Appendix:Portuguese Swadesh list

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This is an Swadesh list of words in English and Portuguese.


For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.


No. English Portuguese
1 I eu IPA(key): eu
2 you (singular) tu, você informal in BP, formal in EP IPA(key): tu, IPA(key): vɔˈse, IPA(key): voˈse (BP)
3 he ele IPA(key): ˈelɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈeli (BP)
4 we nós IPA(key): ˈnɔʃ (EP), IPA(key): ˈnɔs (BP)
5 you (plural) vós, vocês informal in both BP and EP IPA(key): ˈvɔʃ (EP), IPA(key): vɔˈseʃ (EP), IPA(key): ˈvɔs (BP), IPA(key): vɔˈses (BP)
6 they eles IPA(key): ˈelɨʃ (EP), IPA(key): ˈelis (BP)
7 this isto near me, isso near you IPA(key): ˈiʃtu (EP), IPA(key): ˈistu (BP)
8 that aquilo IPA(key): ɐˈkilu (EP), IPA(key): aˈkilu (BP)
9 here aqui IPA(key): ɐˈki (EP), IPA(key): aˈki (BP)
10 there IPA(key): ɐˈi (EP), IPA(key): aˈi (BP)
11 who quem IPA(key): kɐ̃ĩ (EP), IPA(key): kẽ̃ĩ (BP)
12 what que, o que IPA(key): (EP), IPA(key): u IPA(key): (EP), IPA(key): ki (BP), IPA(key): u IPA(key): ki (BP)
13 where onde IPA(key): ˈõðɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈõdʒi (BP)
14 when quando IPA(key): ˈkuɐ̃ðu (EP), IPA(key): ˈkuɐ̃du (BP)
15 how como IPA(key): ˈkomu
16 not não IPA(key): nɐ̃ũ
17 all todo IPA(key): ˈtoðu (EP), IPA(key): ˈtodu (BP)
18 many muito IPA(key): ˈmũĩtu
19 some alguns IPA(key): aɫˈɣũʃ (EP), IPA(key): auˈgũs (BP)
20 few pouco IPA(key): ˈpo(ou)ku
21 other outro IPA(key): ˈo(ou)tɾu
22 one um IPA(key): ũ
23 two dois IPA(key): doiʃ (EP), IPA(key): dois (BP)
24 three três IPA(key): tɾeʃ (EP), IPA(key): tɾes (BP)
25 four quatro IPA(key): ˈkuatɾu
26 five cinco IPA(key): ˈsĩku
27 big grande IPA(key): ˈɡɾɐ̃ðɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈɡɾɐ̃dʒi (BP)
28 long longo IPA(key): ˈlõɣu (EP), IPA(key): ˈlõɡu (BP)
29 wide largo IPA(key): ˈlaɾɣu (EP), IPA(key): ˈlaʁgu (BP)
30 thick espesso, grosso IPA(key): ɨʃˈpesu (EP), IPA(key): isˈpesu (BP)
31 heavy pesado IPA(key): pɨˈzaðu (EP), IPA(key): peˈzadu (BP)
32 small pequeno IPA(key): pɨˈkenu (EP), IPA(key): piˈkenu (BP)
33 short curto IPA(key): ˈkuɾtu
34 narrow estreito IPA(key): ɨʃˈtɾɐitu (EP), IPA(key): isˈtɾeitu (BP)
35 thin fino IPA(key): ˈfinu
36 woman mulher IPA(key): muˈʎɛɾ
37 man (male) homem IPA(key): ˈɔmɐ̃ĩ (EP), IPA(key): ˈomẽĩ (BP)
38 man (human) homem IPA(key): ˈɔmɐ̃ĩ (EP), IPA(key): ˈomẽĩ (BP)
39 child criança IPA(key): kɾiˈɐ̃sɐ
40 wife mulher, esposa IPA(key): muˈʎɛɾ, IPA(key): ɨʃˈpozɐ (EP), IPA(key): isˈpoza (BP)
41 husband marido, esposo IPA(key): mɐˈɾiðu (EP), IPA(key): ɨʃˈpozu (EP), IPA(key): maˈɾidu (BP), IPA(key): isˈpozu (BP)
42 mother mãe IPA(key): mɐ̃i
43 father pai IPA(key): pai
44 animal animal IPA(key): ɐniˈmaɫ (EP), IPA(key): aniˈmau (BP)
45 fish peixe IPA(key): ˈpɐiʃɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈpe(ei)ʃi (BP)
46 bird ave, pássaro IPA(key): ˈavɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈavi (EP), IPA(key): ˈpasɐɾu (EP), IPA(key): ˈpasaɾu (BP)
47 dog cão IPA(key): kɐ̃ũ
48 louse piolho IPA(key): piˈoʎu
49 snake serpente, cobra IPA(key): sɨɾˈpẽtɨ (EP), IPA(key): seʁˈpẽtʃi (BP), IPA(key): ˈkɔβɾɐ(EP), IPA(key): ˈkɔbɾɐ (BP)
50 worm verme IPA(key): ˈvɛɾmɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈvɛʁmi (BP)
51 tree árvore IPA(key): ˈaɾvuɾɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈaʁvoɾi (BP)
52 forest floresta IPA(key): fluˈɾɛʃtɐ (EP), IPA(key): floˈɾɛstɐ (BP)
53 stick bastão IPA(key): bɐʃˈtɐ̃ũ (EP), IPA(key): basˈtɐ̃u <smal>(BP)
54 fruit fruta, fruto IPA(key): ˈfɾutɐ, IPA(key): ˈfɾutu
55 seed semente IPA(key): sɨˈmẽtɨ (EP), IPA(key): seˈmẽtʃi (BP)
56 leaf folha IPA(key): ˈfoʎɐ
57 root raiz IPA(key): ɾɐˈiʃ (EP), IPA(key): xa'is (BP)
58 bark (of a tree) casca IPA(key): ˈkaʃkɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈkaskɐ (BP)
59 flower flor IPA(key): floɾ (EP), IPA(key): flox (BP)
60 grass grama IPA(key): ˈɛɾvɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈʁɾvɐ (BP)
61 rope corda IPA(key): ˈkɔɾðɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈkɔʁdɐ (BP)
62 skin pele IPA(key): ˈpɛlɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈpɛli (BP)
63 meat carne IPA(key): ˈkaɾnɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈkaʁni (BP)
64 blood sangue IPA(key): ˈsɐ̃ɣɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈsɐ̃gi (BP)
65 bone osso IPA(key): ˈosu
66 fat (noun) gordura IPA(key): ɡuɾˈðuɾɐ (EP), IPA(key): ɡoʁˈduɾɐ (BP)
67 egg ovo IPA(key): ˈovu
68 horn chifre, corno IPA(key): ˈʃifɾɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈkoɾnu (EP), IPA(key): ˈʃifɾi (BP), IPA(key): ˈkoʁnu (BP)
69 tail cauda, rabo IPA(key): ˈkauðɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈɾaβu (EP), IPA(key): ˈkaudɐ (BP), IPA(key): ˈxabu (BP)
70 feather pena IPA(key): ˈpenɐ
71 hair cabelo IPA(key): kɐˈβelu (EP), IPA(key): kaˈbelu (BP)
72 head cabeça IPA(key): kɐˈβesɐ (EP), IPA(key): kaˈbesɐ (BP)
73 ear orelha IPA(key): oˈɾɐʎɐ (EP), IPA(key): oˈɾeʎɐ (BP and EP alternative)
74 eye olho IPA(key): ˈoʎu
75 nose nariz IPA(key): nɐˈɾiʃ (EP), IPA(key): naˈɾis (BP)
76 mouth boca IPA(key): ˈbokɐ
77 tooth dente IPA(key): ˈdẽtɨ (EP), IPA(key): ˈdẽtʃi (BP)
78 tongue língua IPA(key): ˈlĩguɐ
79 fingernail unha IPA(key): ˈuɲɐ
80 foot IPA(key):
81 leg perna IPA(key): ˈpɛɾnɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈpɛʁnɐ (BP)
82 knee joelho IPA(key): ʒuˈɐʎu (EP), IPA(key): ʒuˈeʎu (BP and EP alternative)
83 hand mão IPA(key): mɐ̃u
84 wing asa IPA(key): ˈazɐ
85 belly ventre, barriga IPA(key): ˈvẽtɾɨ (EP), IPA(key): bɐˈʁiɣɐ (EP), IPA(key): ˈvẽtɾi (BP), IPA(key): baˈxigɐ (BP)
86 guts entranhas, intestino IPA(key): ẽˈtɾɐɲɐʃ (EP), IPA(key): ĩtɨʃˈtinu (EP), IPA(key): ẽˈtɾɐɲɐs (BP), IPA(key): ĩtesˈtʃinu (BO)
87 neck pescoço IPA(key): pɨʃˈkosu (EP), IPA(key): pesˈkosu (BP)
88 back costas IPA(key): ˈkɔʃtɐʃ (EP), IPA(key): ˈkɔstɐs (BP)
89 breast peito, seios IPA(key): ˈpɐitu (EP), IPA(key): ˈsɐiuʃ (EP), IPA(key): ˈpeitu (EP), IPA(key): ˈseius (EP)
90 heart coração IPA(key): kuɾɐˈsɐ̃w (EP), IPA(key): kɔɾaˈsɐ̃u (BP)
91 liver fígado IPA(key): ˈfiɣɐðu (EP), IPA(key): ˈfigɐdu (BP)
92 to drink beber IPA(key): bɨˈbeɾ
93 to eat comer IPA(key): kuˈmeɾ
94 to bite morder IPA(key): muɾˈdeɾ
95 to suck sugar, chupar IPA(key): suˈɡaɾ, IPA(key): ʃuˈpaɾ
96 to spit cuspir IPA(key): kuʃˈpiɾ
97 to vomit vomitar IPA(key): vumiˈtaɾ
98 to blow soprar IPA(key): suˈpɾaɾ
99 to breathe respirar IPA(key): ɾɨʃpiˈɾaɾ
100 to laugh rir IPA(key): ɾiɾ
101 to see ver IPA(key): veɾ
102 to hear ouvir IPA(key): oˈviɾ
103 to know saber IPA(key): sɐˈbeɾ
104 to think pensar IPA(key): pẽˈsaɾ
105 to smell cheirar IPA(key): ʃejˈɾaɾ
106 to fear temer IPA(key): tɨˈmeɾ
107 to sleep dormir IPA(key): duɾˈmiɾ
108 to live viver IPA(key): viˈveɾ
109 to die morrer IPA(key): muˈʀeɾ
110 to kill matar IPA(key): mɐˈtaɾ
111 to fight lutar IPA(key): luˈtaɾ
112 to hunt caçar IPA(key): kɐˈsaɾ
113 to hit bater IPA(key): bɐˈteɾ
114 to cut cortar IPA(key): kuɾˈtaɾ
115 to split rachar IPA(key): ʀɐˈʃaɾ
116 to stab esfaquear, apunhalar IPA(key): eʃfɐkiˈaɾ, IPA(key): ɐpuɲɐˈlaɾ
117 to scratch raspar IPA(key): ʀɐʃˈpaɾ
118 to dig cavar IPA(key): kɐˈvaɾ
119 to swim nadar IPA(key): nɐˈdaɾ
120 to fly voar IPA(key): vuˈaɾ
121 to walk andar, caminhar IPA(key): ɐ̃ˈdaɾ, IPA(key): kɐmiˈɲaɾ
122 to come vir IPA(key): viɾ
123 to lie (as in a bed) deitar-se (action), estar deitado (state) IPA(key): dɐjˈtaɾse, IPA(key): ɨʃˈtaɾ IPA(key): dejˈtadu
124 to sit sentar-se (action), estar sentado (state) IPA(key): sẽˈtaɾse, IPA(key): ɨʃˈtaɾ IPA(key): sẽˈtadu
125 to stand pôr-se de pé (action), estar em pé (state) IPA(key): poɾse IPA(key): IPA(key): , IPA(key): ɨʃˈtaɾ IPA(key): ɐ̃j IPA(key):
126 to turn (intransitive) virar, girar IPA(key): viˈɾaɾ, IPA(key): ʒiˈɾaɾ
127 to fall cair IPA(key): kɐˈiɾ
128 to give dar IPA(key): daɾ
129 to hold segurar IPA(key): sɨɡuˈɾaɾ
130 to squeeze apertar IPA(key): ɐpɨɾˈtaɾ
131 to rub esfregar IPA(key): ɨʃfɾɨˈɡaɾ
132 to wash lavar IPA(key): lɐˈvaɾ
133 to wipe enxugar IPA(key): ẽʃuˈɡaɾ
134 to pull puxar IPA(key): puˈʃaɾ
135 to push empurrar IPA(key): ẽpuˈʀaɾ
136 to throw atirar, lançar IPA(key): ɐtiˈɾaɾ, IPA(key): lɐ̃ˈsaɾ
137 to tie atar IPA(key): ɐˈtaɾ
138 to sew coser (EP), costurar (BP) IPA(key): kuˈzeɾ
139 to count contar IPA(key): kõˈtaɾ
140 to say dizer IPA(key): diˈzeɾ
141 to sing cantar IPA(key): kɐ̃ˈtaɾ
142 to play brincar, jogar IPA(key): bɾĩˈkaɾ, IPA(key): ʒuˈɡaɾ
143 to float flutuar, boiar IPA(key): flutuˈaɾ, IPA(key): bojˈaɾ
144 to flow fluir IPA(key): fluˈiɾ
145 to freeze gelar IPA(key): ʒɨˈlaɾ
146 to swell inchar IPA(key): ĩˈʃaɾ
147 sun sol IPA(key): sɔl
148 moon lua IPA(key): ˈluɐ
149 star estrela IPA(key): ɨʃˈtɾelɐ
150 water água IPA(key): ˈaɡwɐ
151 rain chuva IPA(key): ˈʃuvɐ
152 river rio IPA(key): ˈʀiu
153 lake lago IPA(key): ˈlaɡu
154 sea mar IPA(key): maɾ
155 salt sal IPA(key): sal
156 stone pedra IPA(key): ˈpɛdɾɐ
157 sand areia IPA(key): ɐˈɾejɐ
158 dust poeira IPA(key): puˈejɾɐ
159 earth terra IPA(key): ˈtɛʀɐ
160 cloud nuvem IPA(key): ˈnuvɐ̃j
161 fog nevoeiro IPA(key): nɨvuˈejɾu
162 sky céu IPA(key): sɛw
163 wind vento IPA(key): ˈvẽtu
164 snow neve IPA(key): ˈnɛvɨ
165 ice gelo IPA(key): ˈʒelu
166 smoke fumo (EP), fumaça (BP) IPA(key): ˈfumu
167 fire fogo IPA(key): ˈfoɡu
168 ash cinzas IPA(key): ˈsĩzɐʃ
169 to burn arder, queimar IPA(key): ɐɾˈdeɾ, IPA(key): keiˈmaɾ
170 road estrada IPA(key): ɨʃˈtɾadɐ
171 mountain montanha IPA(key): mõˈtɐɲɐ
172 red vermelho IPA(key): vɨɾˈmɐjʎu
173 green verde IPA(key): ˈveɾdɨ
174 yellow amarelo IPA(key): ɐmɐˈɾɛlu
175 white branco IPA(key): ˈbɾɐ̃ku
176 black preto, negro IPA(key): ˈpɾetu, IPA(key): ˈneɡɾu
177 night noite IPA(key): ˈnɔjtɨ
178 day dia IPA(key): ˈdiɐ
179 year ano IPA(key): ˈɐnu
180 warm quente IPA(key): kẽˈtɨ
181 cold frio IPA(key): ˈfɾiu
182 full cheio IPA(key): ˈʃeju
183 new novo IPA(key): ˈnovu
184 old velho IPA(key): ˈvɛʎu
185 good bom IPA(key):
186 bad mau IPA(key): maw
187 rotten podre IPA(key): ˈpodɾɨ
188 dirty sujo IPA(key): ˈsuʒu
189 straight direito IPA(key): diˈɾɐjtu
190 round redondo IPA(key): ʀɨˈdõdu
191 sharp (as a knife) afiado, aguçado IPA(key): ɐfiˈadu, IPA(key): ɐɡuˈsadu
192 dull (as a knife) cego IPA(key): ˈsɛɡu
193 smooth liso IPA(key): ˈlizu
194 wet húmido (EP), úmido (BP) IPA(key): ˈumidu
195 dry seco IPA(key): ˈseku
196 correct correcto (EP), correto (BP) IPA(key): kuˈʀɛtu (EP), IPA(key): koˈʀɛtu (BP)
197 near perto, próximo IPA(key): ˈpɛɾtu
198 far longe IPA(key): ˈlõʒɨ
199 right direita IPA(key): diˈɾejtɐ
200 left esquerda IPA(key): ɨʃˈkeɾdɐ
201 at a, em IPA(key): a, IPA(key): ɐ̃j
202 in em IPA(key): ɐ̃j
203 with com IPA(key):
204 and e IPA(key): i
205 if se IPA(key):
206 because porque IPA(key): ˈpuɾkɨ (EP), IPA(key): pʊɾˈke (BP)
207 name nome IPA(key): ˈnɔmɨ
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine or neutral, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The showed pronunciation is the pronunciation generally used in Portugal (EP) and/or in Brazil (BP). Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the showed pronunciation.


  • Dictionnaire de poche français-portugais / portugais-français, Hachette & Verbo, Paris 2005 - ISBN 2-01-280574-4
  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ISBN 2-221-05947-6

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

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Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription