Appendix:Proto-Semitic stems

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This appendix provides lists of Proto-Semitic stems from various sources.

Kogan (2012)[edit]

The following Proto-Semitic reconstructions have been compiled by Leonid Kogan (2012)[1] from Fronzaroli's Proto-Semitic reconstructions[2], the Semitic Etymological Dictionary (SED) by Alexander Militarev and Leonid Kogan, and other sources.

Proto-Semitic English gloss Notes
*ʔarṣ̂- earth, land
*ḳarḳar- earth (ground) as a solid surface (ground)
*ʕapar- earth (soft) soft surface of the earth used for cultivation

and as a building material (soil, dust)

*ʔabn- stone
*ṯ̣Vrr- flint
*kVrm- hill, mound
*ŝadaw- open country
*mā̆y- water
*nah(a)r- river
*pal(a)g- stream
*naḫl- river valley, wadi
*tihām(-at)- sea
*biʔr- / *buʔr(-at)- spring
*šamā̆y- heaven
*ŝamš- sun
*war(i)ḫ- moon
*kabkab- star
*ḏVnVm-, *ḏVnVn- rain
*bar(a)ḳ- lightning
*ṯalg- snow
*ʔiš(-āt)- fire
*pVḥm- charcoal
*šḫn warm, hot
*n-w-r to shine
*ṯ̣ill- shadow
*d-h-m, *ṯ̣-l-m darkness
*yawm- day
*šaḥ(a)r dawn, morning
*šan-at- year
*yamīn-, *yamā̆n- right hand (side)
*ŝamʔāl- left hand (side)
*w-r-ḳ yellow-green
*ṯ̣-l-m to be black
*l-b-n white
*ṣ-h-b light-brown hue
*ʕiṣ̂- tree
*ḳayŝ- wood, forest
*daṯʔ- grass
*ŝVrš- root
*ḏarʕ- seed
*šu(n)bul-at- ear of corn
*dardar- thistle
*ʔašal rush
*ḳanay- cane, reed
*ḥVlp(-at)- alfa grass Stipa tenacissima
*pVḳVʕ- colocynth
*ʔVṯl- tamarisk
*ṭarpaʔ- tamarisk
*bay(a)n- tamarisk
*buṭm(-at)- terebinth
*burāṯ- juniper
*ʔayl(-ān)-, *ʔall(-ān)- big tree, oak
*ʔaṭad- buckthorn
*ḫilāp- willow
*kamʔ-at- truffle, kind of mushroom
*bVḳl- cultivated plant, cereal
*ḥinṭ-at- wheat
*duḫn- millet
*ṯūm- garlic
*karaṯ- leek
*ḳVṯ(ṯ)Vʔ- cucumber
*ḫass- lettuce
*ṯaḳid-, *ṯiḳd- almond (tree and fruit)
*taʔin(-at)- fig
*ḫāḫ- plum tree
*ṯawr- bull, ox
*ʔalp- bull
*bVʕVr- bull
*laʔay-at-, *layʔ-at- cow
*ʔarḫ- cow, heifer
*parr(-at)- (young of) large cattle ?
*ṣ̂aʔn- small cattle
*ṯaʔ(w)-at- ewe (individual)
*ʔimmar- ram
*ḫVrVp- lamb
*ʕanz-, *ʕinz- goat
*tayš billy goat
*ʕat(t)ūd- billy goat
*ʕVnVḳ- kid
*lV(ʔ)lV(ʔ)- kid, lamb
*ḥimār- donkey
*ʔatān- donkey mare
*muhr- foal
*pVrd- mule
*baḳl-, *baγl- mule
*kawdan- mule
*ḫV(n)zīr- pig
*kalb- dog
*labVʔ- lion
*namir- leopard
*ḏiʔb- wolf
*ṯVʕVl-, *ṯaʕlab- fox
*ṣ̂VbVʕ- hyena
*ʔanyaṣ-, *ʔanṣaw- weasel
*ṯ̣aby(-at)- gazelle
*ʔayyal- fallow deer
*riʕm- wild bull Bos primigenius
*γVzāl- gazelle
*bVb(b)- gazelle
*ʔarwiy- gazelle
*par(a)ʔ- wild ass
*paʔr- mouse
*ʕakbar- mouse
*yarbVʕ- jerboa
*ʔarnab(-at)- hare
*pīl-, *pīr- elephant non-Semitic source
*γārib-, *γurā̆b- crow, raven
*laḳlaḳ- stork
*sVnūn(Vw)-at- swallow
*ḥVrb- chameleon
*ʕVṯ̣āy- gecko
*pVṣγ- gecko
*ḥVmṭ- lizard
*waran/l- lizard
*raḳḳ- turtle
*šalaḥpaw/y-, *šalapḥaw/y turtle
*nūb(-at)- bee
*ḏVb(V)b- fly
*baḳḳ- gnat
*pVrγVṯ- flea
*nāb-, *nib(b)- nit
*sā/ūs- moth
*ʕVṯ(V)ṯ- moth
*ʔarbay- locust
*ḥargal- locust
*ṣarṣar-, *ṣarṣūr- cricket
*ḥVsVn- harmful winged insect
*ʕankab- spider
*tawliʕ-at- worm
*ʕalaḳ-at- leech
*dam- blood
*ʕaṯ̣m- bone
*gīd- tendon, sinew
*matn- sinew, tendon; hip, loins, small of the back
*kVrm-, kVm- articulation, joint
*ŝaḥm- fat
*lVpʔ- piece of flesh peeled off from the bone
*mašk- skin
*parr-, *parw- fur, skin
*kišād- neck
*ṣawar- neck
*ʕVnḳ- neck
*ḥVlḳ- throat
*šaḫ(a)y(-at)- armpit
*ṣ̂ilaʕ- rib
*tVlVʕ- female breast
*ṣ̂Vrʕ- female breast
*ṯ̣ahr- back
*kVsl- genitals, lower part of trunk
*rVby- crotch, groin
*kapl- crotch, groin
*ṯVn(n)- lower part of the belly, the pubes
*ḳinn- buttocks, anus
*libb- heart
*kabid- liver
*kVly-at- kidney
*kariŝ- stomach
*mVʕVy- intestines, entrails
*mVr(V)r-at- gall, gall bladder
*ṭiḥāl-, *ṭVlḥ īm- spleen
*ʔVšk- testicle
*bVnṯ̣ur- female genitals
*ṯapr- vulva
*γurlat- foreskin
*paḥl- penis
*raḥim- womb
*šily-at- afterbirth
*raʔš- head
*gVlgVl-at- skull
*nakap-at- temple
*pVʔ-at- front
*muḫḫ- brain, marrow
*pan(ay)- face
*ʕayn- eye
*ʔuḏn- ear
*ḥasīs- ear
*ʔanp- nose
*ḫVṭm- nose
*pay-, *paw- mouth
*ŝap-at- lip
*lVḥy-at- cheek, jaw
*laṯaγ- gum
*dVrdVr- gum
*ḥVnVk- palate
*lišān- tongue
*šinn- tooth
*ṣ̂irš- molar
*ŝaʕr- hair
*ŝVpat- hair (type of)
*parʕ- hair (type of)
*γapar- hair (type of)
*ḏaḳan- beard not in East Semitic
*yad- hand
*kapp- palm
*ḥupn- hollow of the hand
*bVhVn- thumb
*ṯ̣ipr- nail, claw
*ʔamm-at- elbow, forearm
*katip- shoulder
*paʕm- foot
*rigl- foot
*ʕaḳib- heel
*kursVʕ- lower leg
*ḳVṣVl- ankle
*ḳVṣVl- knee
*warik- hip, thigh
*ḳarn- horn
*ḏanab- tail
*kanap- wing
*ḳVb-at- animal's stomach
*kurāʕ- animal's shin or leg
*nāṣiy-at- plumage, feathers
*dVmʕ-at- tears
*ḏVʕ-at- sweat
*ḥim-at- venom, spittle
*ṯyn to urinate
*parṯ- non-digested food in the stomach
*kVbVw- excrement, dung
*zibl- excrement, dung
*napš- soul
*n-y-k sexual intercourse
*r-k-b to ride, to mount
*h-r-y to be pregnant
*w-l-d to give birth
*ḫ-r-š to be in childbed
*y-n-ḳ to suck
*š-k-b to lie down
*layliy- night
*šin-at- sleep
*m-r-ṣ̂ to be ill
*ḥ-b-ṭ to swell, inflate
*ŝayb-at-, *ŝīb-at- grey hair
*ṭ-m-m, *ʔ-ṭ-m to be deaf and dumb
*š-ʕ-l to cough
*ḳ-y-ʔ to vomit, belch
*g-ŝ-ʕ to vomit, belch
*ṣ̂-r-ṭ to fart
*p-š-w to fart
*ḥ-m-r to have indigestion
*š-g-ʕ, *ŝ-g-ʕ mental illness
*ḏ-b-b mental illness
*h-ḏ-y mental illness
*m-w-t to die
*ḳ-b-r to bury
*ʔanṯ-at- woman
*marʔ- man, male
*ḏakar- male
*ʔab- father
*ʔimm- mother
*ʔaḫ-, *ʔaḫ-āt- brother, sister
*bin- son
*bin-at- daughter
*bVkVr- first-born son
*ʔanṯ-at- wife
*mut- husband
*ḥam- father-in-law
*ḥamāt- mother-in-law
*kall-at- daughter-in-law, bride
*ḫatan- son-in-law, groom
*ʔalman-at- widow
*baʕl- owner, lord
*ʔam-at- maidservant
*ŝ-b-ʕ to be sated
*ṯ̣-m-ʔ to be thirsty
*ʔ-k-l eating
*š-t-y drinking
*ṭ-ʕ-m to taste, to be tasty
*m-r-r bitterness
*m-ṭ-ḳ, *m-t-ḳ sweetness
*ḥ-m-ṣ̂ to be sour
*š-ʔ-b to draw water
*d-l-w drawing water with a bucket
*š-ḳ-y to provide enough water
*ḫimʔ-at- clarified butter
*laš(a)d- butter, cream
*šamn- fat
*dibš- honey
*šikar- alcoholic drink
*š-k-r to become inebriated
*ṭ-ḥ-n to grind
*n-p-y sieve, sieving
*n-ḫ-l sieve, sieving
*ḳamḥ- flour
*l-w-š kneading
*ʔ-p-y to bake
*š-l-ḳ to boil, cook
*b-š-l to be cooked, ready, ripe

Comparisons[edit]

This is a list of Proto-Semitic stems (triconsonantal roots and extensions) with their reflexes in several Semitic languages (i.e. actually-pronounced forms with vowels, as opposed to Semitic pure consonantal roots). Only stems attested in Akkadian, or with cognates in other Afroasiatic groups, can be confidently included in Proto-Semitic; others must be placed in West Semitic. There is some controversy in Semitic linguistics over the sibilants' pronunciation.

Proto-Semitic stems and their reflexes:

Proto-Semitic stems[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Ge'ez Mehri Phoenician
earth *ʼarṣ́- erṣet- ʼarḍ- ʼéreṣ ʼarʻ-ā ? ʼāɮˤ ʼarṣ
father *ʼab- ab- ʼab- ʼāḇ ʼaḇ-ā ʼab ḥa-yb ʼab,bu
god *ʼil-(āh)- il- ʼilāh- ʼēl-(ôh)- ʼalāh-ā - - ʼel-, ʼil-(ūh)-
grape/wine[3][4] *wayn- - wayn- yáyin ('wine') - wayn- - yen
house *bayt- bīt-, bēt- bayt- báyiṯ, bêṯ bayt-ā bet beyt, bêt bet, bit
lord *baʻl- bēl- baʻl- báʻal baʻl-ā baʻāl bâl baʻl
king *malik- mal(i)k- (> "prince") malik- méleḵ malk-ā - - malk, milk
milk *x̣alīb- ḫilp- ḥalīb-, ḥalab- ḥālāḇ ḥalḇ-ā ḥalīb - ḥaleb
name *šim- šum- ism- šēm šm-ā sim ham šēm
peace *šalām- šalām- salām- šālôm šlām-ā salām səlōm šolūm, šolēm
sun *śamš- šamš- šams- šémeš šemš-ā - - šamš
tree *ʻiṣ́- iṣ-, iṣṣ- ʻiḍ-at- ʻēṣ - ʻiṣ ʼaʻā ʻiṣ
water *māy- māy- máyim mayy-ā māy ḥə-mō mem, meym, may

Body parts[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
blood *dam- dam- dam- dām dm-ā dam dam ('pus') dom
eye *ʻayn- īn- ʻayn- ʻáyin ʻayn-ā ʻayn ʼāyn ʻeyn,ʻen
ear *'uðn- uzn- ʼuḏun-, ʼuḏn ʼṓzen ʼeḏn-ā
hand *yad- id- yad- yāḏ ʼīḏ-ā ʼid ḥayd yad, yid, id
heart *lib(a)b- libb- lubb- lēḇ(āḇ) lebb-ā libb ḥa-wbēb libb
tongue *lišān-/*lašān- lišān- lisān- lāšôn leššān-ā lissān əwšēn lošūn, lašūn,lšūn
tooth *šinn- šinn- sinn- šēn šenn-ā śinn* - šinn-

Animal names[edit]

English PS Akkadian Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
bull *ṯawr- šūr- ṯawr- šôr (> "ox") tawr-ā sōr - šūr
camel *gamal- gammal- (gaml-) ǧimal (jimal)- gāmāl gaml-ā gimel gəmmōl gemāl, gamāl
dog *kalb- kalb- kalb- kéleḇ kalb-ā kalb kōb kalb
ewe *raḫil- laḫr- riḫl(at)- rāḫēl - - - -
  • Note: "ś" is used to transliterate Ge'ez śin, which could represent either "ś" or "s", depending on the word and time period.

Proto-West-Semitic stems[edit]

This is a list of cognates for which no Akkadian cognate is known or attested.

English PWS Arabic Hebrew Syriac Geez Mehri Phoenician
holiness *ḳudš- quds- qṓḏeš quḏš-ā qiddūs - quddoš,qudš
son *bn- ibn- bēn br-ā - bər, ḥə-brē bin
wasp *dVb(V)r- dabr-, dibr- dəḇôrāh (> "bee") debbōr-ā, debbor-t-ā - - dobrot
yogurt *laban- laban- (> "milk") lāḇān - - lbōn labūn

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kogan, Leonid (2012). "Proto-Semitic Lexicon". In Weninger, Stefan (ed.). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 179–258. →ISBN.
  2. ^ Fronzaroli, P. 1963-1971. Studi sul lessico comune semitico. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti della Classe di Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche VIII.
  3. ^ D. Jordan, An Offering of Wine, Doctoral Thesis, The Department of Semitic Studies, University of Sydney (2002)
  4. ^ Online Etymology, "Wine"

See also[edit]

External links[edit]