Appendix:List of Proto-Kuliak reconstructions

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The following list of Proto-Kuliak reconstructions is from Heine (1976).

List[edit]

English gloss Proto-Kuliak Plural form (Proto-Kuliak)
white ant *cah
anthill *kut-ut
ashes *ukw
to ask *ec-et
axe *dzib-ɛr *dzibɛrr-an
bad *gaan
bark (of tree) *bɛodz
bean *mos-id
beer *mɛs
to belch *hler
belly *uu *uuẹk
below *agw
bird *gwaiky
to give birth *k’waat
to bite *k’ɛm
bitter *pad
black *im-an
blood *seh
to blow *kut
blue *boc’an
to be blunt *liid *ɔkẹk
bone *ɔk
to build *bɛr *kyir-uk
bull *kyiruk
to buy *guk’
calf *kɔrɔb
to carry (on back) *ed
cattle *hlɔh
chest *to-sob
to chew *ac’
child *im
claw *kɔs-ɔk
clever *nauc’an
clothing *kus *kusin
to come *ac
to cover *kɔk
cow *k’ɛhl
cow-yard *ɓor
to cry *k’uɔd
to cut *ŋuŋ
to cut (into small pieces) *ŋuŋet-i
to dance *duikw
day *giy-ekw
to dig *hug
to do *terr-eg
to drink *wɛt-
to be dry *cai-
duiker *nyem-ur *nyemur-ot
ear *beos *beosẹk
earth *gɪom
elephant *oŋ=or
Euphorbia candelabra *mos
evening *gɛn=ɛkw
excrement *ɪc’
eye *ekw *ekw=ẹk
far *e-ak’
fart *pen
to fasten *zik
fat (n.) *gimah
fat (adj.) *ziz
feather *tuk-
few *k’wad
to fight *kyɛm
finger *kɔs-ɔk
fire *dakw *dakwẹk
firewood *ri-at *ri
stick for drilling fire *cakud
five *tud
fly (n.) *cuc-at *cuc
foot *tak’w
to forbid *tow-
four *nowah
in front of *wahl
giraffe *gwaic’
girl *ŋɛr-at *ŋɛr
goat *k’et
mountain goat *tʊs
good *day
grass *khọw-at *khọh
to grind *ŋɔ
ground *khej
guts *arr-ɪ *arr-ɪẹk
guts *jow-at *jow-ah
hair *siic’
hand *an *anẹk
hard *ŋihl
hare *ŋor
head *ik *ik-ẹk
to herd animals *e=akw
heart *bubur *buburrek
he-goat *kɔl
to hide *bud
hoe *kub=al *kub-al
hole *or
home *au *au=ẹk
horn *ɛb *ɛb=ẹk
hot *haɓ
house *ir
how many? *tana-
hunger *nyɛk’
husband *ŋɛot-at *ŋɛot
in *agw
to increase *e=at
itch *kuac
to kill *kɛn
to knock *iny
to know *iy-es
to be lame *ŋwahl
land *khẹj
leaf *rɔɔm-at *rɔɔm
leech *biny
left side *bẹc-in
leg *tak’w
leopard *nọs
to lick *kan
lightning *imɛd-
to limp *ŋwahl
lion *mau
louse *c’an
to marry *buk’
matter *di
meat *ieat *iey
meat *ɛm
medicine *ad *adis
to migrate *og
metal *hlek-at *hlek
milk *id
to milk *jut
to mix *dɔc
moon *ar=agwan
to mould *bɛr
mountain *sog *sogẹk
mouth *ak *akẹk
mucus *dɔk’
name *yed *yedẹk
navel *gud
near *ɛr
nice *day
night *miir
nose *nyab *nyabẹk
to open *ŋany
other *ɛd-ɛn *es-in
to pass *ŋʊŋ-
person *nɛb *rʊɓ
to pick out thorn *ku=ɛ-ac
to pick up *dum
wild pig *borok
to plant *ẹbit
earthen pot *dom
to pour *ɔrru
to pull *ɪm=in
to rain *war
rat *dɛr
red *diu
to refuse *dim
to refuse *tow-
to remain *jaj
to rest *eaŋ
to return something *eset
rhinoceros *dọb
to ripen *ayoan
road *od *odẹk
to roast *sih
root *tak’wad *tak’wadis
rope *uun
round *mukuhl
to run *ŋat
to scratch *sʊk’(-’ʊt)
seed *kinyomat *kinyom
to sell *guk’-u
to sew *nɔɓ
shadow *khur
sharp *ŋahl
to shave *guij
sheep *dodo
shield *kɛc’ɛn
to shoot *k’adz
short *khud
to shut *kɔk
sick *m-ay *may
to sit *k’emec
skin (of big animals) *kut *kut-er
skin (of small animals) *kus *kusin
to skin *ar
sky *rib
slow *hlɛɛɓ
snake *h-ɛu
to sneeze *sik’w
soil *gɪom
sore *ɔj *-ɔjẹk
sorghum *ŋam
sour *ɓar
to speak *diy-an
spear *ɓis
to stand *irri=ay(-u)
to steal *dzuec’es
to step on *takw
stick *ɓɛl
stool *karac
to strangle *ik=ɛt
string *sim
strong *ŋihl
to suck *nak’w
to suck *c’ʊt(c’=ʊt)
sun *gi
to swell *ɛm
tear *kywɛh-ekw=ɛ.k
thigh *ob-olen
thorn *as-at *as
three *iy-ɔn
throat *mor=ok
to thunder *k’ir
to tie *zik
tongue *ɛd-eɓ
tree *ad *ad=is
udder *kɔrtan
to be unripe *c’ɔrɔg
urine *kwac
village *au *au=ẹk
voice *mor=ok
to vomit *ɛn
vulture *yeon-at
to wait *kuaa
war *kyɛm-o
water *kywɛh
wet *dɔk’
to whistle *poj
white *ɓec’
worm *k’wic’
to wrestle *kori
year *kaen
yellow *muny-aŋ
youth *sor-e

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Heine, Bernd. 1976. The Kuliak Languages of Eastern Uganda. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.
Vocabulary lists of African languages
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