User:Victar/Wiktionary:About Proto-Iranian

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Verbs[edit]

Active tense[edit]

Primary
PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
Example *h₁éyti (to go) *Háyti एति (éti) *Háytī 𐬀𐬉𐬙𐬍 (aētī) 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 (aitiy)
Singular 1st *-mi, *-oh₂ *-mi -mi *-mī -mī -miy
2nd *-si *-si -si *-hī -hī -hạy
3rd *-ti *-ti -ti *-tī -tī -tiy
Dual 1st *-wós *-wás -vaḥ *-wáhī -uuáhī --
2nd *-tés *-tʰás -thaḥ *-θáh -θá --
3rd -taḥ -tə̄́, -θə̄́ --
Plural 1st *-mós *-más -maḥ *-máhī -máhī -máhạy
2nd *-té *-tʰá -thá *-θā́ -θā́ --
3rd *-énti *-ánti -anti *-ántī -ṇtī, -atī, -ainti -ántiy
Secondary
Singular 1st *-m *-m -m *-m -m, -um -am
2nd *-s *-s -s *-h -h, -s, -š -Ø, -š
3rd *-t *-t -t *-t -t --
Dual 1st *-wé *-wá -va *-wá -uuá --
2nd *-tóm *-tám -tam *-tám -tə́m --
3rd *-tā́m *-tā́m -tā́m *-tā́m -tə̄́m --
Plural 1st *-mé *-má -ma *-mā́ -mā́ -mā́
2nd *-té *-tá -tá *-tā́ -tā́ --
3rd *-ént *-ánt -ant *-ánt -n, -at -áⁿ

Noun declension[edit]

masculine a-stems[edit]

PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan[1][2] Old Persian[1][2]
Example *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf) *wŕ̥kas वृकः (vṛ́kaḥ) *wŕ̥kah 𐬬𐬆𐬵𐬭𐬐𐬇 (və́hrkə̄) 𐎺𐎼𐎣 (várkaʰ)
Singular Nominative *-ós *-ás[1][2] -áḥ *-áh[1] -ə̄́ -áʰ
Vocative *-é *-á *-á -ā́
Accusative *-óm *-ám -ám *-ám[1] -ə́m -ám
Instrumental *-óh₁ > *-ṓ *-ā́ -ena *-ā́ -ā́ ā́
Ablative *-óed > *-ṓd *-ā́t[1] -ā́t *-ā́t -ā́t̰
Dative *-óey > *-ṓy *-ā́y[2] -ā́ya *-ái[1], -ā́i -ā́i(ā) -áh(ạ)yā, -áhya
Genitive *-ósyo *-ásya -ásya *-áhya[2][1] -áhiyā
Locative *-éy *-ái *-áy[2], *-ái[1] -ṓi, -ⁱē -áiy, -áyā
Dual Nominative *-óh₁ > *-ṓ *-ā́ -au *-ā́ -ā́ -ā́
Vocative
Accusative
Instrumental *-ōybʰōm? *-āybʰyām? -ābhyām *-aybyā[2] -ōibiiā -aibiyā
Ablative
Dative
Genitive *-oyows? *-ayaws[2], *-ayās[2] -ayoḥ *-ayāh[1] -aiiā̊ -āiyāʰ
Locative *-ayah -aiiō, -ōiiō
Plural Nominative *-óes > *-ṓs *-ā́s(as)[2] -ā́ḥ *-ā́(hah)[1] -ā́, -ā̊ŋhō -ā́(haʰ)
Vocative
Accusative *-óens > *-ṓns *-ā́ns[2][1] -ā́n *-áŋh[1] -ə̄́ṇg
Instrumental *-ṓys *-ā́yš -áiḥ *-ā́yš[2] -ā́iš -aibiš
Ablative *-óymos *-áybʰyas -ébhyaḥ *-áybyah -áēⁱbiiō, -ṓibiiō
Dative
Genitive *-óoHom > *-ṓm *-ānā́m -ānā́m *-ānā́m[2] -anąm -ānā́m
Locative *-óysu *-áyšu -éṣu *-áyšu[2] -áēšū, -áēšuua -áišuvā

r-stems[edit]

PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan[1] Old Persian[1][2]
Example *ph₂tḗr (father) *pHtā́[2] पिता (pitā́) *pHtā́ p(i/a)ta 𐎱𐎡𐎫𐎠 (pitā)
Singular Nominative *-érs > *-ḗr *-ā́ -ā́ *-ā́ -ā́ -ā́
Vocative *-ér *-ár -ár *-ár -árᵊ -ár
Accusative *-érm̥ *-áram -áram *-ā́ram -ā́rᵊm, -rə̄m -ā́ram
Instrumental *-réh₁ *-ráH -rā́ *-ráH -rā́ -rā́
Ablative *-rés *-ŕ̥š -úr *-ŕ̥š, *-ŕ̥t -ə́rᵊt̰ -raʰ
Dative *-réy *-ráy -ré *-ráy -rōi, rē
Genitive *-rés *-ŕ̥š[2] -úr *-ŕ̥š *-ráš, *-árš[2]
Locative *-ér(i) *-ári -ári *-ári
Dual Nominative *-érh₁e -*árHa -árau -*árHa -ára
Vocative
Accusative
Instrumental *? *-ŕ̥bʰyām -ṛ́bhyām *-ŕ̥byām -árᵊbiia
Ablative
Dative
Genitive *? *-ráws -róḥ *-ráwh -aráo
Locative
Plural Nominative *-éres *-áras -áraḥ *-árah -árō
Vocative
Accusative *-érn̥s *-ŕ̥nš -ṝn *-ŕ̥nš[2] -ə́rąš, -ə́rə̄š
Instrumental *-r̥bʰí *-ŕ̥bʰiš -ṛ́bhiḥ *-ŕ̥biš
Ablative *-r̥mós *-ŕ̥bʰyas -ṛ́bhyaḥ *-ŕ̥byah -árᵊbiiō, -ə́ruiiō
Dative
Genitive *-róHom > *-rṓm *-rā́m -ṝṇā́m *-rā́m -rąm
Locative *-r̥sú *-r̥šú -ṛ́ṣu *-r̥šú

Reflexes of Proto-Indo-Iranian[edit]

Consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr Av. OPers. Examples
PIE PII Skr. PIR Av. OPers.
*b *b b *b b *bélom (strength, force) *bálam bálam [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*bʰ
*bH
*bʰ bh *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā brā́ta brā́tā
*d *d d *d *d d *dóru (wood) *dā́ru dā́ru *dā́ru YAv. dā́ᵘru dā́ruv
*dʰ
*dH
*dʰ dh *dʰoréyeti (to hold) *dʰāráyati dhāráyati *dāráyatī dāraiiat̰ (inj.) dārayāmiy (1sg.)
[C 1] θ [Term?] [Term?] dhánus [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ *g g *g g *gʷṓws (cow) *gā́wš gáuḥ *gā́wš gā́uš gā́vʰ
*gʲ[C 2] *ȷ́ j j j *gʷih₃wós (alive) *ǰiHwáš jīváḥ *ǰiHwáh juuṓ jīváʰ
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ
*g⁽ʷ⁾H
*gʰ gh *g g *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *dr̥Hgáh darᵊgə̄́ dargáʰ
*gʰʲ[C 2] *ǰʰ *ȷ́ʰ > *źʰ h j *gʷʰn̥tós (slain, killed) *ǰʰatás hatáḥ *ǰatás jatṓ jatáʰ
*ȷ́ j z z *ǵénh₁os (race, lineage) *ĵánHas jánaḥ *ĵánHah zánə̄ zánaʰ
*ǵʰ
*ǵH
*ĵʰ *ȷ́ʰ > *źʰ h d[C 2] *ǵʰl̥h₃enyom (gold) *ĵʰr̥Hanyam híraṇyam *ĵr̥Hanyam zarə̄nyə́m dáraniyam
*k⁽ʷ⁾ *k k *k *k k *kóh₂mos (wish, desire) *kā́mas kā́maḥ *kā́mah kā́mō kā́maʰ
*x[C 3] x *ḱukrós (bright) *ĉukrás śukráḥ *ĉuxráh suxrṓ θuxráʰ
*kʲ[C 2] c c c *kérmn̥ (skin) *čárman cárman *čárman cárᵊman cárman
[C 4] š *kyéwetor ((s)he goes) *čyáwatey cyávate *šyáwatai š́auuaitē (med.) ašiyava (impf.)
*k⁽ʷ⁾H *kʰ kh *k *x x *sekʷh₂-ṓy (friend) *sakHā́y sakhā́ *haxā́y YAv. haxa
*ḱ ś s θ *ḱukrós (bright) *ĉukrás śukráḥ *ĉuxráh suxrṓ θuxráʰ
[C 5] *ṣ š s *h₃eḱteh₃ (eight) *Haĉtā́ áṣṭā́ *Haštā́ aštā́ MP hašt
*s *s s *s *h h *sm̥-dʰó- (with) *sadʰá sadhá, sahá *hadā́ hadā́ hadā́
ŋ[C 6] *h₁ésh₂ros (blood)[3] *HásHras ásraḥ *HásHrah YAv. aŋrō
[C 7] [C 8] š *sméreti (to remember) *smárati smárati *hmáratī marəṇtī (3pl.) BMP ōšmurdan
[C 9] *ṣ š *h₁r̥stís (spear) *Hr̥štíš ṛṣṭíḥ *Hr̥štíš arštíš arštíš
*ṣ[C 10]
*m *m m *m m *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā *máHtā mā́tā mā́tā
*n *n n *n n *néyHeti (to lead) *náyHati náyati *náyHatī YAv. naiieiti anaya (impf.)
*p *p p *p p *ph₂tḗr (father) *pHtā́[2] pitā́ *pHtā́ p(i/a)ta pitā
p f[C 11] *septḿ̥ (seven) *saptá saptá *haptá[4] haptá BMP haft
*pH *pʰ ph *p *f f *kepHos (phlegm) *kapHas[5] kaphaḥ *kafah kafō
*l *l~r l~r *r *r r *ḱelh₁éd (autumn) *ĉarHád śarád *ĉarHád sarə́d θarád
*r *r r *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā brā́ta brā́tā
[C 12] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*∅[C 13] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*t *t t *t *t t *tenúh₂s (body) *tanúHs tanū́ḥ *tanúHs tanū́š tanū́š
[C 7] θ *twéHom (you, acc.sg.) *twáHam tvā́m *θwáHam θβąm θᵘvā́m
d[C 14] *wokʷtlom (mouth) *wáktram váktram *wáxθram YAv. váxᵊδrəm
θ š[C 4][C 15] *h₁sn̥tyós (real, true) *Hsatyás satyáḥ *Hhaθyáh haⁱθiiṓ hašiya
*tH *tʰ th *t θ *Hróth₂os (chariot) *Hrátʰas ráthaḥ *Hráθah ráθə̄ uraθaʰ
*t[C 16] t *sth₂uh₂néh₂ (pillar) *stʰuHnáH sthūṇā́ *stuHnáH stūná stūnā́
*w *w v *w v *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf) *wŕ̥kas vṛ́kaḥ *wŕ̥kah və́hrkə̄ várka
*y *y y *y y *yéh₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáĵati yájati *yáĵatī YAv. yázaiti yádataiy
Notes
  1. ^ Rare.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Before the front vowels *i, *e
  3. ^ Before *r, *r̥, *u, *k, *i (Pedersen's ('RUKI') Law)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Before *y
  5. ^ Before *t, *dʰ, and *bʰ
  6. ^ word-medially before *r
  7. 7.0 7.1 Before a consonant
  8. ^ word-initial before *m
  9. ^ After *r, *r̥, *u, *k, *i
  10. ^ After *r
  11. ^ Before t
  12. ^ word-initial
  13. ^ before *ĉ, *b, *m, *p, *ṣ
  14. ^ After *x and *f
  15. ^ Before *n
  16. ^ After *s

Consonant clusters[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr Av. Per. Examples
PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
*bʰs *bžʰ[CC 1] *bẓʰ ps *bž *bʰsoHtós (eaten) *bžʰaHtás psātáḥ
*bʰ(s)ḱ *bᶻgʰ[CC 1] *bgʰ bgh [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*bᶻgʰ[CC 1] > *bᶻgʰʲ[CC 2] *bᶻǰ *bȷ́ bj *bǰ bj *ubʰsḱéti (to press down) *ubǰáti ubjáti *ubǰáti ubjiiāite (pass.subj.)
*bʰt *bdʰ[CC 1] *bdʰ bdh *bd bd *ubʰtós (woven) *ubdʰás ubdháḥ *ubdáh YAv. ubdaēna
*dd *dᶻd[CC 3] *dd dd *dd *ĵd zd [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] fra-uuōizdūm (2pl.aor.mid.inj.) [Term?]
*dʰt
*dHt
*ddʰ[CC 1] *dᶻdʰ[CC 3] *ddʰ ddh *n̥-dh₁téh₂ (unbound) *adᶻdʰáH addhā́ *aĵdáH azdā́ azdā́
*sd *zd[CC 4] *zd *zd ːd *zd *nésdisth₂os (closest, sup.) *názdistʰHas nédiṣṭhaḥ *názdištʰHah názdištō BMP nazdist
*žd[CC 5] *ẓd ːḍ *žd žd *nisdós (nest) *niždás nīḍáḥ [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*d(s)g⁽ʷ⁾ *dᶻg[CC 6] *dg dg *ĵg *zg *Hodsgʷós (knot, sprout) *Hádᶻgas *ádgaḥ *Háĵgah [Term?] BMP azg
*dᶻg[CC 6] > *dᶻgʲ[CC 2] *dᶻǰ *dȷ́? *ĵǰ? *zj? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sg⁽ʷ⁾ *zg *zg *zg *zg *zg [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zg[CC 4] > *zgʲ[CC 2] *zǰ *zȷ́? jj? *zǰ? *zj? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ
*sg⁽ʷ⁾H
*zgʰ *zgʰ zgh *zg zg [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zgʰ[CC 4] > *zgʰʲ[CC 2] *zǰʰ *zȷ́ʰ > *zźʰ? *jj *zǰ? *zj? *mésgʰn̥ (marrow) *mazǰan majján [Term?] majjñā́ (inst.) [Term?]
*dt *tt[CC 4] *tˢt[CC 3] *tt tt *tt *ĉt st *ud-tn̥h₂nós uttānáḥ ustānə̄́
*t(s)t *t(s)t
*dtH *ttʰ[CC 4] *tˢtʰ[CC 3] *ttʰ tth *ĉθ *ud-sth₂- (standing up) *utstʰa uttha
*t(s)tH *t(s)tʰ
*sdʰ
*sdH
*zdʰ[CC 4] *zdʰ ːdh *zd zd *mn̥s-dʰh₁éh₂ (wisdom) *mazdʰHáH medhā́ *mazdHáH mazdā̊ aura-mazdā
*zdʰ[CC 4]> > *ždʰ[CC 5] *ždʰ *ẓdʰ ːḍh *žd žd *misdʰóm (reward) *miždʰám mīḍhám *miždám mīždə́m BMP mizd
*ǵʰt *ĵʰt[CC 7] > ždʰ[CC 1] *h₃miǵʰtós (urinated) *Hmiždʰás mīḍháḥ YAv. maēzəṇti (3pl.) BMP mist
*dʰg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *gʰdʰ[CC 8] *gžʰ[CC 1] *gẓʰ kṣ *gž *dʰgʷʰéreti (to flow) *gžʰárati kṣárati *gžáratī YAv. γžaraiti NPer. šārīdan
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰs *gʰs
*ǵʰs *ĵʰs[CC 7] *ĵžʰ[CC 1] *ȷ́ẓʰ ?> źẓʰ *ȷ́ẓʰ *ĵž > *ž[CC 9] z *neyǵʰs? (a spit) nikṣati YAv. naēzəm BMP nēzag
*dḱ
*tḱ
*ḱθ[CC 8] > *ḱs > *ḱš[CC 5] *ĉš[CC 7] *kṣ *ŝš > *š[CC 9] š *tḱéyti (to settle, populate) *ĉšáyti kṣéti *šáyti šaēiti
*ḱs *ḱš[CC 5] *déḱsinos (right (side)) *dáĉšinas dákṣiṇaḥ *dášinah dáṣ̌inə̄ BMP dašn
*g⁽ʷ⁾s *ks[CC 4] *kš[CC 5] *xš *ksnutós (sharpened) *kšnutás kṣṇutáḥ *xšnutáh xšnutə̄́ xšnutáʰ
*k⁽ʷ⁾s *ks
*dk⁽ʷ⁾
*t(s)k⁽ʷ⁾
*kθ[CC 8] > *ks *tketróm (power, dominion) *kšatrám kṣatrám *xšaθrám xšaθrə́m xšaçám
*t(s)kʲ[CC 2] > *t(s)č[CC 10] *tˢč[CC 3] *ćć cc *ĉč sc *ud-kʷeh₁ (above) *utˢčā́ uccā́ *uĉčā́ YAv. uscá [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰt *gʰt *ktʰ[CC 1] *ktʰ kth *t *xθ *h₁ugʰtóm (saying, word) *Huktʰám ukthám *Huxθám uxδa BMP waxtan
*gʰsḱ *zgʰ[CC 1] *zgʰ zgh [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zgʰ[CC 1] > *zgʰʲ[CC 2] *zǰʰ *zǰ zj *twengʰsḱéti (to compel) *twenzǰʰáti [Term?] *θwenzǰátī YAv. θβązjaiti
*ǵt *ḱt[CC 4] *ĉt[CC 7] *kt kt *št st št našta- vinasta-
*ǵ⁽ʰ⁾w *ĵ⁽ʰ⁾w[CC 7] *ȷ́⁽ʰ⁾w > *ź⁽ʰ⁾w hv *ĵw zb z *ǵʰwéreti (to move crookedly) *ĵʰwárati hvárati *ĵwáratī zbárəṇtī MMP przyr-
*ḱw *ĉw[CC 7] *św śv *čp *ĉw sp s *h₁éḱwos (horse) *Háĉwas áśvaḥ *Háĉwah YAv. áspō ásaʰ
*rt *rt *rt rt *ṭṭ *rt ṣ̌ rt [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*rw *rw *rw rv *w *rw ᵘruu ruv [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sḱ *sĉ[CC 7] *ŝĉ[CC 11] *śś > *ćś c(c)h *ŝŝ >[CC 9] s *pr̥sḱéti (to question) *pr̥sĉáti pṛcchāmi (1sg.) *pr̥ŝáti fraštā (aor.inj.med.) pr̥sāmiy (1sg.)
*sw *sw *sw sv *šp *hw > *xʷ xᵛ ʰuv *swépnos (sleep) *swápnas svápnaḥ *xwápnah xᵛafᵊnə̄ BMP xuftan
*tr *tr *tr tr *tr *θr θr ç *putrós (boy) *putrás putráḥ *puθráh puθrə̄́ puça
Notes
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Bartholomae's law
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Before the front vowels *i, *e
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Double-Dental" rule
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Voicing assimilation of first obstruent from second in obstruent pairs
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Pedersen's 'RUKI' sound law
  6. 6.0 6.1 Affrication of dentals before a velar
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Primary palatalization
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Metathesis of 'thorn' clusters
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 S₁S₂ > S₂
  10. ^ Secondary palatalization
  11. ^ Palatalization of *s before *ĉ

Vowels and syllabic consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr Av. Per. Examples
PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
*h₁e *He *Ha a [ə~ɐ] *Ha a [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*h₂e *Ha [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*h₃e *Ho > *Ha *h₁su-h₃épos (well-working) *HsuHápas svápas *HsuHápah huuāpah BMP xūb
*e *e *a *a *déḱm̥ (ten) *dáĉa[4] dáśa *dáĉa dasa BMP dah
ə̄[V 1] a *ǵʰl̥h₃enyom (gold) *ĵʰr̥Hanyam híraṇyam *ĵr̥Hanyam zarə̄nyə́m dáraniyam
*n̥, *m̥ a *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) *ĉatám śatám *ĉatám satə́m BMP sad
*o *a *ǵónh₁os (birth; offspring) *ĵánHas jánaḥ *ĵánHah YAv.sruuōzanō paruvzanārām
*o[V 2] o *moḱsú (early, soon) *maĉšú makṣū́ *mošú mošú [Term?]
[V 3] ā [ɑː] ā *ǵónu (knee) *ĵā́nu jā́nu *zā́nu zānu BMP zānūg
*h₂nḗr (man) *Hnā́ nā́ *Hnā́
*wṓkʷs (voice, speech) *wā́kš vā́c *wā́xš vā́xš wā́z
*eH *eH *aH *aH *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā *máHtā mā́tā mā́tā
*oH *aH *kóh₂mos (wish, desire) *kā́mas kā́maḥ *kā́mah kā́mə̄ kā́maʰ
*ey *ey *ay e *ay ai *h₁éyti (to go) *Háyti éti *Háyti aētī aitiy
*oy *ay ōi[V 4] *h₂n̥réy *Hnáray náre *Hnáray narōi
*ēy *ēy *āy *āy ai *āy āi
*ōy *āy *ā(y)[V 5] ā *ā(y) ā(i)
*eHi *eHi *aHi *aHi ai *aHi āi
*oHi *aHi *aH(i)[V 5] ā *aH(i) ā(i)
*ew *ew *aw o *aw ao au *léwkos (light) *ráwčas rócaḥ *ráwčah ráočə̄ ráučaʰ
*ow *aw ə̄u[V 6] *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰéwsos (noise) *gʰáwšas ghóṣaḥ *gáwšah gə̄́ušə̄ gáušaʰ
*ēw *ēw *āw au *āw āu *stḗwti (to praise) *stā́wti stáuti *stā́wti stāumī BMP stāyēd
*ōw *āw
*eHu *eHu *aHu *aHu
*oHu *aHu
*i *i i *i i *ǵʰimós (cold, frost) *ĵʰimás himáḥ *zimáh zimō (gen.) BMP zam
*H *H *H *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) *Hŕ̥ĉšas ṛ́kṣaḥ *Hŕ̥šah árṣ̌ə̄ BMP ārs
*Hᵢ[V 7][6] i *Hᵢ (i/a) i *ph₂tḗr (father) *pHᵢtā́[2] pitā́ (pitā́) *pHᵢtā́ p(i/a)ta pitā
ī[V 8] avamīt
*∅[V 9] *∅ *yéH₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáĵati yájati *yáĵatī YAv yázaiti yádataiy
*iH *iH ī *iH ī *wiHrós (man) *wiHrás vīráḥ *wiHrás vīrə̄́ BMP wīr
*u *u u *u u *yugóm (yoke) *yugám yugám *yugám yugə́m BMP juğ
ū ū *h₁su-ūktós (well-spoken) *Hsūktás sūktáḥ *Hhūxtáh hūxtə̄́
*uH *uH *uH *múh₂s (mouse) *múHs mū́ṣ *múHs mūh BMP mušk
*l̥, *r̥ *r̥ *ir *r̥ ərᵊ *ḱr̥d- (heart) *ĵʰŕ̥dayam hṛ́dayam *ĵŕ̥dayam[4] YAv. zárəδaiiəm MP dil
*ĺ̥, *ŕ̥ *ŕ̥ ṛ́ *ír *ŕ̥ ə́hr[V 10] ár *kŕ̥pos (body) *kŕ̥pas kṛ́paḥ *kŕ̥pah kə́hrpō BMP kirb
ṛ́[V 11] [Term?] (to be merciful) *mr̥ždantu mṛ́ḍantu [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*r̥H, l̥H *r̥H īr *r̥H arᵊ ar *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *dr̥Hgáh darᵊgə̄́ dargáʰ
ūr[V 12] *pl̥h₁nós (full) *pr̥Hnás pūrṇá pərᵊnə̄́? BMP purr
Notes
  1. ^ Before a nasal
  2. ^ After *m, *p, *w followed by a syllable containing *u
  3. ^ Open syllable (Brugmann's law)
  4. ^ In closed medial syllables or final syllables
  5. 5.0 5.1 Word finally
  6. ^ Before š
  7. ^ Interconsonantally
  8. ^ Interconsonantally word-final
  9. ^ Before *ǵ (Lubotsky's law)
  10. ^ Before *k, *p
  11. ^ Before *ž
  12. ^ In the vicinity of labials

References[edit]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2007), “Avestan and Old Persian Morphology”, in Morphologies of Asia and Africa, pages 853-940
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 García, Javier Martínez; de Vaan, Michiel (2014) Introduction to Avestan (Brill Introductions to Indo-European Languages; 1), Brill, ISBN 9789004258099
  3. ^ “अस्र” in Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 114
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kim, Ronald I. (2007), “Two problems of Ossetic nominal morphology”, in Indogermanische Forschungen, volume 112, pages 47-68
  5. ^ Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2016), “An Introduction to Old Persian”, in (Please provide the title of the work), 2nd edition, page 148: “*kapHa”
  6. ^ Jamison, Stephanie W. (1988), “The Quantity of the Outcome of Vocalized Laryngeals in Indic”, in Bammesberger, Alfred, editor, Die Laryngaltheorie und die Rekonstruktion des indogermanischen Laut- und Formensystems, Heidelberg: Winter, pages 213-226