Appendix:White Hmong Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in English and White Hmong.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

No. English White Hmong
Hmoob Dawb
IPA
pronunciation
1 I kuv IPA(key): ku˨˦
2 you (singular) koj IPA(key): kɔ˥˨
3 he nws IPA(key): nɨ˧
4 we peb, wb (dual) IPA(key): pe˥, IPA(key): ɨ˥
5 you (plural) nej, neb (dual) IPA(key): ne˥˨, IPA(key): ne˥
6 they lawv, nkawd (dual) IPA(key): laɨ˨˦, IPA(key): ᵑɡaɨ˨˩˧
7 this no, nov IPA(key): nɔ˦, IPA(key): nɔ˨˦
8 that ntawd IPA(key): ⁿdaɨ˨˩˧
9 here qhov no IPA(key): qʰɔ˨˦nɔ˦
10 there ntawd IPA(key): ⁿdaɨ˨˩˧
11 who leej twg IPA(key): lẽ˥˨tɨ̤˧
12 what dabtsi IPA(key): da˥ʈʂi˦
13 where qhov twg IPA(key): qʰɔ˨˦tɨ̤˧
14 when thaum twg IPA(key): tʰaṵ˧˩tɨ̤˧
15 how ua li cas IPA(key): uə˦li˦ca˧
16 not tsis IPA(key): ʈʂi˧
17 all huv si, tib si IPA(key): hu˨˦ʂi˦, IPA(key): ti˥ʂi˦
18 many ntau, coob IPA(key): ⁿdau˦, IPA(key): cɔ̃˥
19 some qee IPA(key): qẽ˦
20 few mentsis, tsawg IPA(key): me˦ᶯɖʐi˧, IPA(key): ʈʂaɨ̤˧
21 other lwm IPA(key): lɨ̰˧˩
22 one ib IPA(key):
23 two ob IPA(key): ɔ˥
24 three peb IPA(key): pe˥
25 four plaub IPA(key): pˡau˥
26 five tsib IPA(key): ʈʂi˥
27 big loj IPA(key): lɔ˥˨
28 long ntev IPA(key): ⁿde˨˦
29 wide dav IPA(key): da˨˦
30 thick tuab IPA(key): tuə˥
31 heavy hnyav IPA(key): ɲ̥a˨˦
32 small me IPA(key): me˦
33 short luv IPA(key): lu˨˦
34 narrow nqaim IPA(key): ᶰɢaḭ˧˩
35 thin nyias IPA(key): ɲiə˧
36 woman pojniam IPA(key): pɔ˥˨niə̰˧˩
37 man (male) txiv neej IPA(key): tsi˨˦nẽ˥˨
38 man (human) neeg IPA(key): nẽ̤˧
39 child menyuam IPA(key): me˦ɲuə̰˧˩
40 wife pojniam IPA(key): pɔ˥˨niə̰˧˩
41 husband txiv IPA(key): tsi˨˦
42 mother niam IPA(key): niə̰˧˩
43 father txiv IPA(key): tsi˨˦
44 animal tsiaj IPA(key): ʈʂiə˥˨
45 fish ntses IPA(key): ᶯɖʐe˧
46 bird noog IPA(key): nɔ̤̃˧
47 dog dev IPA(key): de˨˦
48 louse tuv IPA(key): tu˨˦
49 snake nab IPA(key): na˥
50 worm cua nab IPA(key): cuə˦na˥
51 tree ntoo IPA(key): ⁿdɔ̃˦
52 forest zoov IPA(key): ʐɔ̃˨˦
53 stick ceg IPA(key): ce̤˧
54 fruit txiv IPA(key): tsi˨˦
55 seed noob IPA(key): nɔ̃˥
56 leaf nplooj IPA(key): ᵐbˡɔ̃˥˨
57 root cag IPA(key): ca̤˧
58 bark (of a tree) tawv IPA(key): taɨ˨˦
59 flower paj IPA(key): pa˥˨
60 grass nyom IPA(key): ɲɔ̰˧˩
61 rope hlua IPA(key): ɬuə˦
62 skin tawv IPA(key): taɨ˨˦
63 meat nqaij IPA(key): ᶰɢai˥˨
64 blood ntshav IPA(key): ᶯɖʐʱa˨˦
65 bone pob-txha IPA(key): pɔ˥tsʰa˦
66 fat (noun) roj IPA(key): ʈɔ˥˨
67 egg qe IPA(key): qe˦
68 horn kub IPA(key): ku˥
69 tail tw IPA(key): tɨ˦
70 feather plaub IPA(key): pˡau˥
71 hair plaub-hau IPA(key): pˡau˥hau˦
72 head taub-hau IPA(key): tau˥hau˦
73 ear pob-ntseg IPA(key): pɔ˥ᶯɖʐe̤˧
74 eye qhov-muag IPA(key): qʰɔ˨˦muə̤˧
75 nose qhov-ntswg IPA(key): qʰɔ˨˦ᶯɖʐɨ̤˧
76 mouth qhov-ncauj IPA(key): qʰɔ˨˦ᶮɟau˥˨
77 tooth hniav IPA(key): n̥iə˨˦
78 tongue nplaig IPA(key): ᵐbˡai̤˧
79 fingernail rau tes IPA(key): ʈau˦te˧
80 foot ko-taw IPA(key): kɔ˦taɨ˦
81 leg ceg IPA(key): ce̤˧
82 knee hauv caug, caug IPA(key): hau˨˦caṳ˧, IPA(key): caṳ˧
83 hand tes IPA(key): te˧
84 wing tis IPA(key): ti˧
85 belly plab IPA(key): pˡa˥
86 guts hnyuv IPA(key): ɲ̥u˨˦
87 neck caj-dab IPA(key): ca˥˨da˥
88 back nrob qaum IPA(key): ᶯɖɔ˥qaṵ˧˩
89 breast mis IPA(key): mi˧
90 heart plawv IPA(key): pˡaɨ˨˦
91 liver siab IPA(key): ʂiə˥
92 to drink haus IPA(key): hau˧
93 to eat noj IPA(key): nɔ˥˨
94 to bite tom IPA(key): tɔ̰˧˩
95 to suck ntxais IPA(key): ⁿdzai˧
96 to spit nti, nto IPA(key): ⁿdi˦, IPA(key): ⁿdɔ˦
97 to vomit ntuav IPA(key): ⁿduə˨˦
98 to blow tshuab IPA(key): ʈʂʰuə˥
99 to breathe ua pa IPA(key): uə˦pa˦
100 to laugh luag IPA(key): luə̤˧
101 to see pom IPA(key): pɔ̰˧˩
102 to hear hnov IPA(key): n̥ɔ˨˦
103 to know paub IPA(key): pau˥
104 to think xav IPA(key): sa˨˦
105 to smell tsw IPA(key): ʈʂɨ˦
106 to fear ntshai IPA(key): ᶯɖʐʱai˦
107 to sleep tsaug zog IPA(key): ʈʂaṳ˧ʐɔ̤˧
108 to live nyob IPA(key): ɲɔ˥
109 to die tuag IPA(key): tuə̤˧
110 to kill tua IPA(key): tuə˦
111 to fight sib-ntaus IPA(key): ʂi˥ⁿdau˧
112 to hunt plob hav zoov IPA(key): pˡɔ˥ha˨˦ʐɔ̃˨˦
113 to hit ntaus IPA(key): ⁿdau˧
114 to cut txiav IPA(key): tsiə˨˦
115 to split phua IPA(key): pʰuə˦
116 to stab nkaug, nplhos IPA(key): ᵑɡaṳ˧, IPA(key): ᵐbˡᶾɔ˧
117 to scratch khawb IPA(key): kʰaɨ˥
118 to dig khawb IPA(key): kʰaɨ˥
119 to swim ua luam dej IPA(key): uə˦luə̰˧˩de˥˨
120 to fly ya IPA(key): ʝa˦
121 to walk taug kev IPA(key): taṳ˧ke˨˦
122 to come tuaj IPA(key): tuə˥˨
123 to lie (as in a bed) pw IPA(key): pɨ˦
124 to sit zaum IPA(key): ʐaṵ˧˩
125 to stand sawv ntsug IPA(key): ʂaɨ˨˦ᶯɖʐṳ˧
126 to turn (intransitive) tig IPA(key): ti̤˧
127 to fall poob IPA(key): pɔ̃˥
128 to give muab rau IPA(key): muə˥ʈau˦
129 to hold tuav, puag IPA(key): tuə˨˦, IPA(key): puə̤˧
130 to squeeze nyem IPA(key): ɲḛ˧˩
131 to rub mos IPA(key): mɔ˧
132 to wash ntxuav IPA(key): ⁿdzuə˨˦
133 to wipe so IPA(key): ʂɔ˦
134 to pull rub IPA(key): ʈu˥
135 to push thawb IPA(key): tʰaɨ˥
136 to throw pov IPA(key): pɔ˨˦
137 to tie khi IPA(key): kʰi˦
138 to sew xaws IPA(key): saɨ˧
