ir

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Danish[edit]

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia da

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin īre, present active infinitive of ; the forms beginning with V from vādere, present active infinitive of vādō.

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. first-person singular personal infinitive of ir
  3. third-person singular personal infinitive of ir

Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. to go

Conjugation[edit]

  • Present: va
  • Future: ira
  • Past: iva
  • Present participle: iente (?)
  • Past participle: ite

Antonyms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ancient Greek χείρ (kheir)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ir (indeclinable)

  1. (rare) hand

Synonyms[edit]


Latgalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Shortened from irā, related to Latvian ir and Lithuanian yra (with the same meaning). In Latgalian, the shortened form ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while irā is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. is, are (present simple 3rd-person form, singular and plural)

Latvian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *irā (cf. dialectal, archaic forms irād, iraid, irāg, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic єстъ (jestŭ), Russian есть (jest’), Lithuanian dialectal ẽsti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential (“there is”) meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm (I am) is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *irā is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè (look!)), the particle and conjunction ir (both... and...), a noun with the meaning “existence,” “reality,” “thing,” or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -extension.[1]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; 3rd person singular present indicative form of būt
  2. (they) are; 3rd person plural present indicative form of būt
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; 3rd person singular imperative form of būt
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; 3rd person plural imperative form of būt

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *r̥ of Proto-Indo-European *ar (so, then; question particle) (whence also Latvian ar (with), q.v.). The original meaning “and” (cf. Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian and, Old Prussian ir (also), er ((along) with), Ancient Greek ἄρα, ἄρ', ῥά (ára, ár', rhá, so, then, therefore).[1]

Conjunction[edit]

ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    gribējas ir smieties, ir raudāt — one wanted both to laugh and to cry
    nāca ir jaunie, ir vecieboth the young and the old came
    tolaik ir tēvs, ir māte bija miruši — at that time, both the father and the mother had died
    tā bija droša, interesanta un glīta meitene, kas prata būt ir jautra, ir nopietna — that was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts kā jau nakts: ir mēness spīd, ir tālē rūsa plaiksnī — the night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms[edit]

Particle[edit]

ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. arī
    Ludis nolēca lielā dubļu pančkā un tur ir palika, ratiem pakaļ skatīdamies — Ludis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    Dūdums pateica: “man vēl laika diezgan”, un pārliecināt viņu par piegādes normu nodošanu pirms termiņa tā ir neizdevās — Dūdums said: “I still have enough time,” and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for deliveray before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas viņam ir prātā nenāk — that doesn't even come to his mind
    krūmos ir pa naktīm guļot, pilsētā viņš parādoties retireally sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 “ir” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.

Lithuanian[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ir

  1. and (used to connect two homogeneous (similar) words, phrases, etc.); as well as; together with; in addition to
  2. Used at the end of a list to indicate the last item. (bread, butter and cheese)
  3. Used to string together sentences or sentence fragments in chronological order.

Old Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse ír, variant of ér.

Pronoun[edit]

īr

  1. you (plural)

Descendants[edit]

  • Swedish: I, ni

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin īre, present active infinitive of ; the forms beginning with V from vādere, present active infinitive of vādō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present indicative vou, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. (followed by a verb in the infinitive) will; to be going to; Used as an alternative to the simple future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato. — “I will buy a shoe.”

Conjugation[edit]


Romansch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Surmiran) eir

Etymology[edit]

From Latin eō, īre, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-.

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) to go

Conjugation[edit]

Mood Tense 1st s. 2nd s. 3rd s. 1st pl. 2nd pl. 3rd pl.
Indicative Present jau vom ti vas el/ella/ins va nus giain vus giais els/ellas van
Indicative Imperfect jau gieva ti gievas el/ella/ins gieva nus gievan vus gievas els/ellas gievan
Indicative Perfect jau sun ì/ida ti es ì/ida el/ella/ins è ì/ida nus essan ids/idas vus essan ids/idas els/ellas èn ids/idas
Indicative Future jau vegn a ir ti vegns a ir el/ellas/ins vegn a ir nus vignin a ir vus vegnis a ir els/ellas vegnan a ir
Indicative Conditional jau giess ti giessas el/ella giess nus giessan vus giessas els/ellas giessan

Scots[edit]

Verb[edit]

ir

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The forms beginning with I or Y from Latin īre, present active infinitive of ; the forms beginning with V from vādere, present active infinitive of vādō; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Verb[edit]

ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. (reflexive) to go away, to leave. See irse.
  3. (with preposition a followed by an infinitive), to be going to (near future)
    • Hoy vamos a ver una película. - 'Today we are going to see a movie.'

Related terms[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]