Appendix:French Swadesh list

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This is an Swadesh list of words in English and French.

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English French
Français
IPA
pronunciation
1 I je ʒə
2 you (singular) tu, vous (formal) ty, vu
3 he il il
4 we nous nu
5 you (plural) vous vu
6 they ils il
7 this ceci sə'si
8 that cela sə'la
9 here ici i'si
10 there la
11 who qui ki
12 what quoi kwa
13 where u
14 when quand
15 how comment kɔ'mã
16 not ne pas ...
17 all tout tu
18 many beaucoup bo'ku
19 some quelques kɛlk
20 few peu
21 other autre otʁ
22 one un œ̃
23 two deux
24 three trois tʁwɑ
25 four quatre katʁ
26 five cinq sɛ̃k
27 big grand ɡʁã
28 long long
29 wide large laʁʒ
30 thick épais e'pɛ
31 heavy lourd luʁ
32 small petit pə'ti
33 short court kuʁ
34 narrow étroit e'tʁwa
35 thin mince mɛ̃s
36 woman femme fam
37 man (male) homme ɔm
38 man (human) homme ɔm
39 child enfant ɑ̃fɑ̃
40 wife femme, épouse fam, e'puz
41 husband mari, époux ma'ʁi, e'pu
42 mother mère mɛʁ
43 father père pɛʁ
44 animal animal ani'mal
45 fish poisson pwa'sõ
46 bird oiseau wa'zo
47 dog chien ʃjɛ̃
48 louse pou pu
49 snake serpent sɛʁ'pɑ̃
50 worm ver vɛʁ
51 tree arbre aʁbʁ
52 forest forêt fɔ'ʁɛ
53 stick bâton bɑ'tɔ̃
54 fruit fruit fʁɥi
55 seed graine ɡʁɛn
56 leaf feuille fœj
57 root racine ʁa'sin
58 bark (of a tree) écorce e'kɔʁs
59 flower fleur flœʁ
60 grass herbe ɛʁb
61 rope corde kɔʁd
62 skin peau po
63 meat viande vjɑ̃d
64 blood sang sɑ̃
65 bone os ɔs
66 fat (noun) graisse ɡʁɛs
67 egg œuf œf
68 horn corne kɔʁn
69 tail queue
70 feather plume plym
71 hair cheveux ʃə'vø
72 head tête tɛt
73 ear oreille ɔ'ʁɛj
74 eye œil œj
75 nose nez ne
76 mouth bouche buʃ
77 tooth dent dɑ̃
78 tongue langue lɑ̃ɡ
79 fingernail ongle ɔ̃ɡl
80 foot pied pje
81 leg jambe ʒɑ̃b
82 knee genou ʒə'nu
83 hand main mɛ̃
84 wing aile ɛl
85 belly ventre vɑ̃tʁ
86 guts entrailles, intestins ɑ̃'tʁɑj, ɛ̃tɛs'tɛ̃
87 neck cou ku
88 back dos do
89 breast sein, poitrine pwa'tʁin
90 heart cœur kœʁ
91 liver foie fwɑ
92 to drink boire bwɑʁ
93 to eat manger mɑ̃'ʒe
94 to bite mordre mɔʁdʁ
95 to suck sucer sy'se
96 to spit cracher kʁa'ʃe
97 to vomit vomir vɔ'miʁ
98 to blow souffler su'fle
99 to breathe respirer ʁɛspi'ʁe
100 to laugh rire ʁiʁ
101 to see voir vwaʁ
102 to hear entendre ɑ̃'tɑ̃dʁ
103 to know savoir sa'vwaʁ
104 to think penser pɑ̃'se
105 to smell sentir sɑ̃'tiʁ
106 to fear craindre kʁɛ̃dʁ
107 to sleep dormir dɔʁ'miʁ
108 to live vivre vivʁ
109 to die mourir muʁiʁ
110 to kill tuer tɥe
111 to fight se battre sə'batʁ
112 to hunt chasser ʃa'se
113 to hit frapper fʁa'pe
114 to cut couper ku'pe
115 to split fendre fɑ̃dʁ
116 to stab poignarder pwaɲaʁ'de
117 to scratch gratter ɡʁa'te
118 to dig creuser kʁø'ze
119 to swim nager na'ʒe
120 to fly voler vɔ'le
121 to walk marcher maʁ'ʃe
122 to come venir və'niʁ
123 to lie (as in a bed) s'étendre (action), être étendu(state) sé'tɑ̃dʁ, ɛtʁetɑ̃'dy
124 to sit s'asseoir (action), être assis (state) sa'swaʁ, ɛtʁa'si
125 to stand se lever (action), se tenir debout (state) sələ've, sətə'niʁdə'bu
126 to turn (intransitive) tourner tuʁ'ne
127 to fall tomber tɔ̃'be
128 to give donner dɔ'ne
129 to hold tenir tə'niʁ
130 to squeeze serrer se'ʁe
131 to rub frotter fʁɔ'te
132 to wash laver la've
133 to wipe essuyer esɥi'je
134 to pull tirer ti'ʁe
135 to push pousser pu'se
136 to throw jeter, lancer ʒə'te, lɑ̃'se
137 to tie lier lje
138 to sew coudre kudʁ
139 to count compter kɔ̃'te
140 to say dire diʁ
141 to sing chanter ʃɑ̃'te
142 to play jouer ʒwe
143 to float flotter flɔ'te
144 to flow couler ku'le
145 to freeze geler ʒə'le
146 to swell gonfler ɡɔ̃'fle
147 sun soleil sɔ'lɛj
148 moon lune lyn
149 star étoile e'twal
150 water eau o
151 rain pluie plɥi
152 river rivière ʁi'vjɛʁ
153 lake lac lak
154 sea mer mɛʁ
155 salt sel sɛl
156 stone pierre pjɛʁ
157 sand sable sabl
158 dust poussière pu'sjɛʁ
159 earth terre tɛʁ
160 cloud nuage nɥaʒ
161 fog brouillard bʁu'jaʁ
162 sky ciel siɛl
163 wind vent vɑ̃
164 snow neige nɛʒ
165 ice glace ɡlas
166 smoke fumée fy'me
167 fire feu
168 ash cendre sɑ̃dʁ
169 to burn brûler bʁy'le
170 road route ʁut
171 mountain montagne mɔ̃'taɲ
172 red rouge ʁuʒ
173 green vert vɛʁ
174 yellow jaune ʒon
175 white blanc blɑ̃
176 black noir nwaʁ
177 night nuit nɥi
178 day jour ʒuʁ
179 year an, année ɑ̃, a'ne
180 warm chaud ʃo
181 cold froid fʁwa
182 full plein plɛ̃
183 new nouveau nu'vo
184 old vieux vjø
185 good bon bɔ̃
186 bad mauvais mo'vɛ
187 rotten pourri pu'ri
188 dirty sale sal
189 straight droit dʁwa
190 round rond ʁɔ̃
191 sharp (as a knife) tranchant tʁɑ̃'ʃɑ̃
192 dull (as a knife) émoussé emu'se
193 smooth lisse lis
194 wet mouillé mu'je
195 dry sec sɛk
196 correct juste ʒyst
197 near près pʁɛ
198 far loin lwɛ̃
199 right droite dʁwat
200 left gauche ɡoʃ
201 at à a
202 in dans dɑ̃
203 with avec a'vɛk
204 and et e
205 if si si
206 because parce que paʁsə'kə
207 name nom nɔ̃
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the standard pronunciation in France. Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the shown pronunciation.

References[edit]

  • Français-Anglais/English-French Dictionary, Robert & Collins, Glasgow, Paris - ISBN 0-00-433478-7

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription