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U+518D, 再
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-518D

[U+518C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+518E]
U2f815.svg
再 U+2F815, 再
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F815
內
[U+2F814]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 𠕋
[U+2F816]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Mainland China)
6 strokes
Stroke order (Sans-serif)
再-order (Sans-serif).gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 13, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一土月 (MGB), four-corner 10447, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 129, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1524
  • Dae Jaweon: page 290, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 18, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+518D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
再-oracle.svg 再-bronze.svg 再-seal.svg 再-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *ʔslɯːʔ, “year”), (OC *ʔsɯ, “year”), (OC *ʔseːns, “repeatedly”), (OC *zlɯːns, “again; repeatedly”), (OC *zlɯːns, “repeatedly”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡sai⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡sai⁵³/
/t͡sai²⁴/ ~見
Tianjin /tai⁵³/
/t͡sai⁵³/
Jinan /t͡sɛ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡sɛ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡sai³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡sai⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡sɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡sɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡sɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡sai²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡sai³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sai¹³/
Guiyang /t͡sai²¹³/
Kunming /t͡sæ²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡sae⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡se̞⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡sæ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡sɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /t͡se³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡se̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /t͡se̞⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡se⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡sɛ³²⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sə²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡sai⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡sai⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sai⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sai⁵³/
Taoyuan /t͡sɑi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔi²³/
Nanning /t͡sɔi³³/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔi¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sai²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɑi²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡suɛ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sai²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sai³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (13)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʌiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡səiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɒiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡səjH/
Li
Rong
/t͡sᴀiH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sɒiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sɑ̆iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zài
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zoi3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zài
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsojH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ˁə(ʔ)-s/
English twice; a second time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16511
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsɯːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. again; once again; a second time; re-
      ―  zài wán  ―  play again
      ―  yī tuō zài tuō  ―  to put off again and again
      ―  zài shuō yī biàn  ―  I will say once again.
    後來 [MSC, trad.]
    后来 [MSC, simp.]
    Hòulái wǒ zài yě méi jiàn guò tā le. [Pinyin]
    Afterwards I have never seen him again.
  2. Used to indicate a continuing situation in conditional or suppositional clauses
    出發我們趕不上火車 [MSC, trad.]
    出发我们赶不上火车 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài bù chūfā, wǒmen jiù huì gǎnbùshàng huǒchē le. [Pinyin]
    If we don't leave now, we're going to miss the train.
  3. more; -er
    一點一点  ―  zài kuài yīdiǎn  ―  faster
    大聲 [Cantonese, trad.]
    大声 [Cantonese, simp.]
    zoi3 daai6 seng1 di1 dak1 m4 dak1 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Louder please.
    不能芝麻小事 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    xiǎo de bùnéng zài xiǎo de zhīmáxiǎoshì [Pinyin]
    a trivial matter that cannot be more trivial
  4. Used with () and followed by a negative expression; no matter how...still (not)
    努力不會成功 [MSC, trad.]
    努力不会成功 [MSC, simp.]
    zài nǔlì yě bùhuì chénggōng. [Pinyin]
    No matter how hard you work, you will not succeed.
    有了棉衣 [MSC, trad.]
    有了棉衣 [MSC, simp.]
    Yǒule zhè jiàn miányī, zài lěng de tiān wǒ yě bù pà le. [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
  5. then; only then
    我們回去 [MSC, trad.]
    我们回去 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen chī guò fàn zài huíqù ba. [Pinyin]
    We shall eat before returning.
    到時到时 [Cantonese]  ―  dou3 si4 zoi3 syun3 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
  6. in addition; on top of that
  7. (literary) twice
  8. (literary) to appear again
    青春  ―  qīngchūn bùzài  ―  One’s youth never returns.
  9. a surname

Usage notes[edit]

In Old Chinese, (OC *ʔsɯːs) strictly meant "twice" and not "again". The "second time" sense developed around the Tang dynasty.

(zài) is used for something that has not happened, while (yòu) is used for something that already happened.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (one again):
edit

See also[edit]

  • (again): (yòu)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (さい) (sai)
  • Korean: (, jae)
  • Vietnamese: tái ()

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. again
  2. twice
  3. second time

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(さい) (sai-

  1. re-, again, repeated
    ページ(さい)()()
    pēji o saiyomikomi
    reload the page

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʌiH). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄌᆡ (coy) (Yale: coy) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕɛ(ː)] ~ [t͡ɕe̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (du jae))
(eumhun 다시 (dasi jae))

  1. Hanja form? of (again).
  2. Hanja form? of (twice).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: tái[1][2][3][4][5][6]
: Nôm readings: tái[1][2][3], táy[3][7], tải

  1. chữ Hán form of tái (re-, again).

References[edit]