139 to count suav IPA(key): ʂuə˨˦
140 to say hais IPA(key): hai˧
141 to sing hu/hais nkauj IPA(key): hu˦ᵑɡau˥˨, IPA(key): hai˧ᵑɡau˥˨
142 to play ua si IPA(key): uə˦ʂi˦
143 to float ntab IPA(key): ⁿda˥
144 to flow ntws IPA(key): ⁿdɨ˧
145 to freeze khov IPA(key): kʰɔ˨˦
146 to swell o IPA(key): ɔ˦
147 sun hnub IPA(key): n̥u˥
148 moon hli IPA(key): ɬi˦
149 star hnub qub IPA(key): n̥u˥qu˥
150 water dej IPA(key): de˥˨
151 rain nag IPA(key): na̤˧
152 river dej IPA(key): de˥˨
153 lake pas dej IPA(key): pa˧de˥˨
154 sea hiav-txwv IPA(key): hiə˨˦tsɨ˨˦
155 salt ntsev IPA(key): ᶯɖʐe˨˦
156 stone pob-zeb IPA(key): pɔ˥ʐe˥
157 sand hmoov zeb IPA(key): m̥ɔ̃˨˦ʐe˥
158 dust hmoov av IPA(key): m̥ɔ̃˨˦a˨˦
159 earth av IPA(key): a˨˦
160 cloud huab IPA(key): huə˥
161 fog pos huab IPA(key): pɔ˧huə˥
162 sky ntuj IPA(key): ⁿdu˥˨
163 wind cua IPA(key): cuə˦
164 snow npu IPA(key): ᵐbu˦
165 ice dej khov, nab kuab IPA(key): de˥˨kʰɔ˨˦, IPA(key): na˥kuə˥
166 smoke ncho pa IPA(key): ᶮɟʱɔ˦pa˦
167 fire taws IPA(key): taɨ˧
168 ash tshauv IPA(key): ʈʂʰau˨˦
169 to burn hlawv IPA(key): ɬaɨ˨˦
170 road kev IPA(key): ke˨˦
171 mountain roob, toj IPA(key): ʈɔ̃˥, IPA(key): tɔ˥˨
172 red liab IPA(key): liə˥
173 green ntsuab IPA(key): ᶯɖʐuə˥
174 yellow daj IPA(key): da˥˨
175 white dawb IPA(key): daɨ˥
176 black dub IPA(key): du˥
177 night tsaus ntuj IPA(key): ʈʂau˧ⁿdu˥˨
178 day hnub IPA(key): n̥u˥
179 year xyoo IPA(key): çɔ̃˦
180 warm kub, sov IPA(key): ku˥, IPA(key): ʂɔ˨˦
181 cold no, txias IPA(key): nɔ˦, IPA(key): txiə˧
182 full puv IPA(key): pu˨˦
183 new tshiab IPA(key): ʈʂʰiə˥
184 old laus, qub IPA(key): lau˧, IPA(key): qu˥
185 good zoo IPA(key): ʐɔ̃˦
186 bad phem IPA(key): pʰḛ˧˩
187 rotten lwj IPA(key): lɨ˥˨
188 dirty txab, ceb IPA(key): txa˥, IPA(key): ce˥
189 straight ncaj IPA(key): ᶮɟa˥˨
190 round kheej-kheej IPA(key): kʰẽ˥˨kʰẽ˥˨
191 sharp (as a knife) ntse IPA(key): ᶯɖʐe˦
192 dull (as a knife) npub IPA(key): ᵐbu˥
193 smooth du IPA(key): du˦
194 wet ntub IPA(key): ⁿdu˥
195 dry qhuav IPA(key): qʰuə˨˦
196 correct tseeb IPA(key): ʈʂẽ˥
197 near ze IPA(key): ʐe˦
198 far deb IPA(key): de˥
199 right sab xis IPA(key): ʂa˥xi˧
200 left sab-laug IPA(key): ʂa˥laṳ˧
201 at ntawm, tom IPA(key): ⁿdaɨ̰˧˩, IPA(key): tɔ̰˧˩
202 in hauv IPA(key): hau˨˦
203 with nrog IPA(key): ᶯɖɔ̤˧
204 and thiab IPA(key): tʰiə˥
205 if yog IPA(key): ʝɔ̤˧
206 because vim IPA(key): vḭ˧˩
207 name npe IPA(key): ᵐbe˦

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia



Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription