U V W Z
a b c d e f g h i/y j k l m n o p r s t u v w z
Notes about C

The letter C only occurs in the combination "ch", IPA [x] (as in Scots "loch"). This combination is not a letter of the alphabet and never occurs at the beginning of words.

Notes about I/Y

The letter Y is seen as a form of the letter I and alphabetized accordingly. (Y is pronounced [i] and occurs in closed syllables, for instance in the word "wyt", which means "white". When this word is inflected, for instance in the phrase "wite huzen", "white houses", the Y becomes an I, although the phonetical value remains [i]. The reason for this is that "wit" would be pronounced [ʋɪt], and in fact is pronounced that way and is the first person singular form of the verb "witte", meaning "to know".)

Notes about V and Z

Letters V and Z never occur at the beginning of words.

Yup'ik alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
A C E G I K L M N P Q R S T U V W Y
a c e g i k l m n p q r s t u v w y

Zuni alphabet[edit]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
A B D Ch E H I K L Ł M N O P S T U W Y
a b d ch e h i k l ł m n o p s t u w y