Appendix:White Hmong Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in English and White Hmong.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

No. English White Hmong
Hmoob Dawb
IPA
pronunciation
1 I kuv ku˨˦
2 you (singular) koj kɔ˥˨
3 he nws nɨ˧
4 we peb, wb (dual) pe˥, ɨ˥
5 you (plural) nej, neb (dual) ne˥˨, ne˥
6 they lawv, nkawd (dual) laɨ˨˦, ᵑɡaɨ˨˩˧
7 this no, nov nɔ˦, nɔ˨˦
8 that ntawd ⁿdaɨ˨˩˧
9 here qhov no qʰɔ˨˦nɔ˦
10 there ntawd ⁿdaɨ˨˩˧
11 who leej twg lẽ˥˨tɨ̤˧
12 what dabtsi da˥ʈʂi˦
13 where qhov twg qʰɔ˨˦tɨ̤˧
14 when thaum twg tʰaṵ˧˩tɨ̤˧
15 how ua li cas uə˦li˦ca˧
16 not tsis ʈʂi˧
17 all huv si, tib si hu˨˦ʂi˦, ti˥ʂi˦
18 many ntau, coob ⁿdau˦, cɔ̃˥
19 some qee qẽ˦
20 few mentsis, tsawg me˦ᶯɖʐi˧, ʈʂaɨ̤˧
21 other lwm lɨ̰˧˩
22 one ib
23 two ob ɔ˥
24 three peb pe˥
25 four plaub pˡau˥
26 five tsib ʈʂi˥
27 big loj lɔ˥˨
28 long ntev ⁿde˨˦
29 wide dav da˨˦
30 thick tuab tuə˥
31 heavy hnyav ɲ̥a˨˦
32 small me me˦
33 short luv lu˨˦
34 narrow nqaim ᶰɢaḭ˧˩
35 thin nyias ɲiə˧
36 woman pojniam pɔ˥˨niə̰˧˩
37 man (male) txiv neej tsi˨˦nẽ˥˨
38 man (human) neeg nẽ̤˧
39 child menyuam me˦ɲuə̰˧˩
40 wife pojniam pɔ˥˨niə̰˧˩
41 husband txiv tsi˨˦
42 mother niam niə̰˧˩
43 father txiv tsi˨˦
44 animal tsiaj ʈʂiə˥˨
45 fish ntses ᶯɖʐe˧
46 bird noog nɔ̤̃˧
47 dog dev de˨˦
48 louse tuv tu˨˦
49 snake nab na˥
50 worm cua nab cuə˦na˥
51 tree ntoo ⁿdɔ̃˦
52 forest zoov ʐɔ̃˨˦
53 stick ceg ce̤˧
54 fruit txiv tsi˨˦
55 seed noob nɔ̃˥
56 leaf nplooj ᵐbˡɔ̃˥˨
57 root cag ca̤˧
58 bark (of a tree) tawv taɨ˨˦
59 flower paj pa˥˨
60 grass nyom ɲɔ̰˧˩
61 rope hlua ɬuə˦
62 skin tawv taɨ˨˦
63 meat nqaij ᶰɢai˥˨
64 blood ntshav ᶯɖʐʱa˨˦
65 bone pob-txha pɔ˥tsʰa˦
66 fat (noun) roj ʈɔ˥˨
67 egg qe qe˦
68 horn kub ku˥
69 tail tw tɨ˦
70 feather plaub pˡau˥
71 hair plaub-hau pˡau˥hau˦
72 head taub-hau tau˥hau˦
73 ear pob-ntseg pɔ˥ᶯɖʐe̤˧
74 eye qhov-muag qʰɔ˨˦muə̤˧
75 nose qhov-ntswg qʰɔ˨˦ᶯɖʐɨ̤˧
76 mouth qhov-ncauj qʰɔ˨˦ᶮɟau˥˨
77 tooth hniav n̥iə˨˦
78 tongue nplaig ᵐbˡai̤˧
79 fingernail rau tes ʈau˦te˧
80 foot ko-taw kɔ˦taɨ˦
81 leg ceg ce̤˧
82 knee hauv caug, caug hau˨˦caṳ˧, caṳ˧
83 hand tes te˧
84 wing tis ti˧
85 belly plab pˡa˥
86 guts hnyuv ɲ̥u˨˦
87 neck caj-dab ca˥˨da˥
88 back nrob qaum ᶯɖɔ˥qaṵ˧˩
89 breast mis mi˧
90 heart plawv pˡaɨ˨˦
91 liver siab ʂiə˥
92 to drink haus hau˧
93 to eat noj nɔ˥˨
94 to bite tom tɔ̰˧˩
95 to suck ntxais ⁿdzai˧
96 to spit nti, nto ⁿdi˦, ⁿdɔ˦
97 to vomit ntuav ⁿduə˨˦
98 to blow tshuab ʈʂʰuə˥
99 to breathe ua pa uə˦pa˦
100 to laugh luag luə̤˧
101 to see pom pɔ̰˧˩
102 to hear hnov n̥ɔ˨˦
103 to know paub pau˥
104 to think xav sa˨˦
105 to smell tsw ʈʂɨ˦
106 to fear ntshai ᶯɖʐʱai˦
107 to sleep tsaug zog ʈʂaṳ˧ʐɔ̤˧
