Appendix:List of Proto-Aslian reconstructions

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The Proto-Aslian language is the reconstructed proto-language of the Aslian languages of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand. It has been reconstructed by Timothy Phillips (2012).

The 289 reconstructed Proto-Aslian forms below are from Phillips (2012:259-262).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Aslian
water, river *[bə]teew
spider *[ca(n)]bɨŋ
termite *[d/g]arɯɯɲ
to swallow *[gə]liik
liver *[gə]rɛɛs
pig *[ɟa]lɯɯʔ
nest *[kə]soom
to close (eyes) *[lə]bit
one *[m/n]uay
to plant *[pə]tam
to whistle *[s/h]uəc
new *[s]paay
right (side) *[sa]tam
to sweep *[tam]pɯɯs
earth *[ʔa]tiɛʔ
cooked *[ʔən]cɛɛn
(iterative) *{(–)l–}
(nominalizer agentive) *{(-)m-}
(nominalizer) *{(-)n-}
(causative) *{pər-}
(plural/comparative) *{–ra–}
to dig *baay
descendant *bakaʔ
sky *baliiŋ
to carry on back *baʔ
deer *bəhɔ(ɔ)l
sated (of food) *bəhiiʔ
to tie *bək
flower *bəkaaw
to break *bəkah
blowgun *bəlaaw
arm *bəliiŋ
thigh *bəlooʔ
mountain *bənɨ(ɨ)m
dart butt *bərɔl
forest *bəriʔ
mushroom *bətees
white *bəy[oo]k
flood *bəʔaak
good *bəʔet
hot *bɨt
drunk *bɯɯl
to suck *bɯɯʔ
to put/place *boh
cane *bus
alligator *buyaaʔ
to say *ca(a)l
to eat *caaʔ
cah *cah
to catch *cap
to stab *cɔk
to tear *cɛ(ɛ)s
louse *cɛ(ɛ)ʔ
fingernail *cə(n)ruas
rainbow *cədaaw
to hiccough *cədək
bird *cɛɛm
to cook *cɛɛn
hard *cəgɛh
gecko *cəkʔiɛk
back *cəloon
sharp *cəma(a)ʔ
drum *cəntɯɯgŋ
eyebrow *cəŋcɛ̃ɛ̃ŋ
rib *cərəs
winnow basket *cəruuʔ
to walk *ciip
tattoo *cɨl
to burn *coom
to dig *cuam
to defecate *cuəh
dog *cuəʔ
to see *daŋ
type of monkey *dɔŋ
they (3P) *deh
bamboo rat *dəka(a)n
to push *dəlũũʔ
house *dɯɯŋ
afternoon *duuy
waist *gaal
to bite *gaɲ
to carry on back *gɔl
moon *gəcɛɛʔ
sweet *gəhɛɛt
to whisper *gəlisɛɛh
to laugh *gəluk
monitor lizard *gəriɛŋ
to spit *gətɔh
they (3P) *gɨn
to winnow *gɯɯm
to carry on shoulder *gulam
mortar *guul
where *hã(ã)n
we two (1D.IN) *haar
to raft *halap
mucus *hawa(a)r
you (2S) *heeʔ
to breathe *hə̃m
we (1P.IN) *hiiʔ
to play *hiŋkaaʔ
to cry *ɟaam / *ʔiɟaam
to step on *ɟak
chin/jaw *ɟaŋka(a)ʔ
thorn *ɟarlaaʔ
to suck *ɟɔ̃ɔ̃t
we (1P.EX) *ɟeeʔ
tree *ɟəhuuʔ
to bark *ɟəl
bone *ɟəʔaaŋ
to breathe *ɟɨk
to move *ɟɯɯk
foot/leg *ɟuŋ
mouse *k[a]niɛʔ
centipede *k[a]ʔiɛp
to scratch *kaac
fish *kaaʔ
to carry under arm *kamiɛk
elbow *kaɲɔŋ
small *kanɛ(ɛ)t
to bite *kap
thunder *karɛɛy
tree trunk *karəŋ
bear *kawããp
pregnant *kayoot
male *kɔɔɲ
he/she (3S) *ke
to pull *ke(e)ŋ
husband *kə(n)siir
to fish *kəbəc
to spit *kəbɛɛc
fruit *kəbɨɨʔ
to die *kəbɨs
mosquito *kəboʔ
bitter *kədɛk
to seek *kɛɛʔ
to gape *kəhuəy
to fall *kəl
eagle *kəlaaŋ
shoulder *kəlapuəh
firefly *kəlɨɨt
inside *kəluəŋ
to obtain *kəm
twin *kəmbaar
mosquito *kəmeet
ghost *kəmooc
worm, caterpillar *kəmuar
nephew *kəmuən
quick *kəɲaaŋ
wife *kəndah
turtle *kəpiil
back *kərɔʔ
to dance *kərɟɛr
under *kəroom
knee *kərual
calf (leg) *kəteŋ
skin, bark *kətɯɯʔ
to hear *kəyɔŋ
anus *kiɛt
top *kipaaŋ
to vomit *kɯɯʔ
male *kooɲ
butterfly *krkbaak
to hold, grasp *kuəm
child *kuən
head *kuuy
brain *lakuəm
ant *las
wrong/miss *lɛc
armpit *ləda(a)ʔ
bamboo *leew
saliva *ləhiɛŋ
quiver *lək
tooth *ləmooɲ
gums *ləɲsiɲ
tongue *ləntaak
neck *ləŋɛ(ɛ)ʔ
rain *ləsəm
bee *ləwɛɛy
to plait (leaves) *liɛp
you (2S) *m(??)h
blood *mahaam
to play *man
eye *mat
nose *mɔɔh
how many? *məriɛm
cheek *miɛŋ
louse *mro(o)ɲ
to bathe *muuh
boar *napak
to urinate *nɔɔm
before *nɛŋ
mat *niis
road *nooŋ
to suck *ɲooʔ
bee *padaw
to chop *pak
shelf *paraaʔ
monitor lizard *pareeʔ
to break wind *pəhɨɨm
astonished *pəlɛ(ɛ)ʔ
bat *pəleek
fruit *pəlɛɛʔ
leech *pələm
roof *pəluaŋ
egg *pənlɯɯŋ
wing *pərəc
turtle *pəʔaas
to extinguish *pɨɨt
to blow *pɨt
chicken *puk
to thresh *rəmpiɛt
soul *rəwaay
to wring *riɛt
friend *rudɔŋ
friend *ruəp
fly *ruəy
to sow *ruuy
root *rʔiɛs / ʔriɛs
to descend *sa(a)r
hair, feather *sɔɔk
end *sɛ(ɛ)ɲ
tail *sə[n]taaʔ
flesh *sɛc
to pound *sɛɛh
shy *sɛɛl
to ask, request *səgu(u)ʔ
field *səlaay
leaf *səlaaʔ
cockroach *səlɨʔdeʔ
to blowpipe *səluuh
to ask *səmaaɲ
human being *səmaaʔ
cold *səŋɛc
darkness *səŋəp
to steal *siɛc
to forget *siɛm
to dance *sisɛʔ
house *siyãʔ
to sting *sɯɯc
navel *suək
marrow *suəm
to wash *suuc
lung *suup
to plait, weave *taaɲ
thumb *tabooʔ
to carry in hand *taɟaak
snake *taɟuuʔ
python *talun
type of gibbon *tawɔɔh
spider *tawiiŋ
to burn *tɔɔt
full *təbiŋ
turtle *təhop
to blow *təhuəl
pus *təkɔɔʔ
stone *təmɔʔ
male *təmkal
lip *təniit
molar *təŋ(k)əm
to sleep *tiɛk
footprint *tiɛl
to dry *tiil
to carry on head *tool
to pull out *tuəs
to wake up *wɔɔk
to throw out *we(e)n
they two (3D) *weeh
again *weel
to squeeze *wɛ̃ɛ̃n
left (side) *wiɛl
I (1S) *yɛɛʔ
tiger *ʔaap
stick/spear *ʔaat
to swell *ʔas
ladle *ʔawak
to smell *ʔɔ̃ɔ̃ɲ
fire *ʔɔɔs
crow *ʔə[k]ʔaak
belly, excrement *ʔɛc
to dream *ʔəmpuaʔ
ripe *ʔəndɯɯm
before *ʔəɲiiʔ
ear *ʔəntaŋ
testicle *ʔəntap
I (1S) *ʔiiɲ
wasp *ʔoo[k/ŋ]
to command *ʔoor
to give *ʔuək
to do *ʔuuy

References[edit]

  • Phillips, Timothy C. 2012. Proto-Aslian: towards an understanding of its historical linguistic systems, principles and processes. Ph.D. thesis, Institut Alam Dan Tamadun Melayu Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi.
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