先生

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Chinese[edit]

 
early; prior; former; in advance; first
 
to be born; to give birth; life; to grow; student; raw
simp. and trad.
(先生)

Etymology[edit]

From (xiān, Old Chinese *sɯːn(s), "before, ahead") and (shēng, OC *shleːŋ, *sreŋs, "to be born"), i.e. "one who was born earlier". Attested in Shijing ("first child"), Yili ("elder brother"), Classic of Rites ("teacher"), Mengzi ("a knowledgeable elder").

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

先生

  1. (Beginning Mandarin) mister, sir
    先生 / 先生  ―  Wáng xiānshēng lái le.  ―  Mr. Wang came.
    先生 / 先生 [Min Nan]  ―  Ông--sian-seⁿ lâi--ah. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Mr. Ong came.
  2. (formal) husband
  3. (Gan, Hakka, Min, dated in Mandarin and Jin) doctor
  4. (Cantonese, Gan, Hakka, Min, dated in Mandarin, honorific in Jin) teacher

Synonyms[edit]

  • (doctor):
Dialectal synonyms of 醫生 (“doctor; physician”)
Variety Location Words
Formal Formal 醫生醫師
Mandarin Beijing 大夫醫生
Taiwan 醫生大夫
Tianjin 大夫醫生
Jinan 大夫先生 TCM
Xi'an 大夫先生 TCM
Wuhan 醫生先生 TCM
Chengdu 醫生老師 TCM先生 TCM
Yangzhou 醫生先生 TCM郎中 TCM
Hefei 醫生先生 TCM郎中 TCM
Cantonese Guangzhou 醫生先生 TCM
Hong Kong 醫生醫師 TCM
Taishan 醫生
Yangjiang 醫生先生
Gan Nanchang 醫師郎中
Hakka Meixian 醫生先生
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 先生醫生醫師
Liudui (S. Sixian) 先生醫生醫師
Hsinchu (Hailu) 先生醫生醫師
Dongshi (Dabu) 先生醫生醫師
Taiwanese Raoping 先生醫生醫師
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 先生醫生
Jin Taiyuan 大夫先生 TCM
Min Bei Jian'ou 醫生先生 TCM
Min Dong Fuzhou 醫生先生 TCM
Min Nan Quanzhou 醫生先生
Xiamen 醫生先生
Zhangzhou 醫生先生
Taipei 醫生先生
Kaohsiung 醫生先生
Tainan 醫生先生
Taichung 醫生先生
Yilan 醫生先生
Lukang 醫生先生
Sanxia 醫生先生
Kinmen 先生
Magong 醫生先生
Hsinchu 醫生先生
Malaysia 醫生老君
Singapore 醫生老君
Chaozhou 醫生先生 TCM
Wu Suzhou 醫生郎中先生 TCM
Wenzhou 醫生先生 TCM
Xiang Changsha 醫生醫師 TCM郎中 TCM先生 TCM
Shuangfeng 醫師郎中 TCM
Note TCM: doctor practising traditional Chinese medicine

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (先生):

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
せん
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 先生 ‎(sen sræng, literally first + to be born).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

先生 ‎(hiragana せんせい, romaji sensei)

  1. one who was born earlier: an elder
  2. one who excels at a subject: a scholar
  3. one who teaches: a teacher or professor
  4. sensei (Japanese martial arts teacher)
  5. sir, a polite form of address to teachers, doctors, etc.

Usage notes[edit]

This is a term of respect, reserved only for speaking about others, and considered somewhat impolite (immodest) to use when referring to oneself. Instead, the term 教師 ‎(kyōshi, teacher, literally teaching + teacher) is considered more socially appropriate when referring to oneself.

Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

先生 ‎(hiragana せんせい, romaji -sensei)

  1. a title used after the name of teachers, doctors, lawyers, or certain other professionals

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

先生 ‎(seonsaeng) ‎(hangeul 선생)

  1. Hanja form? of 선생, “teacher”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

先生

  1. Hán tự form of tiên sinh, “teacher