User:Victar/Wiktionary:About Proto-Iranian

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Verbs[edit]

Active tense[edit]

Primary
PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
Example *h₁éyti (to go) *Háyti एति (éti) *Háyti 𐬀𐬉𐬙𐬍 (aētī) 𐎠𐎡𐎫𐎡𐎹 (aitiy)
Singular 1st *-āmi, *-oh₂ *-āmi -āmi *-āmi[1] -āmī -āmiy
2nd *-asi *-asi -asi *-ahi[1] -ahī -ahạy
3rd *-ati *-ati -ati *-ati[1] -aⁱtī -atiy
Dual 1st *-wós *-wás -vaḥ *-wáhi -uuáhī --
2nd *-tés *-tʰás -thaḥ *-θáh -θá --
3rd -taḥ -tə̄́, -θə̄́ --
Plural 1st *-āmós *-āmás -āmaḥ *-āmáhi[1] -āmáhī -āmáhạy
2nd *-até *-atʰá -athá *-aθá[1] -aθā́ --
3rd *-énti *-ánti -anti *-ánti[1] -əṇtī, -atī, -aⁱnti -áⁿtiy
Secondary
Singular 1st *-m *-m -m *-m -m, -um -am
2nd *-s *-s -s *-h -h, -s, -š -Ø, -š
3rd *-t *-t -t *-t -t --
Dual 1st *-wé *-wá -va *-wá -uuá --
2nd *-tóm *-tám -tam *-tám -tə́m --
3rd *-tā́m *-tā́m -tā́m *-tā́m -tə̄́m --
Plural 1st *-mé *-má -ma *-má -mā́ -mā́
2nd *-té *-tá -tá *-tá -tā́ --
3rd *-ént *-ánt -ant *-ánt -n, -at -áⁿ

Reflexes of Proto-Indo-Iranian[edit]

Consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr OIr Examples
Av. Pers. Med. PIE PII Skr. PIR Old Iranian
*b *b *b b *b b *b *bélom (strength, force) *bálam bálam [Term?]
*bʰ[C 1] *bʰ bh *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā OAv. brā́ta, OP brā́tā
*bʰ *bʰ
*d *d *d d *d *d d *d *dóru (wood) *dā́ru dā́ru *dā́ru YAv. dā́ᵘru, OP dā́ruv, OMed. *dāru
*dʰ[C 1] *dʰ dh *dʰoréyeti (to hold) *dʰāráyati dhāráyati *dāráyatī OAv. dāraiiat̰ (inj.), OP dārayāmiy (1sg.)
*dʰ *dʰ [C 2] θ [Term?] [Term?] dhánus [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ *g g *g g *g *gʷṓws (cow) *gā́wš gáuḥ *gā́wš OAv. gā́uš, OP gā́vʰ, OMed. *gauš
*gʲ[C 3] *ȷ́ j j *gʷih₃wós (alive) *ǰiHwás jīváḥ *ǰiHwáh OAv. juuṓ, OP jīváʰ, OMed. *ǰīva
*gʰ[C 1] *gʰ gh *g g *g [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *gʰ *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *dr̥Hgáh OAv. darᵊgə̄́, OP dargáʰ, OMed. *darga
*gʰʲ[C 3] *ǰʰ *ȷ́ʰ > *źʰ h j *gʷʰn̥tós (slain, killed) *ǰʰatás hatáḥ *ǰatáh OAv. jatṓ, OP jatáʰ
*ȷ́ j z d *z *ǵénh₁os (race, lineage) *ĵánas jánaḥ *ĵánah OAv. zánə̄
*ǵʰ[C 1] *ĵʰ *ȷ́ʰ > *źʰ h *ǵʰl̥h₃enyom (gold) *ĵʰr̥Hanyam híraṇyam *ĵr̥Hanyam OAv. zarə̄nyə́m, OP dáraniyam, OMed. *zaraniyam
*ǵʰ *ǵʰ [C 4] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*k⁽ʷ⁾ *k k *k *k k *k *kóh₂mos (wish, desire) *káHmas kā́maḥ *káHmah OAv. kā́mō, OP kā́maʰ, OMed. *kāma
*x[C 5] x *x *ḱukrós (bright) *ĉukrás śukráḥ *ĉuxráh OAv. suxrṓ, OP θuxráʰ, OMed. *suxra
*kʲ[C 3] c c *kérmn̥ (skin) *čárman cárman *čárman OAv. cárᵊman, OP cárman, OMed. čarman
[C 6] š *kyéwetor ((s)he goes) *čyáwatey cyávate *šyáwatai OAv. š́auuaitē (med.), OP ašiyava (impf.)
*kʰ[C 1] kh *k *kʰ > *x x *x *sekʷh₂-ṓy (friend) *sakʰā́y sakhā́ *haxā́y YAv. haxa, OMed. *haxā
*ḱ ś s θ *s *ḱukrós (bright) *ĉukrás śukráḥ *ĉuxráh OAv. suxrṓ, OP θuxráʰ, OMed. *suxra
š[C 7] *h₂n̥ḱ-nó-s (near) *Haĉnás [Term?] *Haĉnáh OAv. asnāt̰, OP ašnaiy
[C 8] *ṣ š *h₃eḱtéh₃ (eight) *HaštáH aṣṭā́ *HaštáH OAv. aštā, MP hašt
*s *s s *s *h h *h *sm̥-dʰó- (with) *sadʰá sadhá, sahá *hadā́ OAv. hadā́, OP hadā́
*s[C 9] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
[C 10] *ṣ š *h₁r̥stís (spear) *Hr̥štíš ṛṣṭíḥ *Hr̥štíš OAv. arštíš, OP arštíš, OMed. *r̥štiš
*ṣ[C 11]
*m *m m *m m *m *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā *máHtā OAv. mā́tā, OP mā́tā
*n *n n *n n *n *néyHeti (to lead) *náyati náyati *náyatī YAv. naiieiti, OP anaya (impf.)
*p *p p *p *p p *p *ph₂tḗr (father) *pHtā́[2] pitā́ *pHtā́ OAv. pᵊta, OP pitā, OMed. *pitā
*f[C 5] f *f [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
p[C 12] f *septḿ̥ (seven) *saptá saptá *haftá OAv. haptá, BMP haft
*pʰ[C 1] ph *p *pʰ > *f f *kepHos (phlegm) *kapʰas kaphaḥ *kafah OAv. kafō
*l *l~r l~r *r *r r *r *ḱelh₁éd (autumn) *ĉarád śarád *ĉarád OAv. sarə́d, OP θarád
*r *r r *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) *bʰráHtā bhrā́tā *bráHtā OAv. brā́ta, OP brā́tā
[C 13] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*∅[C 14] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*t *t t *t *t t *t *tenúh₂s (body) *tanúHs tanū́ḥ *tanúHs OAv. tanū́š, OP tanū́š, OMed. *tanūš
[C 5] θ *twéHom (you, acc.sg.) *twáHam tvā́m *θwáHam OAv. θβąm, OP θᵘvā́m
d[C 15] *d *wokʷtlom (mouth) *wáktram váktram *wáxθram YAv. váxᵊδrəm
θ š[C 6][C 16] *h₁sn̥tyós (real, true) *Hsatyás satyáḥ *Hhaθyáh OAv. haⁱθiiṓ, OP hašiya, OMed. *haθya
*tʰ[C 1] th *t *tʰ > *θ θ *Hróth₂os (chariot) *Hrátʰas ráthaḥ *Hráθah OAv. ráθə̄, OP ᵘraθaʰ, OMed. *raθa
*t[C 17] t *t *sth₂uh₂néh₂ (pillar) *stʰuHnáH sthūṇā́ *stuHnáH OAv. stūná, OP stūnā́, OMed. *stūna
*w *w v *w v *v *wĺ̥kʷos (wolf) *wŕ̥kas vṛ́kaḥ *wárkah OAv. və́hrkə̄, OP várka, OMed. *vr̥ka
*y *y y *y y *y *yéh₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáĵati yájati *yáĵatī YAv. yázaiti, OP yádataiy
Notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Aspiration of stops before a laryngeal
  2. ^ Rare.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Before the front vowels *i, *e
  4. ^ Before *t and partially before *n
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Before consonants
  6. 6.0 6.1 Before *y
  7. ^ Before *n
  8. ^ Before *t, *dʰ, and *bʰ
  9. ^ Before stops *d, *t, *k, *g, *b, *p and affricates ǰ, ĵ, č, ĉ
  10. ^ After *r, *r̥, *u, *k, *i (Pedersen's ('RUKI') Law), *p and *bʰ
  11. ^ After *r
  12. ^ Restored before *t
  13. ^ word-initial
  14. ^ before *ĉ, *b, *m, *p, *ṣ
  15. ^ After *x and *f
  16. ^ Before a nasal
  17. ^ After *s

Consonant clusters[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA OIA PNur PIr OIr Examples
Skr. Av. Per. Med. PIE PII Sanskrit PIR Old Iranian
*bʰs *bžʰ[CC 1] *bẓʰ ps *bž *bž *bʰsoHtós (eaten) *bžʰaHtás psātáḥ
*bʰ(s)ḱ *bᶻgʰ[CC 1] *bgʰ bgh [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*bᶻgʰ[CC 1] > *bᶻgʰʲ[CC 2] *bᶻǰ *bȷ́ bj *bǰ bj *bǰ *ubʰsḱéti (to press) *ubǰáti ubjáti *ubǰáti OAv. ubjiiāite (pass.subj.)
*bʰt *bdʰ[CC 1] *bdʰ bdh *bd bd *bd *ubʰtós (woven) *ubdʰás ubdháḥ *ubdáh YAv. ubdaēna
*dd *dᶻd[CC 3] *dd dd *dd *zd zd *zd [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] OAv. fra-uuōizdūm (2pl.aor.mid.inj.)
*dʰt
*dHt
*ddʰ[CC 1] *dᶻdʰ[CC 3] *ddʰ ddh *n̥-dh₁téh₂ (unbound) *adᶻdʰáH addhā́ *azdáH OAv. azdā́
*sd *zd[CC 4] *zd *zd ːd *zd *nésdisth₂os (closest) *názdistʰas nédiṣṭhaḥ *názdištʰah OAv. názdištō
*žd[CC 5] *ẓḍ ːḍ *žd žd *žd *nisdós (nest) *niždás nīḍáḥ [Term?]
*d(s)g⁽ʷ⁾ *dᶻg[CC 6] *dg dg *zg zg? *zg? *Hodsgʷós (sprout) *Hádᶻgas *ádgaḥ *Házgah BMP azg
*dᶻg[CC 6] > *dᶻgʲ[CC 2] *dᶻǰ *dȷ́? dj? *zǰ? *zj? *zǰ? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sg⁽ʷ⁾ *zg *zg zg? *zg zg? *zg? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zg[CC 4] > *zgʲ[CC 2] > *zǰ *ẑǰ[CC 7] *źȷ́ jj *ǰǰ *jj *ǰǰ *mésgeti (to dip) *máẑǰati májjati [Term?]
*sg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ
*sg⁽ʷ⁾H
*zgʰ *zgʰ zgh *zg zg? *zg [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zgʰ[CC 4] > *zgʰʲ[CC 2] > *zǰʰ *ẑǰʰ[CC 7] *źȷ́[CC 8] jj *ǰǰ *jj *ǰǰ *mésgʰn̥ (marrow) *maẑǰʰan majján *maǰǰan OAv. majjñā́ (inst.)
*dt *tt[CC 4] *tˢt[CC 3] *tt tt *tt *st st *st *ud-tn̥h₂nós uttānáḥ OAv. ustānə̄́
*t(s)t *t(s)t
*dtH *ttʰ[CC 4] *tˢtʰ[CC 3] *ttʰ tth št *stʰ > *sθ *sθ *ud-sth₂- (standing up) *utstʰa uttha
*t(s)tH *t(s)tʰ
*ǵk⁽ʷ⁾ *ḱk[CC 4] > *ĉk[CC 9] *šk[CC 10] *ṣk ṣk *šk šk sk *šk [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*ḱk⁽ʷ⁾ *ḱk > *ĉk[CC 9] *ḱeḱkʷ- (to defecate) *ĉašk- [Term?] [Term?] YAv. saškuštama-
*ǵt *ḱt[CC 4] > *ĉt[CC 9] *št[CC 10] *ṣt ṣṭ *št št st *št *h₃reǵtós (straightened) *Hraštás [Term?] *Hraštáh OAv. rašta, OP rāsta
*ḱst *ḱšt[CC 5] > *ĉšt[CC 9] > *tšt *kʷéḱsti (to look) *čáštay cáṣṭe *čáštay YAv. cašte
*tḱt *ḱθt[CC 11] > *ḱst > *ḱšt[CC 5]
> *ĉšt[CC 9] > *tšt
*tḗtḱti *tā́šti tāṣṭi *tā́šti YAv. tāšti
*sdʰ
*sdH
*zdʰ[CC 4] *zdʰ ːdh *zd zd *zd *mn̥s-dʰh₁éh₂ (wisdom) *mazdʰáH medhā́ *mazdáH OAv. mazdā̊
*zdʰ[CC 4] > *ždʰ[CC 5] *ždʰ *ẓḍʰ ːḍh *žd žd *žd *misdʰóm (reward) *miždʰám mīḍhám *miždám OAv. mīždə́m, OMed. *miždvam
*ǵʰt *ĵʰt[CC 9] > ždʰ[CC 1] *h₃miǵʰtós (urinated) *Hmiždʰás mīḍháḥ YAv. maēzəṇti (3pl.)
*dḱ
*tḱ
*ḱθ[CC 11] > *ḱs > *ḱš[CC 5][3]
(or *tĉ[CC 9] > *tŝ > *tš)[4]
*ĉš[CC 9] ~ *tš *ṭṣ kṣ *ŝš > *š[CC 12] š *tḱéyti (to settle) *ṭṣáyti kṣéti *šáyti OAv. šaēiti
*ḱs *ḱš[CC 5] *déḱsinos (right (side)) *dáṭṣinas dákṣiṇaḥ *dášinah OAv. dáṣ̌inə̄
*dʰg⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *gʰdʰ[CC 11] *gžʰ[CC 1] *gẓʰ *gž *gž *dʰgʷʰéreti (to flow) *gžʰárati kṣárati *gžáratī YAv. γžaraiti
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰs *gʰs [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*ǵʰs *ĵʰs[CC 9] > *žžʰ[CC 1] *džʰ *ḍẓʰ > *gẓʰ z d *z *neyǵʰs? (a spit) nikṣati YAv. naēzəm
*g⁽ʷ⁾s *ks[CC 4] *kš[CC 5] *kṣ *xš *xš *ksnutós (sharpened) *kšnutás kṣṇutáḥ *xšnutáh OAv. xšnutə̄́
*k⁽ʷ⁾s *ks
*dk⁽ʷ⁾
*t(s)k⁽ʷ⁾
*kθ[CC 11] > *ks *tketróm (power) *kšatrám kṣatrám *xšaθrám OAv. xšaθrə́m, OP xšaçám, OMed. *xšaθam
*t(s)kʲ[CC 2] > *t(s)č[CC 13] *tˢč[CC 3] *tć > *ćć cc *sč sc *sč *uds-kʷeh₁ (above) *utˢčáH uccā́ *usčáH YAv. uscá
*ǵ⁽ʷ⁾ʰk⁽ʷ⁾ *ĵʰk? *žgʰ? *ẓgʰ? *žg? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾k⁽ʷ⁾ *kk[CC 4] *kk kk [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰk⁽ʷ⁾ *ggʰ[CC 1] *ggʰ ggh *gg gg *gg [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*k⁽ʷ⁾g⁽ʷ⁾ʰ *ggʰ[CC 4] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰt *gdʰ[CC 1] *gdʰ gdh *dʰéwgʰti (to milk) *dáwgdʰi dógdhi *dáwgdī BMP dōš-
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰtH *ktʰ[CC 1] *ktʰ kth *t *xθ *xδ *h₁ugʰtHóm (word) *Huktʰám ukthám *Huxθám OAv. uxδa, OMed. *uxδam
*g⁽ʷ⁾ʰsḱ *zgʰ[CC 1] *zgʰ zgh *zg zg? *zg [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*zgʰ[CC 1] > *zgʰʲ[CC 2] *zǰʰ *zǰ zj *zǰ *twengʰsḱéti (to compel) *twenzǰʰáti [Term?] *θwenzǰátī YAv. θβązjaiti
*ǵ⁽ʰ⁾w *ĵ⁽ʰ⁾w[CC 9] *ȷ́⁽ʰ⁾w > *ź⁽ʰ⁾w hv *ĵw zb z *zb *ǵʰwéreti (to stagger) *ĵʰwárati hvárati *ĵwáratī OAv. zbárəṇtī, MMP przyr-
*ḱw *ĉw[CC 9] *św śv *čp *ĉw sp s *sp *h₁éḱwos (horse) *Háĉwas áśvaḥ *Háĉwah YAv. aspō, OP asaʰ, OMed. *aspa
*rt *rt *rt rt *ṭṭ *rt ṣ̌ rt *rt? [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*rw *rw *rw rv *w *rw ᵘruu rᵘv *rv [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*sḱ *sĉ[CC 9] *ŝĉ[CC 7] *śś > *ćś c(c)h *ŝŝ > [CC 12] s *s *pr̥sḱéti (to question) *pr̥sĉáti pṛcchāmi (1sg.) *pr̥ŝáti OP pr̥sāmiy (1sg.)
*sw *sw *sw sv *šp *hw > *xʷ xᵛ ʰuv *f *swépnos (sleep) *swápnas svápnaḥ *xwápnah OAv. xᵛafᵊnə̄
*tr *tr *tr tr *tr *θr θr ç *θr *putrós (boy) *putrás putráḥ *puθráh OAv. puθrə̄́, OP puçaʰ, OMed. *puθra
*tw *tw *tw tv *θw θb θᵘv *θv [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
Notes
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Bartholomae's law
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Before the front vowels *i, *e
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Double-Dental" rule
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 Voicing assimilation of first obstruent from second in obstruent pairs
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Pedersen's 'RUKI' sound law
  6. 6.0 6.1 Affrication of dentals before a velar
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Palatalization of alveolar sibilants *s and *z before palatal stops *ĉ /c/ and ǰ /ɟ/
  8. ^ Unexplained loss of aspiration (Lubotsky (2001))
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 Primary palatalization
  10. 10.0 10.1 Before *bʰ, *dʰ, *t, and *k
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Metathesis of 'thorn' clusters
  12. 12.0 12.1 S₁S₂ > S₂
  13. ^ Secondary palatalization

Vowels and syllabic consonants[edit]

PIE pre-PII PII PIA Skr. PNur PIr Av. Per. Examples
PIE PII Sanskrit PNur Ashkun/Kati PIR Old Avestan Old Persian
*n̥, *m̥ *e *a a *a a *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) *ĉatám śatám [Term?] *ĉatám satə́m BMP sad
*e *u *déḱm̥ (ten) *dáĉa[5] dáśa *dúĉu Kt. duċ *dáĉa dasa BMP dah
ə̄[V 1] a *ǵʰl̥h₃enyom (gold) *ĵʰr̥Hanyam híraṇyam [Term?] *ĵaranyam zarə̄nyə́m dáraniyam
ā[V 2] ā[V 2] *méh₂tēr (mother) *máHtā mā́tā [Term?] *máHtā mā́tā mā́tā
*a[V 3] a a *h₂epó (off, away) *Hapá ápa [Term?] *Hapá apa apa
*o[V 4] *a *h₁su-h₃épos (well-working) *HsuHápas svápas [Term?] *HsuHápah huuāpah BMP xūb
*o *o *ǵónh₁os (birth; offspring) *ĵánas jánaḥ [Term?] *ĵánah YAv.sruuōzanō paruvzanārām
*o[V 5] o *moḱsú (early, soon) *maĉšú makṣū́ [Term?] *mošú mošú [Term?]
ā[V 2] *u *a ā[V 2] *kóh₂mos (wish, desire) *káHmas kā́maḥ [Term?] *káHmah kā́mə̄ kā́maʰ
[V 6] ā ā *ǵónu (knee) *ĵā́nu jā́nu *ĵā́nu Kt. zā̃ *zā́nu zānu BMP zānūg
*h₂nḗr (man) *Hnā́ nā́ [Term?] *Hnā́
*wṓkʷs (voice, speech) *wā́kš vā́c [Term?] *wā́xš vā́xš wā́z
*ey *ey *ay e *e *ay ai *h₁éyti (to go) *Háyti éti *Héti Kt. eti, iti *Háyti aētī aitiy
*oy *oy ōi[V 7] *h₂n̥réy *Hnáray náre [Term?] *Hnáray narōi
*ēy *ēy *āy *āy ai *āy āi
*ōy *ōy *ā(y)[V 8] ā *ā(y) ā(i)
*ew *ew *aw o *uw *aw ao au *léwkos (light) *ráwčas rócaḥ *řúwču Kt. ŕuc *ráwčah ráočə̄ ráučaʰ
*ow *ow ə̄u[V 9] *g⁽ʷ⁾ʰéwsos (noise) *gʰáwšas ghóṣaḥ [Term?] *gáwšah gə̄́ušə̄ gáušaʰ
*ēw *ēw *āw au *āw āu *stḗwti (to praise) *stā́wti stáuti [Term?] *stā́wti stāumī BMP stāyēd
*ōw *ōw
*i *i i *i i *ǵʰimós (cold, frost) *ĵʰimás himáḥ [Term?] *zimáh zimō (gen.) BMP zam
ī[V 2] ī[V 2] *wiHrós (man) *wiHrás vīráḥ *wiHrú Ak. wiräkuṛä *wiHrás vīrə̄́ BMP wīr
*H *H *∅ *∅ [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?] [Term?]
*H[V 10] *H *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) *Hŕ̥ĉšas ṛ́kṣaḥ *íĉru Kt. ic *Hŕ̥šah árṣ̌ə̄ BMP ārs
*H̥[V 11][6] i *H̥ (i/a) i *ph₂tḗr (father) *pH̥tā́́[2] pitā́ [Term?] *pH̥tā́ p(i/a)ta pitā
ī[V 12] avamīt [Term?]
*∅[V 13] *∅ *yéH₂ǵeti (to honor) *yáĵati yájati [Term?] *yáĵatī YAv yázaiti yádataiy
*u *u u *u u *yugóm (yoke) *yugám yugám [Term?] *yugám yugə́m BMP juğ
ū[V 2] ū[V 2] *múh₂s (mouse) *múHs mū́ṣ [Term?] *múHs mūh BMP mušk
ū ū *h₁su-uktós (well-spoken) *Hsūktás sūktáḥ [Term?] *Hhūxtáh hūxtə̄́
*l̥, *r̥ *r̥ *r̥ ərᵊ ạr *kʷr̥tós (done) *kr̥tás kṛtás [Term?] *kr̥táh kərᵊtə̄́ kạrtaʰ
əhr[V 14] *kŕ̥pos (body) *kŕ̥pas kṛ́paḥ [Term?] *kŕ̥pah kə́hrpō BMP kirb
*r̥̄[V 2] > īr *r̥̄[V 2] > arᵊ *r̥̄[V 2] > ạr *dl̥h₁gʰós (long) *dr̥Hgʰás dīrgháḥ *drigú Kt. drigə̣ŕ *dr̥Hgáh darᵊgə̄́ dạrgáʰ
*r̥̄[V 2] > ūr[V 15] *r̥̄[V 2] > aᵘr *pr̥h₃wéh₂ (in front of) *pr̥HwáH pū́rva [Term?] *pr̥HwáH paᵘrvā́ pạrᵘvā́
Notes
  1. ^ Before a nasal
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 Lengthening of vowels and syllabic consonants before laryngeals after the loss of laryngeals
  3. ^ Laryngeal coloring after *h₂
  4. ^ Laryngeal coloring after *h₃
  5. ^ After *m, *p, *w followed by a syllable containing *u
  6. ^ Open syllable (Brugmann's law)
  7. ^ In closed medial syllables or final syllables
  8. ^ Word finally
  9. ^ Before š
  10. ^ Word-initial and after vowel
  11. ^ Interconsonantally
  12. ^ Interconsonantally word-final
  13. ^ Before *ǵ (Lubotsky's law)
  14. ^ Devoiced before voiceless stops *k, *p when stressed
  15. ^ After labials *p, *b, *m, *w or before a syllable with *w

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Novák, Ľubomír (2013) Problem of Archaism and Innovation in the Eastern Iranian Languages (PhD dissertation)[1], Prague: Univerzita Karlova v Praze, filozofická fakulta, page 148
  2. 2.0 2.1 Martínez García, Javier; de Vaan, Michiel (2014) Introduction to Avestan (Brill Introductions to Indo-European Languages; 1), Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kobayashi, Masato (2004) Historical Phonology of Old Indo-Aryan Consonants (Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series; 42)‎[2], Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, →ISBN
  4. ^ Lipp, Reiner (2009) Die indogermanischen und einzelsprachlichen Palatale im Indoiranischen: Neurekonstruktion, Nuristan-Sprachen, Genese der indoarischen Retroflexe, Indoarisch von Mitanni (Indogermanische Bibliothek; 3) (in German), volume 1, Heidelberg: Winter
  5. ^ Kim, Ronald I. (2007), “Two problems of Ossetic nominal morphology”, in Indogermanische Forschungen, volume 112, pages 47-68
  6. ^ Jamison, Stephanie W. (1988), “The Quantity of the Outcome of Vocalized Laryngeals in Indic”, in Bammesberger, Alfred, editor, Die Laryngaltheorie und die Rekonstruktion des indogermanischen Laut- und Formensystems, Heidelberg: Winter, pages 213-226