Appendix:German Swadesh list

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This is an Swadesh list of words in English and German.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English German
Deutsch
IPA
pronunciation
1 I ich ɪç
2 you (singular) du, Sie (formal) duː, ziː
3 he er eːr
4 we wir viːr
5 you (plural) ihr, Sie (formal) iːr, ziː
6 they sie ziː
7 this dieses ˈdiːzəs
8 that jenes ˈjeːnəs
9 here hier hiːr
10 there dort dɔrt
11 who wer veːr
12 what was vas
13 where wo voː
14 when wann van
15 how wie viː
16 not nicht nɪçt
17 all alle ˈalə
18 many viele fiːlə
19 some einige ˈaɪniɡə
20 few wenig ˈveːnɪç
21 other andere ˈandərə
22 one eins aɪns
23 two zwei tsvaɪ
24 three drei draɪ
25 four vier fiːr
26 five fünf fʏnf
27 big groß ɡroːs
28 long lang laŋ
29 wide breit, weit braɪt, vaɪt
30 thick dick dɪk
31 heavy schwer, heftig ʃveːr
32 small klein, schmal klaɪn
33 short kurz kʊrts
34 narrow eng ɛŋ
35 thin dünn dʏn
36 woman Frau fraʊ
37 man (male) Mann man
38 man (human) Mensch mɛnʃ
39 child Kind kɪnt
40 wife Frau, Ehefrau, Weib fraʊ, ˈeːəfraʊ
41 husband Mann, Ehemann man, ˈeːəman
42 mother Mutter ˈmʊtər
43 father Vater ˈfaːtər
44 animal Tier tiːr
45 fish Fisch fɪʃ
46 bird Vogel ˈfoːgəl
47 dog Hund hʊnt
48 louse Laus laʊs
49 snake Schlange ˈʃlaŋə
50 worm Wurm vʊrm
51 tree Baum baʊm
52 forest Wald, Forst valt
53 stick Stock ʃtɔk
54 fruit Frucht frʊxt
55 seed Samen, Saat ˈzaːmən
56 leaf Blatt blat
57 root Wurzel ˈvʊrtsəl
58 bark (of a tree) Rinde, Borke ˈrɪndə
59 flower Blume ˈbluːmə
60 grass Gras ɡraːs
61 rope Seil zaɪl
62 skin Haut haʊt
63 meat Fleisch flaɪʃ
64 blood Blut bluːt
65 bone Knochen, Gebein ˈknɔxən
66 fat (noun) Fett fɛt
67 egg Ei ai
68 horn Horn hɔrn
69 tail Schwanz ʃvants
70 feather Feder ˈfeːdər
71 hair Haar haːr
72 head Kopf kɔpf
73 ear Ohr oːr
74 eye Auge ˈaʊgə
75 nose Nase ˈnaːzə
76 mouth Mund mʊnt
77 tooth Zahn tsaːn
78 tongue Zunge ˈtsʊŋə
79 fingernail Fingernagel ˈfɪŋərnaːɡəl
80 foot Fuß ˈfuːs
81 leg Bein baɪn
82 knee Knie kniː
83 hand Hand hant
84 wing Flügel ˈflyːɡəl
85 belly Bauch baʊx
86 guts Eingeweide ˈaɪnɡəvaɪdə
87 neck Hals, Nacken, Genick hals
88 back Rücken ˈrʏkən
89 breast Brust brʊst
90 heart Herz hɛrts
91 liver Leber ˈleːbər
92 to drink trinken ˈtrɪŋkən
93 to eat essen ˈɛsən
94 to bite beißen ˈbaɪsən
95 to suck saugen ˈzaugən
96 to spit spucken ˈʃpukən
97 to vomit erbrechen ɛrˈbrɛçən
98 to blow blasen ˈblaːzən
99 to breathe atmen ˈaːtmən
100 to laugh lachen ˈlaxən
101 to see sehen ˈzeːən
102 to hear hören ˈhøːrən
103 to know wissen, kennen ˈvɪsən
104 to think denken ˈdɛŋkən
105 to smell riechen ˈriːçən
106 to fear fürchten ˈfʏrçtən
107 to sleep schlafen ˈʃlaːfən
108 to live leben ˈleːbən
109 to die sterben ˈʃtɛrbən
110 to kill töten ˈtøːtən
111 to fight kämpfen ˈkɛmpfən
112 to hunt jagen ˈjaːɡən
113 to hit schlagen ˈʃlaːɡən
114 to cut schneiden ˈʃnaɪdən
115 to split spalten ˈʃpaltən
116 to stab stechen ˈʃtɛçən
117 to scratch kratzen ˈkratsən
118 to dig graben ˈgraːbən
119 to swim schwimmen ˈʃvɪmən
120 to fly fliegen ˈfliːɡən
121 to walk gehen geːən
122 to come kommen ˈkɔmən
123 to lie (as in a bed) liegen (state) ˈliːɡən
124 to sit sitzen (state) ˈzɪtsən
125 to stand stehen (state) ˈʃteːən
126 to turn (intransitive) drehen ˈdreːən
127 to fall fallen ˈfalən
128 to give geben ˈɡeːbən
129 to hold halten ˈhaltən
130 to squeeze quetschen ˈkvɛtʃən
131 to rub reiben ˈraɪbən
132 to wash waschen ˈvaʃən
133 to wipe wischen ˈvɪʃən
134 to pull ziehen ˈtsiːən
135 to push drücken ˈdrʏkən
136 to throw werfen ˈvɛrfən
137 to tie binden ˈbɪndən
138 to sew nähen ˈnɛːən
139 to count zählen ˈtsɛːlən
140 to say sagen ˈzaːgən
141 to sing singen ˈzɪŋən
142 to play spielen ˈʃpiːlən
143 to float schweben ˈʃveːbən
144 to flow fließen ˈfliːsən
145 to freeze frieren ˈfriːrən
146 to swell schwellen ˈʃvɛlən
147 sun Sonne ˈzɔnə
148 moon Mond moːnt
149 star Stern ʃtɛrn
150 water Wasser ˈvasər
151 rain Regen ˈreːgən
152 river Fluss flʊs
153 lake See zeː
154 sea Meer meːr, zeː
155 salt Salz zalts
156 stone Stein ʃtaɪn
157 sand Sand zant
158 dust Staub ʃtaʊp
159 earth Erde ˈeːrdə
160 cloud Wolke ˈvɔlkə
161 fog Nebel ˈneːbəl
162 sky Himmel ˈhɪməl
163 wind Wind vɪnt
164 snow Schnee ʃneː
165 ice Eis aɪs
166 smoke Rauch raʊx
167 fire Feuer ˈfɔʏər
168 ash Asche ˈaʃə
169 to burn brennen ˈbrɛnən
170 road Straße ˈʃtraːsə
171 mountain Berg bɛrk
172 red rot roːt
173 green grün gryːn
174 yellow gelb gɛlp
175 white weiß vaɪs
176 black schwarz ʃvarts
177 night Nacht naxt
178 day Tag taːk
179 year Jahr jaːr
180 warm warm varm
181 cold kalt kalt
182 full voll fɔl
183 new neu nɔʏ
184 old alt alt
185 good gut guːt
186 bad schlecht ʃlɛçt
187 rotten verfault, verrottet fɛrˈfault
188 dirty schmutzig, dreckig ˈʃmʊtsiç
189 straight gerade ɡəˈraːdə
190 round rund rʊnt
191 sharp (as a knife) scharf ʃarf
192 dull (as a knife) stumpf ʃtʊmpf
193 smooth glatt ɡlat
194 wet nass, feucht nas, fɔʏçt
195 dry trocken ˈtrɔkən
196 correct richtig, korrekt ˈrɪçtɪç
197 near nahe ˈnaːə
198 far weit, fern vaɪt, fɛrn
199 right rechts rɛçts
200 left links lɪŋks
201 at bei, an baɪ, an
202 in in ɪn
203 with mit mɪt
204 and und ʊnt
205 if wenn, falls, ob vɛn, fals, ɔp
206 because weil vaɪl
207 name Name ˈnaːmə
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine or neutral, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the showed pronunciation.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dictionnaire de poche français-allemand / allemand-français, Hachette & Langenscheidt, Paris 2003 - ISBN 2-01-280547-7
  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ISBN 2-221-05947-6

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – French (old) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription