User:Julien Daux/Navajo roots - backup

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-ʼĄ́[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ʼa (to handle compact object), with nasalized perfective *ʼa-nʸ.

One of the most productive root occurring in all Athabaskan languages, in a wide range of themes and specialized meanings.

Cognate root found in Ahtna zʼaan (it is in position), yiniʼaan (he arrived carrying it), diniʼaan (he brought the news), nikuniʼaan (it is planned), [Term?] (sun moves), with similar extended meanings.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to handle SRO

Motion themes:

Theme O + Ø ʼa + Ø O + di + Ø O + ł + d ni + d

 
Ø-MOM

  • Ø
  • a
  • di
  • dii
  • ałná
  • ha
  • hadii
  • na
  • ńdíníi
  • yisdá

S handles SRO
 

S moves
(the sun)

S handles abstract O
(a song); S relaxes O

S carries O
(fire)

S moves head
 

ni-MOM

  • Ø
  • chʼi
  • ni#

 

 

 

 

 

CONT

PROG

Misc.

Theme ho + Ø O + di + d ádąąh O + d

 
Ø-MOM

  • Ø
  • di
  • di+hi

S plans, suggests,
complains

S carries food
 

S puts O on self
(head, finger)

ni-MOM

  • chʼi
  • ni#
  • ni#dini

 

 

 

CONT

PROG


Other themes:

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø positional

SRO is in position

hazʼą́

S keeps SRO in position

Ø

SRO gets in position

hooʼaah

S sets SRO in position

hoołʼaah

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ʼaah -ʼą́ -ʼááł -ʼááh -ʼááł
CONT -ʼá -ʼą́ -ʼaał -ʼaah -ʼaał
TRANS -ʼaah -ʼaʼ -ʼaał -ʼaah -ʼaah
NEUT - -ʼą́ - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SRO verbs:

to sing:

to act with body:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (handle SRO)

-ʼAAL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ʼa̓tɬʼ (to chew, to bite).

Cognate root found in Ahtna cʼeʼaał (he is chewing sth), yizʼał (he bit it once), Gwich'in iiʼàal (I ate it), Chipewyan ɣɛsʼaíł (Iʼm chewing it)

Found in Navajo in bases related to the eating of hard or crispy food like peanut, candy, celery, bacon.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to eat hard object
Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
Ø operative

S eats O

áde yitʼaał (+d refl.)

S eats

áde atʼaał

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ʼaał -ʼaal -ʼał -ʼał -ʼaał
DUR -ʼaał -ʼaal -ʼał -ʼał -ʼaał

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to eat:

to chew, to bite:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (eat hard)

-BAʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *wa’ (to be gray).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

1. gray
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
łi + Ø adjectival

S is gray (neuter impf.)

d

S is gray (neuter perf.)

Ø

S becomes —

S makes O —

ádiilbááh (+d refl.)
Ø motion

gray S moves

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
TRANS -bááh -baʼ -bah -bah -bááh
TRANS -bééh -baʼ -bééł -bééh -bééh
CONT -bé - - - -
NEUT -bá -bá - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Antonyms[edit]

Colors:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (gray)

-BAAL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *wa̓l (to hang).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. FFO hangs
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø positional

S hangs

S hangs O

ná + Ø ?

S turns quickly

S turns O quickly

Ø successive

S flaps, waves

S flaps or waves O

Ø ?

S careens

  • adiibaał
  • haabaał

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -baał -baal -bał -bał -baał
REV -bał -baal -bał -bał -bał
REP -bal - - - -
SEM -bał -bał -bał -bał -bał
NEUTER - -baal - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

FFO verbs:

to turn, to whirl:

to hang:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (FFO hangs)

-BĄ́Ą́Z[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The root -BĄ́Ą́Z (hooplike, ringlike shape) is cognate with the root -MÁÁZ (globular, spherical, ball-like shape), both possibly originating from Proto-Athabaskan *wątsʼ (roll).

Cognate root found in Ahtna ghalbas (it is rolling along), nelbaatsʼ (it is spherical).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. roll
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

S rolls

S rolls O, drives O

Ø adjectival

S is circular, curved

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / CONT -bąąs -bą́ą́z -bąs -bąs -bąąs
NEUTER - -bąs - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to roll:


to be curved, bent:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (roll)

-CHĄĄʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *čʷanʼ ~ *čʷənʼ (to defecate).

Cognate root found in Ahtna tsaanʼ (excrement), estsenʼ (I defecate), Gwich'in tryąʼ (excrement).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to defecate, to cover with filth, to masturbate
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø conversive

S defecates, produces filth (on P)

S defecates O, dirties O (on P)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chįįh -chąąʼ -chįįł -chįįh -chįįh
CONCL / CONT -chįʼ -chąąʼ -chįįł -chįįh -chįʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

dirty:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (defecate)

-CHĄ́Ą́ʼ[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ča(nʸ) ~ *čʷa(nʸ) (to become exhausted).

Cognate root found in Ahtna nininitsaan (he came exhausted), Chipewyan nínįtsąʼ (he is tired).

Occurs in Navajo in bases related to “fleeing” and “running”.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to flee, to run out
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + Ø motion

S flees

S chases O

ahi + ni + l motion

two S run

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chééh -chą́ą́ʼ -chééł -chééh -chééł
CONT -ché -chą́ą́ʼ -chééł -chééh -chééł

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to run:

to flee:

to run out, to exhaust:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (flee)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *čən (to smell, to stink).

Cognate root found in Ahtna ukoltsen (it smells), Gwich'in yahtsan (he smells it).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to smell, to sniff
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ł / l adjectival

S smells

ł conversive

S smells O

ałchin
ádílchin
di + l motion

S sniffs

S sniffs for O

Ø / l ?

S knows about

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chįįh -chą́ą́ʼ -chįįł -chįįh -chą́ą́ʼ
CONCL -chin -chą́ą́ʼ -chį́į́ł -chįįh -chą́ą́ʼ
CONT -chą́ą́ʼ -chą́ą́ʼ -chį́į́ł -chį́į́h -chą́ą́ʼ
CON -chį́į́h - - - -
REP -chą́ą́ʼ - - - -
SEM -chįh -chįh -chįh -chįh -chįh
NEUTER -chin - - - -
NEUTER -chon - - - -
NEUTER -chxon - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

odor floats:

to know:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (smell)

-CHʼĄ́Ą́L[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This user page lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to move suspended by means of a handle or cord
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l motion

S moves suspended

S moves O suspended

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chʼąął -chʼą́ą́l -chʼął -chʼął -chʼąął
CONT -chʼąął -chʼą́ą́l -chʼął -chʼął -chʼąął

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SFO verbs:

to hang:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (move suspended)

-CHĮ́[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. come into being
    1. be born
      1. (-Ø-) there is birth, to be born.
      2. (-ł- causative) to bring into being, to give birth; to make, to build.
      3. (-l- passive) to be born; to be related by clan.
      4. (-l- causative-reflexive) to cause oneself to be, to bring oneself into being; to feign, to pretend.
    2. write
      1. (ʼakʼiʼa- + -ł- transitive) to write, to mark, to tattoo.
      2. (ʼakʼiʼa- + -l- reflexive) to tattoo oneself.
  2. collect (maybe original meaning?)
    1. (-ł-) to collect money, donations.
  3. crowd (maybe a different root?)
    1. (-l-) to gather, to form a crowd.
    2. (-l-) (uncertain derivation) to have a nightmare.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / TRANS -chííh -chį́ -chííł -chííh -chííł
CONCL -chí -chį́ -chííł -chííh -chííł

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (come into being)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (collect)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (crowd)

-CHIIʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *čig (to be red ochre). Often occurs with intensive infix -x- indicating a deeper, browner color tone.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. red
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
łi + Ø adjectival

S is red (neuter impf.)

d

S is red (neuter perf.)

Ø

S becomes —

S makes O —

ádiilchiih (+d refl.)
Ø motion

red S moves

Ø conversive

S put ochre on O

ádíchííh (+d refl.)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
CONCL -chííh -chííʼ -chih -chih -chííh
TRANS -chííh -chiiʼ -chih -chih -chííh
CONT -chiih -chiiʼ -chih -chih -chiih
REP -chih - - - -
NEUT -chííʼ -chiiʼ - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Antonyms[edit]

Colors:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (red)

See also: -chʼiizh and -chʼíízh

-CHʼIIZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *čʼʷičʼʷ (to be rough, chapped).

Cognate root found in Ahtna atsʼiis (it is chapped), Chipewyan dɛts’iz (it is rough and hard).

Related to -CHʼÍÍZH (make a dry rustling sound).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to abrade, to saw, to file, to scrub
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + Ø adjectival

S is rough

di + Ø

S hardens, becomes chapped

Ø successive

S saws, files, scrubs

achʼiish
ádíchʼiish

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / REP -chʼiish -chʼiizh -chʼish -chʼish -chʼiish
MOM -chʼish -chʼiizh -chʼish -chʼish -chʼish
SEM -chʼish -chʼish -chʼish -chʼish -chʼish
NEUTER -chʼíízh - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (abrade)

See also: chʼil and -chʼil

-CHʼIL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *čʷ’ə̓tɬ’ (to shrivel), with multiple extended meanings.

Cognate roots found in Ahtna naʼugheltsʼetlʼ (it shrank), yiłtsʼetlʼ (he scorched it), neltsʼetlʼ (he has his eyes closed), deltsʼetlʼ (fire pops), Koyukon tsʼetł (shrubs, small willows), Gwich'in diltrʼal (fire crackled), niltrʼal (he had his eyes closed), trʼał (brush, undergrowth).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to curl, to shrivel

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l adjectival

S is curly

l motion

S curls, peels off

S curls O

Ø conversive

S is undercooked

S undercooks O, shrivels O by heat

ni + l successive

S closes eyes, blinks

  2. fire crackles

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + l ? burning wood crackles
ʼa + di + l ?

lightning strikes

  3. plant

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + ł adjectival

S is dense, brushy

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chʼííł -chʼil -chʼił -chʼił -chʼííł
TRANS -chʼííł -chʼiil -chʼił -chʼił -chʼííł
CON -chʼiił -chʼil -chʼił -chʼił -chʼiił
CONT / CONCL -chʼil -chʼil -chʼił -chʼił -chʼil
REP -chʼił - - - -
SEM -chʼił -chʼił -chʼił -chʼił -chʼił
NEUTER - -chʼil - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to curl:

to blink:

lightning strikes:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (curl)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (lightning)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (plant)

-CHOZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ču̓ž (to shatter).

Often appears with intensive infix -x- in bases related to popping or bursting.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to pop, to bubble, to burst

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l adjectival

S is effervescent

l successive

S pops

S pops O

  2. to eat leafy matter, to graze

Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
O + ł operative

S eats O

S eats

O + l operative

S overeats O

S overeats

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -chóósh -chozh -chosh -chosh -chóósh
DUR -chozh -chozh -chosh -chosh -chosh
SEM -chosh -chosh -chosh -chosh -chosh
NEUTER -chosh - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to eat:

to pop:

to bubble:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (pop)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (eat leafy)

-DÉÉL[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *detɬʼ (plural or rope-like subject falls or moves abruptly).

Found in a wide range of extended meanings across all Athabaskan languages including Navajo, with potentially convergence in shape with other roots (see below Proto-Athabaskan *dətɬʼ “to jolt”), making the analyzis quite difficult.

Cognate root found in Ahtna Ø+daetlʼ (plural S go, fly), ałdaetlʼ (I threw them, moved them quickly), niłdełdeł (he struck them together), yaldaetlʼ (he ate them), Gwich'in kʼeegiidàl (they arrived), naljil (I ate them).

The Navajo root describes the movement of a slender flexible object (as a rope, a chain, a wire,...), of objects coming in pairs (as gloves, shoes, scissors,...), or of a group of animate objects (as a band, a tribe, a herd). Extended meanings include the eating of plural objects (as berries), the slamming of an object (like a rope but not exclusively) against another one, and the conception of a baby or egg.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. SFO moves or falls (a rope, a pair of shoes, a tribe)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

S moves or falls

S throws O

Ø

S is conceived (a baby)

S conceives O

Ø successive

S bounces, hits

S bounces O, hits P with SFO

  2. to eat plural objects

Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
l operative

S eats O

S eats

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / DUR -deeł -déél -dił -dił -deeł
REP -dił -déél -dił -dił -dił
SEM -dił -dił -dił -dił -dił

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SFO verbs:

crowd, herd moves:

to bounce:

to hit:

to eat:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (SFO moves)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (eat plural)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *də̓tɬʼ (to jolt). Maybe related to -DÉÉL above from Proto-Athabaskan *detɬʼ, with its extended meaning related to “hitting”, “striking” or “slamming”.

Cognate root found in Koyukon əłdəł (he shook, quivered), Carrier usdił (to be nervous), Gwich'in gwaahdàl (it is trembling), Chipewyan dɛldɛ́l ((teeth) are rattling).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to jolt, to jar, to shake
Theme Category Bases Passive (+d)
ł successive

S jolts O

S is jolted

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
REP -dil - - - -
SEM -dił -dił -dił -dił -dił

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to shake:


Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (jolt)

See also: -dįįd and diid

-DĮĮD[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup Several unrelated stems may be involved.

  1. disappear
    1. (ʼá- + -Ø- thematic) to disappear, to become non-existent, to die.
    2. (ʼá- + -ł- causative) to get rid of, to destroy.
  2. endure
    1. (-ł- thematic) (to stand it, found only in the negative) to be bored, to dislike, to despise.
    2. (ʼa- 3rd person + -ł- thematic) to survive, to live.
    3. (ʼa- 3rd person + -l- mediopassive) to enjoy.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dįįh -dįįd -dįįł -dįįh -dįįh
NEUTER -din - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (disappear)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (endure)

See also: diin and díin

-DÍÍN[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan light shines. Always occurs with di- thematic "fire" in associated verb bases.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup (usually perfective, sometimes imperfective)

  1. light
    1. (di- "fire" + -Ø-) light shines.
    2. (di- "fire" + -ł- causative) to cause light to shine; to direct light.

Usage notes[edit]

The root -díín is irregular, since *-dį́ would be expected. -díín is invariable in shape (i.e., there are no other forms for different aspects or tenses).

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (light)

See also: diz and -diz

-DIZ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. twist
    1. (-Ø- or -ł- ) to twist it, to spin it, to wrap it, to bandage.
    2. (-l- reflexive) to roll dirt off of oneself.
    3. (-d- or -l- passive) to be tangled, snarled, to wind around.
    4. Misc.
      1. (-ł-) to clean one's gun (by twisting the cleaning patch back out).
      2. (-ł-) to catch a rabbit (by twisting it out of its hole), to go rabbit hunting.
      3. (di- "legs" + -l- causative-reflexive) to move with swift short steps (as in throwing a javelin).

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -díís -diz -dis -dis -díís
NEUTER - - -diz - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (twist)

-DLĄ́Ą́ʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *də-nanʸ (to drink).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to drink
Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
O + d operative

S drinks O

S drinks

O + ł operative

S makes P drink O

S makes P drink

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dlį́į́h -dlą́ą́ʼ -dlį́į́ł -dlį́į́h -dlį́į́h
DUR -dlą́ -dlą́ą́ʼ -dlį́į́ł -dlį́į́h -dlį́į́h
CONT -dlą́ʼ -dlą́ʼ -dlįįh -dlįįh -dląʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to eat:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (drink)

See also: -dloʼ

-DLOʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *də-ləqʼʷ > *dlʊ̓q’ (to laugh).

Cognate root found in Ahtna dloqʼ (laughter), Carrier dlo, Chipewyan dloɣ.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to laugh, to smile
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion?

S laughs

di + l motion?

S smiles, chuckles

S makes O smile

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dlóóh -dloʼ -dloh -dloh -dlóóh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Antonyms[edit]

to cry:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (laugh)

-DLOOZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *dlu̓ž (quadruped trots). Occurs only in Southern Athabaskan languages.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to go on all four, to creep, to trot (a horse)
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l motion

S goes on all four

l positional

S is on all four

yishdloozh (NEUT)

l

S gets on hands and knees

S sets O on all four

Usage notes[edit]

Each entry can appear in the unspecified subject person with preposed P- (“with P”), expressing the motion of P riding (a horse), ex:

Shił aldlóósh (from yildlóósh).I ride (a horse).
Shił chʼéʼéldlóósh (from chʼéldlóósh).I ride out horizontally (on a horse).

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dlóósh -dloozh -dlosh -dlosh -dlóósh
CONT -dloosh -dloozh -dlosh -dlosh -dloosh
NEUT - -dloozh - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to trot:

to creep:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (go on all four)

-DO[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *dʊɣ̇ (gas moves).

Describes the movement of gas (air, cloud, smoke) in motion themes and the bursting of gas containers (as a sack of air, a tyre) in successive themes.

Cognate root found in Ahtna kekuldogh (area becomes foggy), ldogh (it cracked).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to float in the air (smoke, cloud, balloon)
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l motion

S floats

S sails O (a balloon)

l successive

S bursts

S bursts O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dóóh -do -doh -doh -dóóh
CONT -do -do -doh -doh -do
CONT -doh -doh -doh -doh -doh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to float:

to pop:

cloud floats (smoke, fog, dust, stench):

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (gas floats)

-DOII[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. hot

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dóóh -doii -doh -doh -dóóh
NEUTER -- -do -- -- --
NEUTER -- -doi -- -- --

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (hot)

-DZAʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. stagger
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + d motion S staggers, stumbles

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dzééh -dzaʼ -dzah -dzah -dzééh
DUR -dzaʼ - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to stagger:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (stagger)

See also: -dzííʼ

-DZÍÍʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. breathe
    1. (ʼa- / di-) to breathe.
    2. (ha-) to speak, to exclaim, to make a speech.
    3. (hadi-) to vow, to promise, to swear.
    4. (yíní-) to curse.
  2. remain
    1. (Ø) to remain, to survive, to be left over.
  3. heal
    1. (ná-) to heal (as a wound).

