Appendix:Interlingue Swadesh list

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

This is an Swadesh lists of words in English and Interlingue/Occidental.

The list is semi-automatically generated from the Kemp and Pope word list (pdf, odt). The list still needs some cleanup; dubious entries are marked with an asterisk.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

English Interlingue
1 I yo
2 thou
(singular)
tu
3 he il
4 we noi
5 you
(plural)
vu
6 they ili
7 this (a.) ti, ti ci; (pron.) to, to ci
8 that (pron.) to; (adj.) ti; (conj.) que; (the one which) quel; (the thing which) quo
9 here ci. ~ IS, ~ ARE: vi
10 there ta. THERE IS, ARE: vi; hay
11 who qui
12 what quo
13 where u
14 when quande
15 how qualmen
16 not ne
17 all (everything) omnicos; (the whole) li totalité, lu tot; (- the) omni
18 many mult
19 some alcun; (a few) quelc
20 few few
21 other altri
22 one un
23 two du
24 three tri
25 four quar
26 five quin
27 big grand, gross, imensi, vast
28 long long
29 wide larg, vast, extensiv; (of mark) lontan
30 thick spess, densi; ínclar; compact
31 heavy pesant, ponderosi
32 small micri, litt
33 short curt, brevi; mancant; abrupt
34 narrow strett; limitat, angust
35 thin tenui, rar, índensi; (person) magri
36 woman fémina
37 man
(adult male)
mann; (at draughts) pion
38 man
(human being)
hom
39 child
(a youth)
infante, filie, bebé
40 wife marita
41 husband marito
42 mother matre
43 father patre
44 animal bestie, animale, brute
45 fish pise
46 bird avie
47 dog cane
48 louse pedicul
49 snake colubre, serpente
50 worm verme; (earth-) lumbric
51 tree árbor; (boot-tree) listel
52 forest forest, silva
53 stick
(of wood)
baston, verge; canne
54 fruit fructe
55 seed seme, gérmine
56 leaf folie
57 root radica; orígine, fonte
58 bark
(of tree)
cortice
59 flower flor
60 grass herbe, grámine
61 rope corde, fune
62 skin
(of a person)
pelle, pellicul; membrane, derma; shell, cortice
63 meat
(as in flesh)
carne; (food) nutriment
64 blood sangue
65 bone osse
66 fat
(noun)
grasse
67 egg ove
68 horn corn; (horns of stag etc.) cornatura; (ent.) antenne
69 tail caude
70 feather
(rather not down)
plum
71 hair capille; (animals) crine
72 head cap; chef, mastro, principale, director*
73 ear orel
74 eye ocul
75 nose nase
76 mouth bocca; (of animal) fauc
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
dente
78 tongue lingue, idioma*
79 fingernail ungul
80 foot pede; base
81 leg gambe
82 knee genú
83 hand manu
84 wing ale
85 belly ventre, abdómine
86 guts (sing.) intestine, intrallia
87 neck col
88 back dorse, parte posteriori
89 breast péctor; (female breast) mamme; (bosom) sinu
90 heart cordie; corage
91 liver hépate
92 to drink trincar
93 to eat manjar, vorar
94 to bite morder; (sting) picar; (chew) machar
95 to suck sucar; aspirar
96 to spit sputar, expectorar
97 to vomit vomir
98 to blow
(as wind)
sufflar; (gasp) anhelar
99 to breathe (in)halar, respirar
100 to laugh riDer*
101 to see vider
102 to hear audir
103 to know
(a fact)
saver
104 to think pensar; opiner; creder; imaginar
105 to smell
(sense odor)
(with nose) flarar; (intr.) odorar, aromar
106 to fear timer
107 to sleep dormir
108 to live viver; (dwell) logiar, habitar, resider
109 to die morir; (perish) perir; (- out) extinter se
110 to kill mortar, assassinar; (animals) buchar
111 to fight combatter; (with sword) escrimar, gladiar; (with fist) boxar
112 to hunt
(transitive)
chassar. ~ FOR: serchar*
113 to hit frappar, batter; dar in lu blanc
114 to cut (hair) tonder; (meat) tranchir; (stone) ciser, sculpter
115 to split fenDer (se), fisser*
116 to stab
(or stick)
trapicar, punialar
117 to scratch
(an itch)
grattar
118 to dig fossar
119 to swim svimmar, flottar
120 to fly volar; (in aeroplane) aviar
121 to walk vader, pedear, marchar; pronienar se
122 to come venir
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
jacer, reposar; (remain) restar. *
124 to sit seder
125 to stand star
126 to turn
(change direction)
tornar (se); rotar; converter; (become) devenir; -ijar; (make) far
127 to fall
(as in drop)
cader
128 to give dar; (present) donar; ceder.
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
tener, haver, posseDer; contener; mantener, opiner, considerar, afirmar
130 to squeeze compresser, serrar
131 to rub frottar, fricter
132 to wash lavar (se); (glasses etc.) rinsar
133 to wipe essuyar; siccar
134 to pull tirar, traer; (rend) lacerar; (tow) remorcar
135 to push pussar
136 to throw jettar, lansar
137 to tie ligar, junter; (knot) nodar
138 to sew suer
139 to count numerar, contar, calcular
140 to say dir
141 to sing cantar
142 to play luder; (~ water) spruzzar
143 to float flottar; (hover) planear
144 to flow fluer
145 to freeze gelar, glaciar se; (feel cold) friger
146 to swell inflar, crescer; tumer; dilatar; expanDer* se
147 sun sole
148 moon lune
149 star stelle, astre, sídere
150 water aqua
151 to rain pluvie (-al, -osi, -ar). *verb?
152 river rivere, fluvie
153 lake lago
154 sea
(as in ocean)
mare, ocean; multité *
155 salt a. salosi, salat, salin; n. sale*
156 stone petre, lápide
157 sand sable, sand
158 dust polve
159 earth
(as in soil)
terre, suol
160 cloud nube
161 fog (spess) nebul
162 sky ciel, firmament
163 wind
(as in breeze)
vente
164 snow nive
165 ice glacie
166 smoke fum. vapore
167 fire foy; incendie
168 ashes ash – cindre (-iere)*
169 to burn
(intransitive)
v. a. brular, incendiar; (intr.) arder, flagrar. combuster; (stream) riverette
170 road strade, via; rute; (naut.) rade
171 mountain monte
172 red rubi; n. rubore, rubie
173 green verdi (-atri); (colour) lu verdi, verde*
174 yellow yelb
175 white blanc; pallid
176 black nigri
177 night nocte
178 day
(daytime)
die; (opposed to night) jorne
179 year annu
180 warm
(as in weather)
calid, tepid
181 cold
(as in weather)
frigid
182 full plen, complet, tot, integri; ampli; (of food) sat
183 new nov, recent
184 old old, etosi
185 good bon, vertuosi; apt
186 bad mal, malin, maliciosi, putrid
187 rotten
(as a log)
putrid
188 dirty sordid, ínpur
189 straight rect, direct; honest*
190 round rond, circulari, sferic.
191 sharp
(as a knife)
acut, acri; abrupt; astut; (words) acerb
192 dull
(as a knife)
desacut
193 smooth glatt, polit; glissid; calm
194 wet humid
195 dry
(adjective)
sicc, arid
196 right
(correct)
corect, just*
197 near proxim, vicin; (related) parent; intim; prep, apu
198 far lontan, distant
199 right
(side)
dextri
200 left
(side)
levul
201 at at – (place) in (London), a; (time) ye.*
202 in in; (at the end of) pos
203 with
(accompanying)
conj (by means of) per; (concerning) pri; (at), che
204 and e
205 if si; (whether) ca
206 because pro que
207 name nómine
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription