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See also: ш
U+5C71, 山
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C71

[U+5C70]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C72]
U+2F2D, ⼭
KANGXI RADICAL MOUNTAIN

[U+2F2C]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F2E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
山-order.gif
Stroke order
(cursive)
山-cursive-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 46, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 山 (U), four-corner 22770, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #46, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 307, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7869
  • Dae Jaweon: page 604, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 759, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5C71

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠙸
𡶸
Wikipedia has articles on:
珠穆朗瑪峰,地球海拔最高的山

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
山-oracle.svg 山-bronze.svg 山-silk.svg 山-seal.svg 山-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – three mountain peaks. In the Oracle Bone Script, they were represented by triangles rather than vertical strokes. Compare (qiū), particularly earlier forms.

Etymology[edit]

Unclear – cognates not known outside Sino-Bai. Cognate with Central Bai svrt (mountain) (< Proto-Bai *sro⁴).

Baxter and Sagart (2014) propose that it is derived from a root *ŋ(ˤ)rar (slope, nearly vertical side) that also derives (OC *ŋ(r)ar(ʔ), “hill”), (OC *ŋˤrar, “river bank”), (OC *C.ŋˤrar, “forehead”).

Starostin compares it with Kayan sʰôn (mountain).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • soaⁿ - vernacular;
  • san - literary.
Note:
  • suan1 - vernacular;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂan⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /san²¹/
    Jinan /ʂã²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂan²⁴/
    Xi'an /sã²¹/
    Xining /sã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /san⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /san⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /san⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /san⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʂã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʂaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ʂæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /sæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /se⁵³/
    Suzhou /se̞⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /sa³³/
    Hui Shexian /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /san³³/
    Xiangtan /san³³/
    Gan Nanchang /san⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /san⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑm²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /san⁵³/
    Nanning /san⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /san⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /san⁵⁵/
    /suã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /suã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /saŋ²³/
    /tua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠɛn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚæn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂəɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃæn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂăn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    saan1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-ŋrar/
    English mountain, hill

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11052
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (countable) mountain; hill (Classifier: m c;  mn)
        ―  dēngshān  ―  to climb a mountain
    2. hill-shaped object
        ―  bīngshān  ―  iceberg
    3. bundled straw in which silkworms spin cocoons
    4. gable
    5. (Cantonese, Liuzhou Mandarin, Pinghua) tomb; grave (Classifier: c)
    6. A surname​. Shan

    Synonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    やま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (file)

    Noun[edit]

    (やま) (yama

    1. a mountain (large mass of earth and rock) or (large) hill
    2. a mine (excavation usually consisting of small tunnels)
      Synonym: 鉱山 (kōzan)
    3. a heap, pile
    4. the top or high part of an object
      ねじ(やま)
      nejiyama
      thread of a screw
      (ぼう)()(やま)
      bōshi no yama
      crown of a hat
    5. a climax, peak
      Synonyms: クライマックス (kuraimakkusu), 絶頂 (zetchō)
    6. a chance, gamble
    7. a guess, speculation
    8. a crime, criminal case
      Synonym: 犯罪事件 (hanzai jiken)
    9. mountain climbing, mountaineering
      Synonym: 山登り (yamanobori)
    10. Short for 山鉾 (yamaboko): a festival float usually decorated with a (hoko)
    11. (colloquial) Mount Hiei and/or Enryaku-ji
      Antonym: (tera)
    12. (mahjong) a wall, wall tile
    13. (informal) the symbol as used to mark what needs to be reviewed in study
      やま()
      yama o haru
      to mark what needs to be reviewed
      はっ(やま)()った。
      Hatta yama ga atatta.
      My selection of what I needed to review for the test was correct.
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (やま) (yama-

    1. prefix for species that are wild or residing in mountains
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (やま) (-yama

    1. counter for number of stock rise and fall like a mountain (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    2. counter for number of mountains, forests and/or mines
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (やま) (Yama

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠɛn).

    Sometimes spelled with rendaku (連濁), as -zan.

    Suffix[edit]

    (さん) (-san

    1. Mount, Mt.
      1. suffix for names of mountains
      2. suffix for a temple's honorific mountain name (山号 (sangō))
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (さん) (san

    1. mountain
    2. mine
    3. temple, temple ground
    4. Short for 比叡山 (Hieizan): Mount Hiei

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    むれ
    Grade: 1
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling
    牟礼

    From Old Japanese, itself apparently a borrowing from Old Korean.[3][1][4] See Korean (moe) for more.

    The phonetic man'yōgana spelling 牟礼 for mure appears first in the Kojiki of 720, but instead for the stem of verb 群れる (mureru, to group together).[5] The first instance of this spelling for the mountain sense is in the Heian period, in different 日本書紀私記 (Nihon Shoki Shiki) versions, themselves recompilations of the Nihon Shoki.[3] This reading with this sense apparently arises from the traditional 訓読 (kundoku) of a particular section of the Nihon Shoki, where the written word is read as mure with an apparent meaning of mountain or hill.[6][7]

    Noun[edit]

    (むれ) (mure

    1. (historical, Ancient Korea) mountain, hill
      Synonyms: (general term) (yama, mountain), (general term) (oka, hill)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    5. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, entry online here
    6. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, entry online here
    7. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, entry online here

    Kikai[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠɛn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: san) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun / (me/moe san))

    1. Hanja form? of (mountain).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やまー, rōmaji yamā)

    1. mountain

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Oki-No-Erabu[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (yama) (kana やま)

    1. a mountain
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 31)
        伊能知能麻多祁牟比登波多多美許母弊具理能夜麻能久麻加志賀波袁宇受爾佐勢曾能古
        ino2ti no2 matake1mu pi1to2 pa tatami1ko2mo2 Pe1guri-no2-yama no2 kumakasi no2 pa wo uzu ni sase so2no2 ko1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. a forested area of a mountain for harvesting, hunting, etc.
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 779)
        板盖之黑木乃屋根者近之明日取而持將參來
        itapuki1 no2 kuro1ki2 no2 yane pa yama tikasi asu no2 pi1 to2rite motimawiriko2mu
        Since the mountains are close by, tomorrow I will cut down and bring you rough logs for your wooden roof.[1]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (yama)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Borrowed from Old Korean.[2][3]

    Compare Middle Korean (mwoy).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (mure) (kana むれ)

    1. a hill or mountain
      • 720, Nihon Shoki (Empress Jingū, entry 19: 49th year of the second month, spring)
        唯千熊長彥與百濟王、至于百濟國、登辟支盟之、復登古沙、共居磐石上。
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Usage notes[edit]

    No known Early Middle Japanese dictionaries attest the mure spelling phonetically, the earliest being found in the Mito-bon Hei Nihongi Shiki (1678).

    Descendants[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785) (1982) (please provide the title of the work), illustrated edition, University of California Press, →ISBN, page 106
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Toku-No-Shima[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: sơn[1][2][3], san[3]
    : Nôm readings: sơn[1][2], san[2][4]

    1. Hán tự form of sơn (mountain).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana だま, rōmaji dama)

    1. mountain

    Yoron[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain