Appendix:Polish Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in English and Polish.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English Polish
polski
IPA
pronunciation
1 I ja * [ja]
2 you (singular) ty *, pan/pani (formal) [t̪ɨ], [pãn̪]
3 he on * [ɔ̃n̪]
4 we my * [mɨ]
5 you (plural) wy *, państwo (formal) [vɨ], [ˈpãĩ̯s̪t̪fɔ]
6 they oni * [ˈɔ̃ɲi]
7 this to [t̪ɔ]
8 that tamto [ˈt̪ãmt̪ɔ]
9 here tu [t̪u]
10 there tam [t̪ãm]
11 who kto [kt̪ɔ]
12 what co [t͡s̪ɔ]
13 where gdzie [ɟd͡ʑɛ]
14 when kiedy [ˈcɛd̪ɨ]
15 how jak [jak]
16 not nie [ɲɛ]
17 all wszystko [ˈfʂɨs̪t̪kɔ]
18 many dużo, wiele [ˈd̪uʐɔ]
19 some kilka [ˈcilka]
20 few mało [ˈmawɔ]
21 other inny [ˈĩn̪ːɨ]
22 one jeden [ˈjɛd̪ɛ̃n̪]
23 two dwa [d̪va]
24 three trzy [t͡ʂʂɨ]
25 four cztery [ˈt͡ʂt̪ɛrɨ]
26 five pięć [pʲjɛ̝̃ɲt͡ɕ]
27 big wielki [ˈvʲjɛlci]
28 long długi [ˈd̪wuɟi]
29 wide szeroki [ˈʂɛrɔci]
30 thick gęsty [ˈɡɛ̃w̃s̪t̪ɨ]
31 heavy ciężki [ˈt͡ɕɛ̃w̃ʂci]
32 small mały [ˈmawɨ]
33 short krótki [ˈkrut̪ci]
34 narrow wąski [ˈvɔ̃w̃s̪ʲci]
35 thin cienki [ˈt͡ɕɛ̃ŋʲci]
36 woman kobieta [kɔˈbʲjɛt̪a]
37 man (male) mężczyzna [mɛ̃w̃ˈʂt͡ʂɨz̪n̪a]
38 man (human) człowiek [ˈt͡ʂwɔvʲjɛk]
39 child dziecko [ˈd͡ʑɛt͡s̪kɔ]
40 wife żona [ˈʐɔ̃n̪a]
41 husband mąż [mɔ̃w̃ʂ]
42 mother matka [ˈmat̪ka]
43 father ojciec [ˈɔjt͡ɕɛt͡s̪]
44 animal zwierzę [ˈz̪vʲjɛʐɛ]
45 fish ryba [ˈrɨba]
46 bird ptak [pt̪ak]
47 dog pies [pʲjɛs̪]
48 louse wesz [vɛʂ]
49 snake wąż [vɔ̃w̃ʂ]
50 worm robak [ˈrɔbak]
51 tree drzewo [ˈd͡ʐʐɛvɔ]
52 forest las [las̪]
53 stick laska [ˈlas̪ka]
54 fruit owoc [ˈɔvɔt͡s̪]
55 seed ziarno [ˈʑarn̪ɔ]
56 leaf liść [lʲiɕt͡ɕ]
57 root korzeń [ˈkɔʐɛ̃ɲ]
58 bark (of a tree) kora [ˈkɔra]
59 flower kwiat [kfʲjat̪]
60 grass trawa [ˈt̪rava]
61 rope sznur [ʂn̪ur]
62 skin skóra [ˈs̪kura]
63 meat mięso [ˈmʲjɛ̃w̃s̪ɔ]
64 blood krew [krɛf]
65 bone kość [kɔɕt͡ɕ]
66 fat (noun) tłuszcz [t̪wuʂt͡ʂ]
67 egg jajko [ˈjajkɔ]
68 horn róg [ruk]
69 tail ogon [ˈɔɡɔ̃n̪]
70 feather pióro [ˈpʲjurɔ]
71 hair włosy [ˈvwɔs̪ɨ]
72 head głowa [ˈɡwɔva]
73 ear ucho [ˈuxɔ]
74 eye oko [ˈɔkɔ]
75 nose nos [n̪ɔs]
76 mouth usta (plural only) [ˈus̪t̪a]
77 tooth ząb [z̪ɔ̃mp]
78 tongue język [ˈjɛ̃w̃z̪ɨk]
79 fingernail paznokieć [paˈz̪n̪ɔcɛ̝t͡ɕ]
80 foot stopa [ˈs̪t̪ɔpa]
81 leg noga [ˈnɔɡa]
82 knee kolano [kɔˈlãn̪ɔ]
83 hand ręka [ˈrɛ̃ŋka]
84 wing skrzydło [ˈs̪kʂɨd̪wɔ]
85 belly brzuch [bʐux]
86 guts wnętrzności (plural only) [vn̪ɛ̃nt͡ʂˈn̪ɔɕt͡ɕi]
87 neck szyja [ˈʂɨja]
88 back plecy (plural only) [plɛt͡s̪ɨ]
89 breast pierś [pʲjɛrʲɕ]
90 heart serce [ˈs̪ɛrt͡s̪ɛ]
91 liver wątroba [vɔ̃n̪ˈt̪rɔba]
92 to drink pić [pʲit͡ɕ]
93 to eat jeść [jɛɕt͡ɕ]
94 to bite gryźć [ɡrɨɕt͡ɕ]
95 to suck ssać [s̪ːat͡ɕ]
96 to spit pluć [plut͡ɕ]
97 to vomit wymiotować [vɨmʲjɔˈt̪ɔvat͡ɕ]
98 to blow dmuchać [ˈd̪muxat͡ɕ]
99 to breathe oddychać [ɔd̪ˈd̪ɨxat͡ɕ]
100 to laugh śmiać się [ɕmʲjɐt͡ɕɕɛ]
101 to see widzieć [ˈvʲid͡ʑɛ̝t͡ɕ]
102 to hear słyszeć [ˈs̪wɨʂɛt͡ɕ]
103 to know wiedzieć [ˈvʲjɛ̝d͡ʑɛ̝t͡ɕ]
104 to think myśleć [ˈmɨɕlɛt͡ɕ]
105 to smell czuć [t͡ʂut͡ɕ]
106 to fear bać się [ˈbat͡ɕɕɛ]
107 to sleep spać [s̪pat͡ɕ]
108 to live żyć [ʐɨt͡ɕ]
109 to die umierać [ũˈmʲjɛrat͡ɕ]
110 to kill zabijać [ˈz̪abʲit͡ɕ]
111 to fight walczyć [ˈvalt͡ʂɨt͡ɕ]
112 to hunt polować [pɔˈlɔvat͡ɕ]
113 to hit uderzać [uˈd̪ɛʐat͡ɕ]
114 to cut ciąć [t͡ɕɔ̃ɲt͡ɕ]
115 to split rąbać [ˈrɔ̃mbat͡ɕ]
116 to stab pchnąć nożem [pxn̪ɔ̃ɲt͡ɕ ˈn̪ɔʐɛ̃m]
117 to scratch drapać [ˈd̪rapat͡ɕ]
118 to dig kopać [ˈkɔpat͡ɕ]
119 to swim pływać [ˈpwɨvat͡ɕ]
120 to fly latać [ˈlat̪at͡ɕ]
121 to walk iść [iɕt͡ɕ]
122 to come przychodzić [pʂɨˈxɔd͡ʑit͡ɕ]
123 to lie (as in a bed) leżeć (action) [ˈlɛʐɛt͡ɕ]
124 to sit siadać (action) [ˈɕad̪at͡ɕ]
125 to stand wstawać (action) [ˈfs̪t̪avat͡ɕ]
126 to turn (intransitive) obracać się [ɔˈbrat͡s̪at͡ɕɕɛ]
127 to fall padać [ˈpad̪at͡ɕ]
128 to give dawać [ˈd̪avat͡ɕ]
129 to hold trzymać [ˈt͡ʂʂɨ̃mat͡ɕ]
130 to squeeze ściskać [ˈɕt͡ɕis̪kat͡ɕ]
131 to rub trzeć [t͡ʂʂɛt͡ɕ]
132 to wash myć [mɨt͡ɕ]
133 to wipe wycierać [vɨˈt͡ɕɛrat͡ɕ]
134 to pull ciągnąć [ˈt͡ɕɔ̃ŋɡn̪ɔ̃ɲt͡ɕ]
135 to push pchać [pxat͡ɕ]
136 to throw rzucać [ˈʐut͡s̪at͡ɕ]
137 to tie wiązać [ˈvʲjɔ̃w̃z̪at͡ɕ]
138 to sew szyć [ʂɨt͡ɕ]
139 to count liczyć [ˈlʲit͡ʂɨt͡ɕ]
140 to say mówić [ˈmuvʲit͡ɕ]
141 to sing śpiewać [ˈɕpʲjɛvat͡ɕ]
142 to play grać [ɡrat͡ɕ]
143 to float pływać [ˈpwɨvat͡ɕ]
144 to flow płynąć [ˈpwɨ̃n̪ɔ̃ɲt͡ɕ]
145 to freeze marznąć [ˈmarz̪n̪ɔ̃ɲt͡ɕ]
146 to swell pęcznieć [ˈpɛ̃nt͡ʂɲɛ̝t͡ɕ]
147 sun słońce [ˈs̪wɔ̃ĩ̯n̪t͡s̪ɛ]
148 moon księżyc [ˈcɕɛ̃w̃ʐɨt͡s̪]
149 star gwiazda [ˈɡvʲjaz̪d̪a]
150 water woda [ˈvɔd̪a]
151 rain deszcz [d̪ɛʂt͡ʂ]
152 river rzeka [ˈʐɛka]
153 lake jezioro [jɛˈʑɔrɔ]
154 sea morze [ˈmɔʐɛ]
155 salt sól [s̪ul]
156 stone kamień [ˈkãmʲjɛ̝̃ɲ]
157 sand piasek [ˈpʲjas̪ɛk]
158 dust kurz [kuʂ]
159 earth ziemia [ˈʑɛ̃mʲja]
160 cloud chmura [ˈxmura]
161 fog mgła [mɡwa]
162 sky niebo [ˈɲɛbɔ]
163 wind wiatr [vʲjat̪r̥]
164 snow śnieg [ɕɲɛk]
165 ice lód [lut̪]
166 smoke dym [d̪ɨ̃m]
167 fire ogień [ˈɔɟɛ̝̃ɲ]
168 ash popiół [ˈpɔpʲjuw]
169 to burn palić się [ˈpalʲit͡ɕɕɛ]
170 road droga [ˈd̪rɔɡa]
171 mountain góra [ˈɡura]
172 red czerwony [t͡ʂɛrˈvɔ̃n̪ɨ]
173 green zielony [ʑɛˈlɔ̃n̪ɨ]
174 yellow żółty [ˈʐuwt̪ɨ]
175 white biały [ˈbʲjawɨ]
176 black czarny [ˈt͡ʂarn̪ɨ]
177 night noc [n̪ɔt͡s̪]
178 day dzień [d͡ʑɛ̝̃ɲ]
179 year rok [rɔk]
180 warm ciepło [ˈt͡ɕɛpwɔ]
181 cold zimno [ˈʑĩmn̪ɔ]
182 full pełny [ˈpɛwn̪ɨ]
183 new nowy [ˈn̪ɔvɨ]
184 old stary [ˈs̪t̪arɨ]
185 good dobry [ˈd̪ɔbrɨ]
186 bad zły [z̪wɨ]
187 rotten zgniły [ˈz̪ɡɲiwɨ]
188 dirty brudny [ˈbrud̪n̪ɨ]
189 straight prosty [ˈprɔs̪t̪ɨ]
190 round okrągły [ɔˈkrɔ̃ŋɡwɨ]
191 sharp (as a knife) ostry [ˈɔs̪t̪rɨ]
192 dull (as a knife) tępy [ˈt̪ɛ̃mpɨ]
193 smooth gładki [ˈɡwat̪ʲci]
194 wet mokry [ˈmɔkrɨ]
195 dry suchy [ˈs̪uxɨ]
196 correct poprawny, prawidłowy [pɔˈpravn̪ɨ]
197 near blisko [ˈblʲis̪kɔ]
198 far daleko [d̪aˈlɛkɔ]
199 right prawy [ˈpravɨ]
200 left lewy [ˈlɛvɨ]
201 at przy, w, na [pʂɨ], [v], [n̪a]
202 in w [v]
203 with z [z̪]
204 and i [i]
205 if jeśli, jeżeli [ˈjɛɕlʲi], [jɛˈʐɛlʲi]
206 because bo [bɔ]
207 name imię [ˈimʲjɛ]

* the personal pronouns are frequently omitted

  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine or neutral, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dictionnaire de poche français-polonais / polonais-français, Wiedza Powszechna, Warszawa 2004 - ISBN 83-214-0938-5
  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ISBN 2-221-05947-6

External links[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – French (old) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription