User:Victar/Wiktionary:About Proto-Iranian

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Reflexes of Proto-Indo-Iranian[edit]

Consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur pre-PIr PIr OIr Examples
Av. Pers. PIE PII Skr. PIR Old Iranian
*b *b b *b b *bélom (strength, force) *bálam bálam [Term?]
*bʰ *bʰ bh *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā OAv. brā́ta, OP brā́tā
*b[C 1] > *p[C 2] *p p *p *pʰ[C 3] *f f *h₃nṓbʰs (navel) *Hnā́pš [Term?] *Hnā́fš
*p *p p *p *p p *ph₂tḗr (father) *pHtā́ pitā́ *pHtā́ OAv. pᵊtá, OP pitā́
*pʰ[C 3] *f f *h₂ṓps (water) *Hā́pš [Term?] *Hā́fš
p[C 4] f *septḿ̥ (seven) *saptá saptá *haftá OAv. haptá, BMP haft
*pʰ[C 5] ph *p *pʰ f *kepHos (phlegm) *kapʰas kaphaḥ *kafah OAv. kafə̄
*b[C 2] b *b b *pdós (of the foot) *bdás [Term?] *bdáh frabda
*píph₃eti (to drink) *píbati píbati
*d *d d *d *d d *dóru (wood) *dā́ru dā́ru *dā́ru YAv. dā́ᵘru, OP dā́ruv
*t[C 6] > *tʰ[C 5] θ *deh₂iwḗr (brother-in-law) *daHiwā́ devā́ *θHaywā́
*dʰ[C 5] dh *d d [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*t[C 2] t *t t *h₁ḗdsi (you eat) *Hā́tsi *átsi
*t *t *t t *t *t t *tenúh₂s (body) *tanúHs tanū́ḥ *tanúHs OAv. tanū́š, OP tanū́š
*tʰ[C 7][C 3] θ *twéHom (you, acc.sg.) *twáHam tvā́m *θwáHam OAv. θβąm, OP θᵘvā́m
d[C 8] *wokʷtlom (mouth) *wáktram váktram *wáxθram YAv. váxᵊδrəm
θ š[C 9] *h₁sn̥tyós (real, true) *Hsatyás satyáḥ *Hhaθyáh OAv. haⁱθiiə̄́, OP hašiyáʰ
*tʰ[C 10] th *t *tʰ θ *tongʰéyeti (to pull, weigh) *tʰanǰʰáyati *θanǰáyati OAv. θaṇjaiieṇte, BMP sanǰed
*tʰ[C 5] *Hróth₂os (chariot) *Hrátʰas ráthaḥ *Hráθah
*t[C 11] t *sth₂uh₂néh₂ (pillar) *stʰuHnáH sthūṇā́ *stuHnáH OAv. stūná, OP stūnā́
*dʰ *dʰ dh *d[C 12] *d d *dʰoréyeti (to hold) *dʰāráyati dhāráyati *dāráyatī OAv. dāraiiat̰ (inj.), OP dārayāmiy (1sg.)
[C 13] *bʰudʰnés (bottom) *bʰudʰnás budhná *bunáh YAv. būnō
*g⁽ʷ⁾ *g⁽ʷ⁾ *g[C 14] g *g g *gʷṓws (cow) *gā́wš gáuḥ *gā́wš OAv. gā́uš, OP gā́vʰ
*g[C 14] > *ǵ[C 15] /ǵź/[C 16] *ȷ́ j /dź/ /dž/ j *gʷih₃wós (alive) *ǰiHwás jīváḥ *ǰiHwáh OAv. juuə̄́, OP jīváʰ
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ[C 5] *gʰ[C 14] gh *g g [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *dr̥Hgáh OAv. darᵊgə̄́, OP dargáʰ
*gʰ[C 14] > *ǵʰ[C 15] *ǰʰ /ǵźʰ/[C 16] *źʰ h /dž/[C 12] j /dž/ *gʷʰn̥tós (slain, killed) *ǰʰatás hatáḥ *ǰatáh OAv. jatə̄́, OP jatáʰ
*g⁽ʷ⁾[C 1] > *k⁽ʷ⁾[C 2] *k[C 14] *k k *k *kʰ[C 3] *x x *dʰréwgʰs (a lie) *dʰrúkš dhrúk *drúxš OAv. druxš
*k⁽ʷ⁾ *k⁽ʷ⁾ k *k *k k *kóh₂mos (wish) *káHmas kā́maḥ *káHmah OAv. kā́mə̄, OP kā́maʰ
*kʰ[C 3] *x x *ḱukrós (bright) *ćukrás śukráḥ *ćuxráh OAv. suxrə̄́, OP θuxráʰ
*kʰ[C 10] kh *kʰ *kumbʰós (vessel) *kʰumbʰás kumbhá́ *xumbáh Av. xumba
*k[C 14] > *ḱ[C 15] /ḱś/[C 16] c /tś/ /tš/ c /tš/ *(s)kérmn̥ (skin) *čárma cárman *čárma OAv. cárᵊman, OP cárman
[C 7] š *kyéwetor ((s)he goes) *čyáwatey cyávate *šyáwatai OAv. š́auuaitē (med.), OP ašiyava (impf.)
*k⁽ʷ⁾ʰ[C 5] *kʰ[C 14] kh *k *kʰ *x x *sekʷh₂ṓy (friend) *sakʰā́y sakhā́ *haxā́y YAv. haxa
[C 14] *ȷ́ /dź/[C 16] j /dź/ *j /dz/[C 17] z <d> *ǵénh₁os (race, lineage) *ȷ́ánas jánaḥ *ȷ́ánah OAv. zánə̄
*ḱ[C 2] [C 14] [C 18] *ṣ š s *h₃reǵtós (straightened) *Hraštás [Term?] *Hraštáh OAv. rašta, OP rāsta
*ǵʰ[C 5] *źʰ[C 14] *ȷ́ʰ /dźʰ/[C 16] *źʰ h *ȷ́ *ȷ́ /dź/[C 12] *j /dz/[C 17] z <d> *eǵh₂óm (I) *aȷ́ʰám ahám *aȷ́ám OAv. azə̄m, OP adam
*ǵʰ *ǵʰ *s[C 9] š[C 9] *Hyeh₂ǵnós (sacrifice) *yaȷ́nás yajñá *yaȷ́náh OAv. yasnə̄́, BP yašn
*ḱ *ḱ [C 14] /tś/[C 16] ś *c /ts/[C 17] s θ *ḱukrós (bright) *ćukrás śukráḥ *ćuxráh OAv. suxrə̄́, OP θuxráʰ
š [C 9] *h₂n̥ḱ-nó-s (near) *Haćnás [Term?] *Haćnáh OAv. asnāt̰, OP ašnaiy
[C 18] *ṣ š *h₃eḱtéh₃ (eight) *HaštáH aṣṭā́ *HaštáH OAv. aštā, MP hašt
*s *s *s s *s *s s *h₂stḗr (star) *Hstā́ stṛ́ *Hstā́ OAv. star, BP [Book Pahlavi needed] (stl /stār/)
*h[C 19] h *sm̥-dʰó- (with) *sadʰá sadhá, sahá *hadā́ OAv. hadā́, OP hadā́
[C 20] *ṣ š *h₁r̥stís (spear) *Hr̥štíš ṛṣṭíḥ *Hr̥štíš OAv. arštíš, OP arštíš
*ṣ[C 21]
*z[C 2] *z *y *z z *nésdisth₂os (closest) *názdistʰas nédiṣṭhaḥ *názdištʰah OAv. názdištə̄
[C 20] *ẓ *y ž *nisdós (nest) *niždás nīḍáḥ [Term?]
*m *m m *m m *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā *máHtā OAv. mā́tā, OP mā́tā
*n *n n *n n *néyHeti (to lead) *náyati náyati *náyatī YAv. naiieiti, OP anaya (impf.)
*l *l *l~r l~r *r *r r *ḱelh₁éd (autumn) *ćarád śarád *ćarád OAv. sarə́d, OP θarád
*r *r r *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā OAv. brā́ta, OP brā́tā
[C 22] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*∅[C 23] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*w *w v *w *w v *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf) *wŕ̥kas vṛ́kaḥ *wárkah OAv. və́hrkə̄, OP várkaʰ
*y *y y *y y *yéh₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáȷ́ati yájati *yáȷ́atī YAv. yázaiti, OP yádataiy

Consonant clusters[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA OIA PNur pre-PIr PIr OIr Examples
Skr. Av. Per. PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Iranian
Dʰs *bʰs *bʰs *bzʰ[C 24]

ps *bz *bž *bʰsoHtós (eaten) *bžʰaHtás psātáḥ
*ǵʰs *ǵʰs *źʰs[C 14] > *zzʰ[C 24] *zʰ [Term?] [Term?]
*ǵs[C 1] > *ḱs[C 2] *ḱš[C 20] > *śš[C 14] *ćš[C 15] *ṭṣ kṣ *śš [C 25] š *neyǵʰs? (a spit) nikṣati YAv. naēzəm
Dʰt *bʰt *bʰt *bdʰ[C 24] bdh *bd bd *ubʰtós (woven) *ubdʰás ubdháḥ *ubdáh YAv. ubdaēna
*dʰt *dʰt *ddʰ[C 24] > *dᶻdʰ[C 26] *jdʰ /dzdʰ/ *ddʰ ddh *dd *zd zd *n̥-dh₁téh₂ (unbound) *adᶻdʰáH addhā́ *azdáH OAv. azdā́
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰt *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰt *gʰt[C 14] *gdʰ[C 24] gdh *dʰéwgʰti (to milk) *dáwgdʰi dógdhi *dáwgdī BMP dōš-
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰtʰ[C 5] *gʰtʰ[C 14] > *gtʰ[C 27] *ktʰ[C 2] kth *t *kʰtʰ[C 3] *xθ *h₁ugʰtHóm (word) *Huktʰám ukthám *Huxθám OAv. uxδa
*ǵʰt *ǵʰt *źʰt[C 14] > *zdʰ[C 24] *ždʰ[C 20] *ẓḍʰ ːḍh *žd žd *h₃miǵʰtós (urinated) *Hmiždʰás mīḍháḥ YAv. maēzəṇti (3pl.)
Ts *ds *ts[C 2] *c /ts/ t *c /ts/ s θ *pṓds (foot) *pā́ts pā́t *pā́c
ts ts ts *ts *wotsós (yearling calf) *watsás vatsáḥ *waćáh MP wahīg
T(s)T *dd *dᶻd[C 26] *jd /dzd/ *dd[C 28] dd *dd *zd[C 29] zd [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] OAv. fra-uuōizdūm (2pl.aor.mid.inj.)
*dt *tt[C 2] > *tˢt[C 26][4] *ct /tst/ *tt[C 28] tt *st[C 29] st *ud-tn̥h₂nós uttānáḥ OAv. ustānə̄́
*tt[C 2] *tˢt[C 26] > *tˢtʰ[C 5] *ctʰ /tstʰ/ *ttʰ[C 28] tth št *stʰ[C 29] *sθ *ud-sth₂- (standing up) *uctʰa uttha
*dsg⁽ʷ⁾ *dzg⁽ʷ⁾[C 2] *jg /dzg/[C 14] *dg[C 28] dg *zg[C 29] zg *Hodsgʷós (sprout) *Hájgas *ádgaḥ *Házgah BMP azg
*dsk⁽ʷ⁾ *tsk⁽ʷ⁾[C 2] *tsk[C 14] > *tsḱ[C 15] > *tśḱ[C 30] *ćč /tśḱś/[C 16] *ść[C 28] > *ćć cc *śč[C 29] *sč[C 17] sc *uds-kʷeh₁ (above) *utˢčáH uccā́ *usčáH YAv. uscá
TʰsT *bʰsḱ *bʰsḱ *bzʰḱ > *bzǵʰ[C 24] > *bźǵʰ[C 30] *bźǰʰ /bźǵźʰ/[C 16] *bȷ́ /bdź/[C 28] bj /bdź/ *bǰ /bdž/[C 29] bj *ubʰsḱéti (to press) *ubǰáti ubjáti *ubǰáti OAv. ubjiiāite (pass.subj.)
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰsḱ *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰsḱ *gʰsḱ[C 14] > *gzʰḱ
> *gzǵʰ[C 24] > *gźǵʰ[C 30]
*gzǰʰ /gźǵźʰ/[C 16] *gȷ́[C 28] *zǰ[C 29] zj *twengʰsḱéti (to compel) *twenzǰʰáti [Term?] *θwenzǰátī YAv. θβązjaiti
TK *dʰg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *dʰg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *gʰdʰ[C 31] *gžʰ[C 24] *gẓʰ *kṣ *gž *dʰgʷʰéreti (to flow) *gžʰárati kṣárati *gžáratī YAv. γžaraiti
*tk⁽ʷ⁾ *tk⁽ʷ⁾ > *k⁽ʷ⁾θ[C 31] > *k⁽ʷ⁾s *ks[C 14] *kš[C 20] *kṣ kṣ *xš *tketróm (power) *kšatrám kṣatrám *xšaθrám OAv. xšaθrə́m, OP xšaçám
*tḱ *tḱ > *ḱθ[C 31] > *ḱs *ḱš[C 20] > *śš[C 14][7] *ćš /tśš/[C 16] *ṭṣ[C 28] kṣ *śš[C 29] [C 25] š *tḱéyti (to settle) *ṭṣáyti kṣéti *šáyti OAv. šaēiti
Ks *ḱs *ḱs *ḱš[C 20] > *śš[C 14] *ćš /tśš/[C 16] *ṭṣ[C 28] kṣ *śš[C 29] [C 25] š *déḱsinos (right (side)) *dáṭṣinas dákṣiṇaḥ *dášinah OAv. dáṣ̌inə̄
*ǵs *ḱs[C 2] [C 32] *h₃rḗǵs (king) *Hrā́ćš rā́ṭ *Hrā́š
*rt *rt *rt *rt *rt rt *ṭṭ *rt ṣ̌ rt [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sK *sgʰ *zgʰ *zǵʰ[C 15] > *źǵʰ[C 30] *ȷ́ǰʰ /dź.ǵźʰ/[C 16] *dȷ́ʰ /d.dź/[C 28] jj /d.dź/ *źǰ /ź.dž/[C 29] *zǰ /z.dž/[C 17] *zj *zz > *z *mésgʰn̥ (marrow) *maȷ́ǰʰan majján
*sḱ *sḱ /s.ḱ/ *sś[C 14] /s.ś/
> *šś[C 20] /š.ś/
*šć /š.tś/[C 16] *šś /š.ś/ cch /t.tśʰ/ *šc /š.ts/ *šc /šts/ s θ *pr̥sḱéti (to question) *pr̥šćáti pṛcchāmi (1sg.) *pr̥šcáti OP pr̥sāmiy (1sg.)
*sḱ *sś[C 14] > *śś[C 30]
> *ść /śtś/[C 16]
*šć /štś/[C 18] *šś /šś/ ch /tśʰ/ *šc /śts/ *sḱn̥déyeti (to appear) *šćadáyati chadáyati *šcadáyati YAv. saδaiieiti, OP θadaya
*sk⁽ʷ⁾ *sk⁽ʷ⁾ /s.k⁽ʷ⁾/ *sk /s.k/[C 14] > *sḱ /s.ḱ/[C 15]
> *śḱ /ś.ḱ/[C 30]
*ćč /tś.ḱś/[C 16] *ść /ś.tś/ śc /ś.tś/ *śč /ś.tš/[C 29] *sč /s.tš/[C 17] sc *ss > s *poskʷéh₁ (after) *paćčáH paścā́ *pasčáH YAv. pasca, OP pasā
*sk⁽ʷ⁾ *sk[C 14] > *sḱ[C 15]
> *śḱ[C 30]
*ćč /tśḱś/[C 16] *šć /štś/ ch /tśʰ/ *skeh₂yéh₂ (shade) *śćaHyáH chāyā́ *sčaHyáH
Tw Tw *ǵʰw *źʰw[C 14] *ȷ́ʰw /dźʰw/[C 16] *źʰw hv *zβ[C 33] zb z *ǵʰwéreti (to stagger) *ȷ́ʰwárati hvárati *ȷ́wáratī OAv. zbárəṇtī, MMP przyr-
*ḱw *św[C 14] *ćw /tśw/[C 16] *św śv *čp *sφ[C 33] sp s *h₁éḱwos (horse) *Háćwas áśvaḥ *Háćwah YAv. áspō, OP ásaʰ
*rw *rw *rw rv *w *rw ᵘruu rᵘv [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sw *sw *sw sv *šp *hw *xʷ xᵛ ʰuv *swépnos (sleep) *swápnas svápnaḥ *xwápnah OAv. xᵛafᵊnə̄
*tw tv *θw θβ θw *twéHom (you, acc.sg.) *twáHam tvā́m *θwáHam OAv. θβąm, OP θᵘvā́m
*tr *tr *tr *tr *tr tr *tr *θr θr ç *putrós (boy) *putrás putráḥ *puθráh OAv. puθrə̄́, OP puçáʰ
*tr[C 34] tr *θr > ç > š [Term?] (camel) *Húštras úṣṭraḥ *Húštrah OAv. uštra, OP *uššaʰ
*gʰʲs > *gʲs[C 1]
> gʲš[C 20] > *kʲš[C 2]
*čš[C 16] *ćṣ *čṣ *Hmíčš

Notes[edit]

Vowels and syllabic consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr Av. Per. Examples
PIE PII Sanskrit PNur Ashkun/Kati PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
*n̥, *m̥ *e *a a *a a *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) *ćatám śatám [Term?] *ćatám satə́m BMP sad
*e *u *déḱm̥ (ten) *dáća[8] dáśa *dáć Kt. duċ *dáća dasa BMP dah
ə̄[V 1] a *ǵʰl̥h₃enyom (gold) *ȷ́ʰr̥Hanyam híraṇyam [Term?] *ȷ́aranyam zarə̄nyə́m dáraniyam
ā[V 2] ā[V 2] *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā [Term?] *máHtā mā́tā mā́tā
*a[V 3] a a *h₂epó (off, away) *Hapá ápa [Term?] *Hapá apa apa
*o[V 4] *a *h₁su-h₃épos (well-working) *HsuHápas svápas [Term?] *HsuHápah huuāpah BMP xūb
*o *o *ǵónh₁os (birth; offspring) *ȷ́ánas jánaḥ [Term?] *ȷ́ánah YAv.sruuōzanō paruvzanārām
*o[V 5] o *moḱsú (early, soon) *maćšú makṣū́ [Term?] *mošú mošú [Term?]
ā[V 2] *u *a ā[V 2] *kóh₂mos (wish, desire) *káHmas kā́maḥ [Term?] *káHmah kā́mə̄ kā́maʰ
[V 6] ā ā *ǵónu (knee) *ȷ́ā́nu jā́nu *ȷ́ā́n Kt. zā̃ *zā́nu zānu BMP zānūg
*h₂nḗr (man) *Hnā́ nā́ [Term?] *Hnā́
*wṓkʷs (voice, speech) *wā́kš vā́c [Term?] *wā́xš vā́xš wā́z
*ey *ey *ay e *e *ay ai *h₁éyti (to go) *Háyti éti *éti Kt. eti, iti *Háyti aētī aitiy
*oy *oy ōi[V 7] *h₂n̥réy *Hnáray náre [Term?] *Hnáray narōi
*ēy *ēy *āy *āy ai *āy āi
*ōy *ōy *ā(y)[V 8] ā *ā(y) ā(i)
*ew *ew *aw o *uw *aw ao au *léwkos (light) *ráwčas rócaḥ *řóča Kt. ŕuc *ráwčah ráočə̄ ráučaʰ
*ow *ow ə̄u[V 9] *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰéwsos (noise) *gʰáwšas ghóṣaḥ [Term?] *gáwšah gə̄́ušə̄ gáušaʰ
*ēw *ēw *āw au *āw āu *stḗwti (to praise) *stā́wti stáuti [Term?] *stā́wti stāumī BMP stāyēd
*ōw *ōw
*i *i i *i i *ǵʰimós (cold, frost) *ȷ́ʰimás himáḥ *ȷ́imá ẑím *ȷ́imáh zimə̄́ (gen.) BMP zam
ī[V 2] ī[V 2] *wiHrós (man) *wiHrás vīráḥ *wiHrá Ak. wiräkuṛä *wiHrás vīrə̄́ BMP wīr
*H *H *∅ *∅ [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*H[V 10] *H *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) *Hŕ̥ćšas ṛ́kṣaḥ *íćra Kt. ic *Hŕ̥šah árṣ̌ə̄ BMP ārs
*H̥[V 11][9] i *H̥ (i/a) i *ph₂tḗr (father) *pH̥tā́́ pitā́ [Term?] *pH̥tā́ p(i/a)ta pitā
ī[V 12] avamīt [Term?]
[V 13] *yéH₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáȷ́ati yájati [Term?] *yáȷ́atī YAv yázaiti yádataiy
*u *u u *u u *yugóm (yoke) *yugám yugám [Term?] *yugám yugə́m BMP juğ
ū[V 2] ū[V 2] *múh₂s (mouse) *múHs mū́ṣ [Term?] *múHs mūh BMP mušk
ū ū *h₁su-uktós (well-spoken) *Hsūktás sūktáḥ [Term?] *Hhūxtáh hūxtə̄́
*r̥ *r̥ ərᵊ ạr *kʷr̥tós (done) *kr̥tás kṛtás [Term?] *kr̥táh kərᵊtə̄́ kạrtaʰ
əhr[V 14] *kŕ̥pos (body) *kŕ̥pas kṛ́paḥ [Term?] *kŕ̥pah kə́hrpə̄ BMP kirb
*r̥̄[V 2] > īr *r̥̄[V 2] > arᵊ *r̥̄[V 2] > ạr *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *drigá Kt. drigə̣ŕ *dr̥Hgáh darᵊgə̄́ dạrgáʰ
*r̥̄[V 2] > ūr[V 5] *r̥̄[V 2] > aᵘr *pr̥h₃wéh₂ (in front of) *pr̥HwáH pū́rva [Term?] *pr̥HwáH paᵘrvā́ pạrᵘvā́

Notes[edit]

Abbreviations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lipp, Reiner (2009) Die indogermanischen und einzelsprachlichen Palatale im Indoiranischen: Neurekonstruktion, Nuristan-Sprachen, Genese der indoarischen Retroflexe, Indoarisch von Mitanni (Indogermanische Bibliothek; 3) (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Winter, page 212
  2. ^ Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor (2017–2018), “Chapter V: Indic”, in Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The phonology of Indic, page 332
  3. ^ Kapović, Mate (2017), “Proto-Indo-European morphology”, in The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, page 359
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 117–123
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2017) Einführung ins Altiranische [Introduction to Old Iranian]‎[1] (in German), Jena: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, page 8-14
  6. ^ Martínez García, Javier; de Vaan, Michiel (2014) Introduction to Avestan (Brill Introductions to Indo-European Languages; 1), Brill, →ISBN, page 10-37
  7. ^ Kobayashi, Masato (2004) Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants (Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series; 42)‎[2], Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, →ISBN
  8. ^ Kim, Ronald I. (2007), “Two problems of Ossetic nominal morphology”, in Indogermanische Forschungen, volume 112, pages 47-68
  9. ^ Jamison, Stephanie W. (1988), “The Quantity of the Outcome of Vocalized Laryngeals in Indic”, in Bammesberger, Alfred, editor, Die Laryngaltheorie und die Rekonstruktion des indogermanischen Laut- und Formensystems, Heidelberg: Winter, pages 213-226