108 to live nyob ɲɔ˥
109 to die tuag tuə̤˧
110 to kill tua tuə˦
111 to fight sib-ntaus ʂi˥ⁿdau˧
112 to hunt plob hav zoov pˡɔ˥ha˨˦ʐɔ̃˨˦
113 to hit ntaus ⁿdau˧
114 to cut txiav tsiə˨˦
115 to split phua pʰuə˦
116 to stab nkaug, nplhos ᵑɡaṳ˧, ᵐbˡᶾɔ˧
117 to scratch khawb kʰaɨ˥
118 to dig khawb kʰaɨ˥
119 to swim ua luam dej uə˦luə̰˧˩de˥˨
120 to fly ya ʝa˦
121 to walk taug kev taṳ˧ke˨˦
122 to come tuaj tuə˥˨
123 to lie (as in a bed) pw pɨ˦
124 to sit zaum ʐaṵ˧˩
125 to stand sawv ntsug ʂaɨ˨˦ᶯɖʐṳ˧
126 to turn (intransitive) tig ti̤˧
127 to fall poob pɔ̃˥
128 to give muab rau muə˥ʈau˦
129 to hold tuav, puag tuə˨˦, puə̤˧
130 to squeeze nyem ɲḛ˧˩
131 to rub mos mɔ˧
132 to wash ntxuav ⁿdzuə˨˦
133 to wipe so ʂɔ˦
134 to pull rub ʈu˥
135 to push thawb tʰaɨ˥
136 to throw pov pɔ˨˦
137 to tie khi kʰi˦
138 to sew xaws saɨ˧
139 to count suav ʂuə˨˦
140 to say hais hai˧
141 to sing hu/hais nkauj hu˦ᵑɡau˥˨, hai˧ᵑɡau˥˨
142 to play ua si uə˦ʂi˦
143 to float ntab ⁿda˥
144 to flow ntws ⁿdɨ˧
145 to freeze khov kʰɔ˨˦
146 to swell o ɔ˦
147 sun hnub n̥u˥
148 moon hli ɬi˦
149 star hnub qub n̥u˥qu˥
150 water dej de˥˨
151 rain nag na̤˧
152 river dej de˥˨
153 lake pas dej pa˧de˥˨
154 sea hiav-txwv hiə˨˦tsɨ˨˦
155 salt ntsev ᶯɖʐe˨˦
156 stone pob-zeb pɔ˥ʐe˥
157 sand hmoov zeb m̥ɔ̃˨˦ʐe˥
158 dust hmoov av m̥ɔ̃˨˦a˨˦
159 earth av a˨˦
160 cloud huab huə˥
161 fog pos huab pɔ˧huə˥
162 sky ntuj ⁿdu˥˨
163 wind cua cuə˦
164 snow npu ᵐbu˦
165 ice dej khov, nab kuab de˥˨kʰɔ˨˦, na˥kuə˥
166 smoke ncho pa ᶮɟʱɔ˦pa˦
167 fire taws taɨ˧
168 ash tshauv ʈʂʰau˨˦
169 to burn hlawv ɬaɨ˨˦
170 road kev ke˨˦
171 mountain roob, toj ʈɔ̃˥, tɔ˥˨
172 red liab liə˥
173 green ntsuab ᶯɖʐuə˥
174 yellow daj da˥˨
175 white dawb daɨ˥
176 black dub du˥
177 night tsaus ntuj ʈʂau˧ⁿdu˥˨
178 day hnub n̥u˥
179 year xyoo çɔ̃˦
180 warm kub, sov ku˥, ʂɔ˨˦
181 cold no, txias nɔ˦, txiə˧
182 full puv pu˨˦
183 new tshiab ʈʂʰiə˥
184 old laus, qub lau˧, qu˥
185 good zoo ʐɔ̃˦
186 bad phem pʰḛ˧˩
187 rotten lwj lɨ˥˨
188 dirty txab, ceb txa˥, ce˥
189 straight ncaj ᶮɟa˥˨
190 round kheej-kheej kʰẽ˥˨kʰẽ˥˨
191 sharp (as a knife) ntse ᶯɖʐe˦
192 dull (as a knife) npub ᵐbu˥
193 smooth du du˦
194 wet ntub ⁿdu˥
195 dry qhuav qʰuə˨˦
196 correct tseeb ʈʂẽ˥
197 near ze ʐe˦
198 far deb de˥
199 right sab xis ʂa˥xi˧
200 left sab-laug ʂa˥laṳ˧
201 at ntawm, tom ⁿdaɨ̰˧˩, tɔ̰˧˩
202 in hauv hau˨˦
203 with nrog ᶯɖɔ̤˧
204 and thiab tʰiə˥
205 if yog ʝɔ̤˧
206 because vim vḭ˧˩
207 name npe ᵐbe˦

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia



Swadesh lists
Individual languages

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Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription