Appendix:French Swadesh list

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

This is an Swadesh list of words in English and French.

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English French
Français
IPA
pronunciation
1 I je IPA(key): ʒə
2 you (singular) tu, vous (formal) IPA(key): ty, IPA(key): vu
3 he il IPA(key): il
4 we nous IPA(key): nu
5 you (plural) vous IPA(key): vu
6 they ils IPA(key): il
7 this ceci IPA(key): sə'si
8 that cela IPA(key): sə'la
9 here ici IPA(key): i'si
10 there IPA(key): la
11 who qui IPA(key): ki
12 what quoi IPA(key): kwa
13 where IPA(key): u
14 when quand IPA(key):
15 how comment IPA(key): kɔ'mã
16 not ne pas IPA(key): ... IPA(key):
17 all tout IPA(key): tu
18 many beaucoup IPA(key): bo'ku
19 some quelques IPA(key): kɛlk
20 few peu IPA(key):
21 other autre IPA(key): otʁ
22 one un IPA(key): œ̃
23 two deux IPA(key):
24 three trois IPA(key): tʁwɑ
25 four quatre IPA(key): katʁ
26 five cinq IPA(key): sɛ̃k
27 big grand IPA(key): ɡʁã
28 long long IPA(key):
29 wide large IPA(key): laʁʒ
30 thick épais IPA(key): e'pɛ
31 heavy lourd IPA(key): luʁ
32 small petit IPA(key): pə'ti
33 short court IPA(key): kuʁ
34 narrow étroit IPA(key): e'tʁwa
35 thin mince IPA(key): mɛ̃s
36 woman femme IPA(key): fam
37 man (male) homme IPA(key): ɔm
38 man (human) homme IPA(key): ɔm
39 child enfant IPA(key): ɑ̃fɑ̃
40 wife femme, épouse IPA(key): fam, IPA(key): e'puz
41 husband mari, époux IPA(key): ma'ʁi, IPA(key): e'pu
42 mother mère IPA(key): mɛʁ
43 father père IPA(key): pɛʁ
44 animal animal IPA(key): ani'mal
45 fish poisson IPA(key): pwa'sõ
46 bird oiseau IPA(key): wa'zo
47 dog chien IPA(key): ʃjɛ̃
48 louse pou IPA(key): pu
49 snake serpent IPA(key): sɛʁ'pɑ̃
50 worm ver IPA(key): vɛʁ
51 tree arbre IPA(key): aʁbʁ
52 forest forêt IPA(key): fɔ'ʁɛ
53 stick bâton IPA(key): bɑ'tɔ̃
54 fruit fruit IPA(key): fʁɥi
55 seed graine IPA(key): ɡʁɛn
56 leaf feuille IPA(key): fœj
57 root racine IPA(key): ʁa'sin
58 bark (of a tree) écorce IPA(key): e'kɔʁs
59 flower fleur IPA(key): flœʁ
60 grass herbe IPA(key): ɛʁb
61 rope corde IPA(key): kɔʁd
62 skin peau IPA(key): po
63 meat viande IPA(key): vjɑ̃d
64 blood sang IPA(key): sɑ̃
65 bone os IPA(key): ɔs
66 fat (noun) graisse IPA(key): ɡʁɛs
67 egg œuf IPA(key): œf
68 horn corne IPA(key): kɔʁn
69 tail queue IPA(key):
70 feather plume IPA(key): plym
71 hair cheveux IPA(key): ʃə'vø
72 head tête IPA(key): tɛt
73 ear oreille IPA(key): ɔ'ʁɛj
74 eye œil IPA(key): œj
75 nose nez IPA(key): ne
76 mouth bouche IPA(key): buʃ
77 tooth dent IPA(key): dɑ̃
78 tongue langue IPA(key): lɑ̃ɡ
79 fingernail ongle IPA(key): ɔ̃ɡl
80 foot pied IPA(key): pje
81 leg jambe IPA(key): ʒɑ̃b
82 knee genou IPA(key): ʒə'nu
83 hand main IPA(key): mɛ̃
84 wing aile IPA(key): ɛl
85 belly ventre IPA(key): vɑ̃tʁ
86 guts entrailles, intestins IPA(key): ɑ̃'tʁɑj, IPA(key): ɛ̃tɛs'tɛ̃
87 neck cou IPA(key): ku
88 back dos IPA(key): do
89 breast sein, poitrine IPA(key): pwa'tʁin
90 heart cœur IPA(key): kœʁ
91 liver foie IPA(key): fwɑ
92 to drink boire IPA(key): bwɑʁ
93 to eat manger IPA(key): mɑ̃'ʒe
94 to bite mordre IPA(key): mɔʁdʁ
95 to suck sucer IPA(key): sy'se
96 to spit cracher IPA(key): kʁa'ʃe
97 to vomit vomir IPA(key): vɔ'miʁ
98 to blow souffler IPA(key): su'fle
99 to breathe respirer IPA(key): ʁɛspi'ʁe
100 to laugh rire IPA(key): ʁiʁ
101 to see voir IPA(key): vwaʁ
102 to hear entendre IPA(key): ɑ̃'tɑ̃dʁ
103 to know savoir IPA(key): sa'vwaʁ
104 to think penser IPA(key): pɑ̃'se
105 to smell sentir IPA(key): sɑ̃'tiʁ
106 to fear craindre IPA(key): kʁɛ̃dʁ
107 to sleep dormir IPA(key): dɔʁ'miʁ
108 to live vivre IPA(key): vivʁ
109 to die mourir IPA(key): muʁiʁ
110 to kill tuer IPA(key): tɥe
111 to fight se battre IPA(key): sə'batʁ
112 to hunt chasser IPA(key): ʃa'se
113 to hit frapper IPA(key): fʁa'pe
114 to cut couper IPA(key): ku'pe
115 to split fendre IPA(key): fɑ̃dʁ
116 to stab poignarder IPA(key): pwaɲaʁ'de
117 to scratch gratter IPA(key): ɡʁa'te
118 to dig creuser IPA(key): kʁø'ze
119 to swim nager IPA(key): na'ʒe
120 to fly voler IPA(key): vɔ'le
121 to walk marcher IPA(key): maʁ'ʃe
122 to come venir IPA(key): və'niʁ
123 to lie (as in a bed) s'étendre (action), être étendu(state) IPA(key): sé'tɑ̃dʁ, IPA(key): ɛtʁetɑ̃'dy
124 to sit s'asseoir (action), être assis (state) IPA(key): sa'swaʁ, IPA(key): ɛtʁa'si
125 to stand se lever (action), se tenir debout (state) IPA(key): sələ've, IPA(key): sətə'niʁdə'bu
126 to turn (intransitive) tourner IPA(key): tuʁ'ne
127 to fall tomber IPA(key): tɔ̃'be
128 to give donner IPA(key): dɔ'ne
129 to hold tenir IPA(key): tə'niʁ
130 to squeeze serrer IPA(key): se'ʁe
131 to rub frotter IPA(key): fʁɔ'te
132 to wash laver IPA(key): la've
133 to wipe essuyer IPA(key): esɥi'je
134 to pull tirer IPA(key): ti'ʁe
135 to push pousser IPA(key): pu'se
136 to throw jeter, lancer IPA(key): ʒə'te, IPA(key): lɑ̃'se
137 to tie lier IPA(key): lje
138 to sew coudre IPA(key): kudʁ
139 to count compter IPA(key): kɔ̃'te
140 to say dire IPA(key): diʁ
141 to sing chanter IPA(key): ʃɑ̃'te
142 to play jouer IPA(key): ʒwe
143 to float flotter IPA(key): flɔ'te
144 to flow couler IPA(key): ku'le
145 to freeze geler IPA(key): ʒə'le
146 to swell gonfler IPA(key): ɡɔ̃'fle
147 sun soleil IPA(key): sɔ'lɛj
148 moon lune IPA(key): lyn
149 star étoile IPA(key): e'twal
150 water eau IPA(key): o
151 rain pluie IPA(key): plɥi
152 river rivière IPA(key): ʁi'vjɛʁ
153 lake lac IPA(key): lak
154 sea mer IPA(key): mɛʁ
155 salt sel IPA(key): sɛl
156 stone pierre IPA(key): pjɛʁ
157 sand sable IPA(key): sabl
158 dust poussière IPA(key): pu'sjɛʁ
159 earth terre IPA(key): tɛʁ
160 cloud nuage IPA(key): nɥaʒ
161 fog brouillard IPA(key): bʁu'jaʁ
162 sky ciel IPA(key): siɛl
163 wind vent IPA(key): vɑ̃
164 snow neige IPA(key): nɛʒ
165 ice glace IPA(key): ɡlas
166 smoke fumée IPA(key): fy'me
167 fire feu IPA(key):
168 ash cendre IPA(key): sɑ̃dʁ
169 to burn brûler IPA(key): bʁy'le
170 road route IPA(key): ʁut
171 mountain montagne IPA(key): mɔ̃'taɲ
172 red rouge IPA(key): ʁuʒ
173 green vert IPA(key): vɛʁ
174 yellow jaune IPA(key): ʒon
175 white blanc IPA(key): blɑ̃
176 black noir IPA(key): nwaʁ
177 night nuit IPA(key): nɥi
178 day jour IPA(key): ʒuʁ
179 year an, année IPA(key): ɑ̃, IPA(key): a'ne
180 warm chaud IPA(key): ʃo
181 cold froid IPA(key): fʁwa
182 full plein IPA(key): plɛ̃
183 new nouveau IPA(key): nu'vo
184 old vieux IPA(key): vjø
185 good bon IPA(key): bɔ̃
186 bad mauvais IPA(key): mo'vɛ
187 rotten pourri IPA(key): pu'ri
188 dirty sale IPA(key): sal
189 straight droit IPA(key): dʁwa
190 round rond IPA(key): ʁɔ̃
191 sharp (as a knife) tranchant IPA(key): tʁɑ̃'ʃɑ̃
192 dull (as a knife) émoussé IPA(key): emu'se
193 smooth lisse IPA(key): lis
194 wet mouillé IPA(key): mu'je
195 dry sec IPA(key): sɛk
196 correct juste IPA(key): ʒyst
197 near près IPA(key): pʁɛ
198 far loin IPA(key): lwɛ̃
199 right droite IPA(key): dʁwat
200 left gauche IPA(key): ɡoʃ
201 at à IPA(key): a
202 in dans IPA(key): dɑ̃
203 with avec IPA(key): a'vɛk
204 and et IPA(key): e
205 if si IPA(key): si
206 because parce que IPA(key): paʁsə'kə
207 name nom IPA(key): nɔ̃
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the standard pronunciation in France. Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the shown pronunciation.

References[edit]

  • Français-Anglais/English-French Dictionary, Robert & Collins, Glasgow, Paris - ISBN 0-00-433478-7

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription