Appendix:List of Proto-Kra reconstructions

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The following list of 337 reconstructed Proto-Kra forms is from Ostapirat (2000).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Kra
armpit (1) *tai C
armpit (2) *lje A
beard *mum C
belly *hmok D
blood (1) *plat D
blood (2) *kɣa C
boil (n.) *plaɯ C
bone *dək D
cheek/face *m-la B
chest *tək D
chin *kaŋ C
ear *k-ra A
excrement (1) *kai C
excrement (2) *ʔik D
eye *m-ʈa A
fart *C-tot D
fingernail *ʈ-lep D
foot *kok D
forehead *C-dəŋ A
gall bladder *m-di A
hair *mot D
hair (head) *m-səm A
hand *mja A
head *krai B
heart *hlul C
intestine *C-si C
knee *C-ku B
leg *C-ka A
liver *təp D
meat *ʔaɯ C
mouth (1) *ŋuŋ A
mouth (2) *mul B
navel *m-ɖaɯ A
neck *C-jo A
nose (1) *hŋət D
nose (2) *teŋ C
pus *hŋwu B
saliva *t-ru B
shoulder *m-ba B
skin (1) *kwau B
skin (2) *ta A
skin (3) *boŋ A
stomach *hloŋ A
tear (n.) *ʒa C
tendon (1) *ɣwjən A
tendon (2) *ŋen A
throat (1) *t-roŋ A
throat (2) *kɣe A
tongue *l-ma A
tooth (1) *l-pən A
tooth (2) *C-tʃuŋ A
waist *t-lu C
ant *mot D
bear *C-me A
bee *re A
bird *ɳok D
buffalo *kwai A
cat (wild) *ku C
chicken *ki A
cow *ni A
crab *d-rat D
crow (n.) *ʔak D
deer *dit D
dog *x-ma A
duck (1) *blaɯ A
duck (2) *kap D
egg *ʈəm A
fish *p-la A
flea *x-mət D
goat *me C
hawk *d-laŋ C
horn *C-ku A
horse *ŋja C
louse (head) *C-ʈu A
louse (body) *m-drəl A
maggot *kʒət D
monkey (1) *tai C
monkey (2) *krok D
monkey (gibbon) *m-lu A
mosquito *dʒaŋ A
pig *x-mu A
rat *hlai C
shellfish *tʃui A
tail *C-tʃot D
snake *ŋa A
tiger *(k-)di A
wing *gwja A
banana *tok D
beans *m-te C
bran *m-pwa B
cogon grass *ka A
cucumber *m-tiŋ A
ear of grain *C-kən A
flower (1) *hŋa C
flower (2) *bal A
fruit *C-mak D
garlic (1) *C-sui B
garlic (2) *kɣa A
ginger *kɣiŋ A
grass/tobacco *t-laɯ A
leaf *ɖiŋ A
mushroom *l-ka A
paddy (grain) *ca A
peach *m-pləŋ A
rice (cooked) *mla(ɯ) C
rice (husked) *sal A
rice *kʒaŋ A
root *tsaŋ A
seed *pe A
sesame *l-ŋa A
sorghum *ʒaŋ A
taro (1) *p-ɣak D
taro (2) *rwau C
thorn *ŋjan C
tree *ti A
vegetable (1) *ɖ-loŋ A
vegetable (2) *ʔop D
yam *məl A
ash *m-tu B1
coal *la B
cloud/fog *muk D
earth *lu B
earth (soil/mud) *ʔut D
field (wet) *na A
field (dry) *za C
fire *pui A
firewood *sui A
frost *l-me A
hail *tsep D
iron *kjəl C
moon (1) *m-ɖjan A
moon (2) *(C-)tjan A
mountain *dʐu A
rain *mon A
rain *jəl A
road *kron A
rock (1) *t-la B
rock (2) *ʔuŋ A
rock (3) *p-ra A
sand *hŋai A
silver (1) *praɯ B
silver (2) *ŋjən A
smoke *m-kwən A
snow *ɳui A
star *d-luŋ A
sunlight *t-laŋ A
sun *(l-)wən A
water *ʔuŋ C
wind *gwjən A
ax *kwan A
boat *da A
chopsticks *dzaɯ B/C
comb *C-ʃe A
den/nest *trau C
door *x-ŋo A
drum *d-luŋ A
hat (bamboo) *t-lop D
house *kran A
ladder (1) *kwli A
ladder (2) *kɣuŋ A
liquor (1) *plu A
liquor (2) *C-ka C
medicine *t-laɯ A
mortar *dru A
needle *ŋlot D
pestle *tsak D
pillar *m-tʂu A
pillow *hɲe A
rope *C-ʃak D
salt *ɲo A
sieve *gwaŋ A
skirt *ʔen C
thread *ʒun B
village *mɣai A
brother (elder) *tai A
brother (younger) *ʒaɯ B
child *lak D
father *ba A
father *pa B1
female-in-law *m-li B
grandchild *klal A
grandfather *m-pau B
grandmother *ja C
I (1) *ku A
I (2) *ʔe A
male/husband *C-paɯ C
male/husband *se A
male-in-law *dʒu C
mother *mai C
name *n(ʒ)i A
orphan *bɣuŋ C
sister (elder) *pi C
sister (younger) *ʔon C
spirit *ŋun A
spirit *r-maŋ A
strength *ʒan A
we *t-ɣu A
who *ʔ-nau A/C
you *mə A/B
bitter *kəm A
black *hl/dəm A
bright *ʔaŋ C
deaf *ŋəl C
deep *(h)lək D
drunk *r-me A
dry *kʒa B
far *k-li A
fat *(m-)ɳəl A
full *m-tik D
good *ʔai A
heavy *kʒəl A
hot *piŋ C
itchy *dok D
lazy *pren A
light (not heavy) *kʒa C
long *ri C
many *ʔi B
near *d-la C
new *mal A
old (1) *ku B
old (2) *kja C/B
raw *(k-)ɖep D
real *ŋ(w)a B
ripe *hŋwu B
rotten *roŋ B
salty *ʔ-ɳəŋ B
satiated *tʃi B
shallow *ɖjel C/B
short (not long (1) *hɲan C
short (not long (2) *ti C
short (not tall) *ta B/C
skinny *gjaɯ C
sour *bwlat D
small *ʔet D
smelly *mu B
sweet *tjel C
tall *k-ɣwaŋ A
thick *C-na A
thin *ɣwə C
warm (1) *tu C
warm (2) *ʔun B
wet *rək D
white *r-ʔuk D
yellow *C-ŋil C
afraid *p-la A
alive *pluŋ C
ask *tsi C
bark (v.) *m-plau B
bathe *ʔap D
bite *ʈai B
bite *rəm C
buy *tsol A
carry on back (1) *pa C
carry on back (2) *m-blik D
choose *s-le B
close eye (1) *kləp D
close eye (2) *nəp D
come *(C-)ma A
come (return) *m-duŋ A
crow (v.) *ɖəŋ A
cut (1) *te C
cut (2) *hrən C
descend (1) *caɯ C
descend (2) *d-loŋ A
die *pɣon A
do *du A
dream *l-pən A
drink *hrom C
dry in sun *m-ʈak D
eat *kan A
fall *tok D
flow *t-lui A
forget *dəp D
give *nak D
get (1) *pwən B
get (2) *m-to B
go *ɣwa C
hatch *kəm C
have *ʔən A
hear *dʒək D
hold in mouth (1) *kom A
hold in mouth (2) *ʔom A
kill *p-ɣon A
know *so A
laugh *k-so A
lick *lim C
love *(h)ŋwai A/B
plant (v.) *təm C
pluck *bet D
rest *(ʔ)jəŋ A/C
scold (1) *ʔi B
scold (2) *kən C
scold (3) *hɲan B
see *kai A
see (look) *ti C
sell *s-ɣwi A
shake/shiver *səl B
sick *d-ri C
sleep (1) *ŋu B
sleep (2) *ʔu B
smell *mu B
split (1) *pɣa B
split (2) *de B
steal *lum C
steam (v.) *tsu C
swallow (v.) *d-lwal C/A
take off *klut D
teach *tʂun A
wait *hŋa(ɯ) A
walk *C-pwi A
wear *le C
weep *ɲit D
above *lju A
back/behind *lon A
back/behind *dəŋ C
before/front *kun A
below *ɲun B/C
day *(h)wən A
inside *t-luŋ C
left *mjaŋ B
month *m-ɖjan A
outside *ri C
right *(x-)mit D
that *ʔ-ɲa C/B
this *ʔ-ni C/B
year *m-(p)ɣiŋ A
one *tʂəm C
two *sa A
three *tu A
four *pə A
five *r-ma A
six *x-nəm A
seven *t-ru A
eight *m-ru A
nine *s-ɣwa B
ten *pwlot D
hundred *kjən A

References[edit]

  • Ostapirat, Weera. 2000. "Proto-Kra." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23 (1): 1-251.
Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages
Sino-Tibetan

Greater Bai • p-Naish • p-Ersuic • Akha • Gong • p-Luish • p-Bodo-Garo • Kuki-Chin • Mru • Zakhring • Kho-Bwa • p-Puroik • p-Hrusish • Koro • Greater Siangic • Dhimalish • Baram-Thangmi • p-Kham • Dura • Bunan • (Nepal)

Austroasiatic

p-Austroasiatic • p-Munda • p-Palaungic • p-Pakanic • p-Katuic • p-Pearic • p-Khmeric • p-Monic • p-Aslian • p-Nicobarese

Hmong-Mien

p-Hmong-Mien • Hmong-Mien • Pa-Hng

Kra-Dai

p-Kra • p-Kam-Sui • Kam-Sui (Hunan) • p-Lakkia • p-Tai • p-Be • Jizhao • p-Hlai • Jiamao

Others

Burushaski • Kusunda • Nihali • Kenaboi • p-Ongan • p-Trans-New Guinea • p-Nivkh