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -dziih -dzííʼ -dzih -dzih -dziih

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (breathe)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (remain)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (heal)

-DZĮ́Į́Z[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *hus (to stretch), from Pre-Proto-Athabaskan *həwəs. Cognate with -LÓÓZ (to lead) and -ZǪ́Ǫ́Z (to pull).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to pull, to drag, to tow
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø motion

S pulls O, drags O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / CONT -dzį́į́s -dzį́į́z -dzį́į́s -dzį́į́s -dzį́į́s

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to pull, to drag:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (pull)

-ʼÉÉL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *’etɬʼ ~ *’ʷətɬ’ (plural subjects float or swim).

Occurs in a very productive motion theme related to floating or sailing, but also occurs in a couple of unproductive bases related to the action of water (flush, sift, sweat, dissolve), and in a neuter theme (to droop or hang down).

Cognate root found in Ahtna ilʼaetlʼ (they arrived swimming), tezʼaetlʼ ((a dam) washed out), tełʼaetlʼ (he hung it up), with similar extended meanings.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to float
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

S floats

S sails, rows O

Ø/ł ?

S dissolves

moisture soaks

S sweats

S dissolves O

ni + l adjectival

S droops

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / CONT -ʼeeł -ʼéél -ʼoł -ʼoł -ʼeeł

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to float:

  • -DO (in the air)

action of water, moisture:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (float)

-ʼEEZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ʼe̓ž (to string fish or beads).

Cognate root found in Ahtna *inezʼaes (he strung them).

Evolved in Navajo to mean “lead 2+ objects”, in contradiction with -LÓÓZ, “lead a single object”.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

 1. to lead plural object

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø motion

S leads O

O + ł adjectival

S is a leader, is in charge of O

  2. to string beads

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø conversive

S strings beads

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ʼéésh -ʼeezh -ʼish -ʼish -ʼéésh
CONT / CONCL -ʼeesh -ʼeezh -ʼish -ʼish -ʼeesh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to lead:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (lead)

-GAII[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *ɢɑɣ ~ *ɢɑy (to be white). Cognate root found in Ahtna lggay, Gwich'in daagąįį.

The extended meanings of “to be hot” and “to hurt” seem to be proper to Navajo among Athabascan languages.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

1. white
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
łi + Ø adjectival

S is white (neuter impf.)

d

S is white (neuter perf.)

Ø

S becomes white

S makes O white

Ø motion

white S moves

2. hot
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + Ø adjectival

S is hot, hurts

S causes heat, pain

ni + Ø

S becomes hot, hurts

S makes O hot, hurts O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
TRANS -gááh -gaii -gah -gah -gááh
CONT -gaah - - - -
NEUT -gai -gai - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

warm, hot:


to hurt:

Antonyms[edit]

Colors:

cold, cool:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (white)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (hot)

See also: -ghą́ą́ʼ

-GHĄ́Ą́ʼ[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. kill
    1. (-Ø-) to kill two or more objects.
    2. (-d- reciprocal) to kill each other, to fight; (reflexive) to kill themselves, to commit suicide.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ghą́ -ghą́ą́ʼ -ghą́ą́ł -ghą́ą́h -ghą́ą́h

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (kill)

Etymology 2[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. snore
    1. (a- + -ł-) to snore.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ghą́ą́h -ghą́ą́ʼ -ghą́ą́ł -ghą́ą́h -ghą́ą́ʼ
DUR -ghą́ą́ʼ -ghą́ą́ʼ -ghą́ą́ł -ghą́ą́h -ghą́ą́ʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (snore)

-GHAAZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ɣ̇ʷa̓ž ~ *ɣ̇ʊš (to make a bubbling noise).

Occurs in Navajo in bases of disparate meanings related to “bubbling”, “shouting” and “sleeping”, probably originating in distinct roots that merged in shape.

These meanings are found in parts in other Athabaskan languages too:

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to bubble, to boil

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + l

S bubbles, boils

S boils O, S spurts (unspec obj)

hadaʼniłháásh

  2. to shout

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
(di) + l

S shouts

  3. to sleep

Theme Category Bases Reflexive / Reversionary (+ d)
a + ł

S sleeps, puts P to sleep

 

S sleeps

áhodiilgháásh (refl.)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -gháásh -ghaazh -wosh -wosh -gháásh
REP -wosh -ghaazh -wosh -wosh -gháázh
CONT -ghaash -ghaazh -ghash -ghash -ghaash

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to bubble:

to boil:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (bubble)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (shout)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (sleep)

See also: -ghaazh, -GHAAZH, and -gháázh

-GHÁÁZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Closely related to root -GHAZH, "to bite".

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. gnaw
    1. (-Ø-) to gnaw, to nibble.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -gháásh -gháázh -ghash -gháásh -gháázh
SEM -ghash -ghash -ghash -ghash -ghash

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (gnaw)

See also: -ghazh

-GHAZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Closely related to root -GHÁÁZH, "to gnaw".

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. bite
    1. (-ł- thematic) to bite.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -gháásh -ghazh -ghash -ghash -gháásh
REP -ghash -ghazh -ghash -ghash -ghash
SEM -ghash -ghash -ghash -ghash -ghash

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (bite)

-GOʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ɢʊ̓k’ (to bump into, to rush).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to fall (animate), to rush (stream), to billow (fog)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

AnO falls, stream rushes

S pushes AnO, causes AnO to fall

ʼa + Ø motion

gassy matter billows

Ø

S is kneeling

  2. to tackle, to butt, to collide; (tr.) to bang O, to hit O

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
(dzi) + Ø successive

S tackles

Motion:

Successive:

S bangs O

 

 

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -geeh -goʼ -goh -goh -geeh
CONT -goʼ -goʼ -goh -goh -goʼ
SEM / SER -goh -goh -goh -goh -goh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

AnO verbs:

water flows:

cloud floats (smoke, fog, dust, stench):

to hit:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (fall)

See also: -ʼįįd

-ʼĮĮD[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The future and optative modes use expletive stems from the root -LAA.

Verb bases with thematized d-classifier are often re-analyzed as Ø-classifier stems (*d-ʼįįh = *Ø-tʼįįh), as evidenced by the perfective forms using Ø/ł-class subject prefixes rather than the d/l-class ones.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

This root shows a wide range of semantic themes as it relates to such broad categories as "making" and "acting". The actual meaning often relies on thematic prefix compounds.

  1. act
    1. (ʼá-) to do it; to do thus; (mediopassive) to make one's own; (causative-reflexive) to turn into, to become.
    2. (-d-) to be the cause of an event; to be getting along, to be doing (good or bad).
    3. (ni- + -ł-) to take possession of, to make something one's own.
    4. (ʼá-/kó- + ha- + -d-) to happen, to take place.
    5. Misc. thematic
      1. (tí-) to injure; to deprive oneself, to self-sacrifice.
      2. (choini-) to be useful; to use.
      3. (kééha-) to live.
      4. (yiní-) to discuss, to bother, to harass.
      5. (bi-) to imitate.
      6. (ʼáhodi-) to pretend, to fake, to play like.
      7. to pay attention.
      8. (ʼááhoo-) to quit, to surrender.
  2. wealthy (root -TʼĮĮD?)
    1. (-d- thematized) to be wealthy.
  3. dislike
    1. (-Ø-) to dislike, to oppose, to be picky.
    2. (-d-) to be denied to (as a right to someone); to be lost (as eyesight or a relative to someone).

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ʼįįh -ʼįįd -nííł -ʼįįh -neʼ
DUR -ʼį́ -ʼįįd -nííł -ʼįįh -neʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (make)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (wealthy)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (dislike)

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably related to -ʼĮ́Į́ʼ, “to see, to look”.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. bark

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -ʼįįh -ʼįįd -ʼįįł -ʼįįh -ʼįįh
DUR -ʼin -ʼįįd -ʼįįł -ʼįįh -ʼįįʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (bark)

-JÉÉʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *džeq’, a root with multiple meanings throughout the Athabaskan languages, related to sticky matter, and to the handling or movement of a liquid, viscous or granular mass or of a plurality of objects.

Compare Carrier dzeh (gum, resin), esdzeh (to glue, to weld), nenesdzeh (to put liquid, grease), nedisdzeh (to put hay or moss), Mattole dehdidžeɣ (they float), Koyukon nitoxadaniłdzaq (a lot of driftwood has accumulated in the water), Dena'ina -džax (pl. S run), nə-džax (pl. S fly).

Occurs in Navajo in bases related to the parallel positioning of plural elongated subjects (sticks, ropes or animated), to the running of plural subjects (see also yideeł and yilé for a similar connection between the movement of rope-like objects (SFO) and running), and to the greasing or sticking of objects.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. plural S lie, recline

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø positional

3+ S are lying

S keeps 3+

hi + yíní + Ø positional

3+ S are partly lying or dangling

ni + Ø

3+ S recline

S lays 3+ O

  2. plural S run

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

plural S run

  3. to stick, to cause to adhere, to smear, to grease

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø conversive

S smears O

Ø ?

S sticks to P

S sticks O to P

Ø adjectival

S is sticky, viscous

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -jeeh -jééʼ -jah -jah -jeeh
CONT / CONCL -jeeh -jééʼ -jah -jah -jeeh
NEUT -jééʼ -jééʼ - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to lie, to recline:

to run:

to stick, to adhere:

to grease, to coat:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (lie)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (run)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (adhere)

-JID[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derivation uncertain. This root is not found outside of Navajo.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to lug, to carry a burden on one's back
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø motion

S lugs O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -jiid -jid -jił -jiʼ -jiid
CONT -jid -jid -jił -jiʼ -jid

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

LPB verbs:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (carry on one's back)

See also: Jool and -jool

-JOOL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *džəɣ̇ʷətɬ’ (ball).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. NCM moves
    Classificatory root for non-compact matter as hair, a wig, or hay, and by extension, smoke, steam, dust, or a stench. The base Ø-classifier theme is intransitive and applies to NCM's independent motion or state, while the ł-classifier theme is transitive-causative and applies to the handling (carry, bring, give...) and propelling (throw, toss, drop,...) of NCM.
    1. (Ø) NCM moves freely, NCM is at rest.
    2. (ł) to handle or propel NCM, to keep NCM at rest.
  2. spherical
    1. to be ball-shaped, globular, round, plump.
    2. to huddle, to draw oneself together, to bend, to sneak.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -jooł -jool -joł -joł -jooł
NEUTER -jool -jool - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (NCM moves)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (spherical)

-KʼAAZ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *q’ɑ̓ts’ (to be cold).

Cognate root found in Ahtna nezkʼatsʼ (it is cold), Carrier sək’əz (to be cold), Chipewyan huk’að (cold weather).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to be cold
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø adjectival

S is cold

ni + Ø adjectival

S is cold

ni + Ø transitional

S gets cold

nániikʼáás (+d refl.)

S makes O cold

ł motion

cold moves

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -kʼáás -kʼaaz -kʼas -kʼas -kʼáás
CONT -kʼaas -kʼaaz -kʼas -kʼas -kʼaas
NEUT - -kʼaz / -kʼází - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

cold, cool:

Antonyms[edit]

warm, hot:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (cold)

-KÉÉZ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *qʊs-x (to cough).

Cognate root found in Ahtna delkos (he is coughing), Carrier dəlkwəs (he coughs).

Occurs in Southern Athabaskan along with tsí-thematic in bases related to thinking. This meaning is probably rather related to the non-nasalized form of -KĘ́Ę́Z (in which the nazalization is non-etymological).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to cough

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + l successive

S coughs

  2. to think, to ponder, to decide

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
tsí + Ø

S thinks

ntsáhákees

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / CONT -kees -kééz -kos -kos -kees
REP -kos - - - -
SEM -kos -kos -kos -kos -kos

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to think:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (cough)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (think)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *qʷetsʼ (stick-like or heavy object falls).

Cognate root found in Ahtna naghilkaetsʼ ((knife, box) fell down), Chipewyan -kɛ́θ (long object drops).

The nasal vowel, found only in Navajo, is unexplained. See also -KÉÉZ where some confusion has arisen.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. SSO moves, falls (as a stick, a pencil)
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

SSO falls

Ø successive

SSO bounces

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -kęęs -kę́ę́z -kǫs -kǫs -kęęs
REP -kǫs - - - -
SEM -kǫs -kǫs -kǫs -kǫs -kǫs

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SSO verbs:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (SSO moves)

-KID[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Athabaskan *qə̓t’ (to slip, to slide).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to slide
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l motion

S slides

S slides O

ł positional

S is in position (scale, gunsight)

S keeps O in position

  2. to eat chunky object

Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
O + l operative

S eats O

S eats

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -keed -kid -kił -kiʼ -keed
DUR -kid -kid -kił -kiʼ -kid
CONT -kid -kid -kił -kiʼ -kid

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to slide:

to eat:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (slide)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (eat chunky)

See also: laa, láa, lãa, la'a, -laa, and

-LAA[edit]

Etymology[edit]

-LAA exhibits quite irregular stem alternations, and uses a number of expletive roots (see -ʼĮĮD).

-LAA ultimately derives from -YAA.

D-effect in the 1st person duoplural, passive and reflexive forms undergoes special alternations.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. make
    1. to make.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -lééh -laa -lííł -ʼįįh -leʼ
MOM d-effect -nééh -lyaa -nííł -ʼįįh -neʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (make)

See also: -lį́į́ʼ

-LĮ́Į́ʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Closely related to -LǪ́.

This root seems to only take si-Perfectives in all verb bases.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. become
    1. to become; to bring into being.
    2. (a-) an event happens; to bring about an event.
    3. (ho-) to come into being, to come up, to be born.
    4. (ani-) to be of value; to set a high price.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -leeh -lį́į́ʼ -leeł -leeh -leʼ
NEUTER -lį́ - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (become)

See also: -lizh

-LIZH[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. urinate
    1. (-Ø-) to urinate

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -líísh -lizh -lish -lish -líísh
CONCL -lizh -lizh -lish -(d)lish -lizh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (urinate)

-LÓÓZ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *lus (to drag, usually with a rope), from Pre-Proto-Athabaskan *ł-həwəs. Cognate with -DZĮ́Į́Z (to drag) and -ZǪ́Ǫ́Z (to pull, to tear).

Cognate root found in Ahtna daluus (he is dragging it), Koyukon yolułtł (he is dragging it along).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to lead a single animate object
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø motion

S leads O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -lóós -lóóz -lóós -lóós -lóós
MOM -lóóz -lóóz -lóós -lóós -lóóz

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to lead:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (lead)

-MÁÁZ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The root -MÁÁZ (globular, spherical, ball-like shape) is cognate with the root -BĄ́Ą́Z (hooplike, ringlike shape), both possibly originating from Proto-Athabaskan *wątsʼ (roll).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. roll
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

S rolls

S rolls O

Ø successive

S twirls or shakes O
(finger, head, stick)

ni + Ø adjectival

S is spherical, round

ni + Ø

S becomes —

S makes O —

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -máás -mááz -mas -mas -máás
CONT -maas -mááz -mas -mas -maas
REP -maz - - - -
SEM -mas -mas -mas -mas -mas
NEUTER -maz -mas - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to roll:

to curl:

spherical:

to shake:

to twirl:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (roll)

-MAL[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Root not found in other Athabaskan languages. Maybe related to mąʼii (coyote).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to gobble, to eat quickly
Theme Category Bases + Unspec object
Ø operative

S eats O

S eats

  •  ? (MOM)
  • amal (DUR)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -maał -mal -mał -mał -maał
DUR -mal -mal -mał -mał -mal

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to eat:

gluttonous:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (gobble)

-NAʼ[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *na (to live, to move, to work). Related to -NÁÁʼ (to move) and to -NÁÁD (to last). Maybe originating in several distinct roots.

Cognate root found in Ahtna ghetnaa (he is working), Chipewyan ɣɛna (he is alive), Carrier nelnaʼ (to be slow, sluggish).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

 1. to live

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
hi + Ø adjectival

S is alive

hi + Ø

S comes to life

S brings O to life, generates O

 2. to last, to endure (supplies)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + Ø operative S lasts

 3. to act slowly

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + l motion? S acts slowly

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -naah -naʼ -naah -naał -naah
DUR / CONT -naʼ -naʼ -naah -naał -naʼ
NEUT -ná - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to live, to come to life:

to last, to endure:

Antonyms[edit]

to die:

to run out, to exhaust:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (live)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *nə̓q’ (to swallow).

Cognate root found in Ahtna itełnaʼ (he swallowed it).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to swallow, to regurgitate, to choke
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + ł motion

S swallows

hááʼiiłneeh (ruminate)
ni + l ?

S chokes

náʼniłnah (hiccup)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
DUR / CONT -naʼ -naʼ -naah -naał -naʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to regurgitate:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (swallow)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *nəɢ, with a wide semantic range including “a flat flexible object (as sheets) moves”, “to last, to endure, to become tired”.

Compare with -NAʼ above for the meaning "to last, to endure".

Cognate root found in Ahtna naghinak ((a blanket) fell down), łdaniniłnak (it lasted a long time), taatnak (he is tired).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. FFO moves, falls (blanket, surface of water)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø motion

FFO moves

Ø successive

FFO flaps, bounces

di + ł ?

S infects P

ni + ł motion?

S lasts, runs out; S wilts, tires out

  2. to crawl, to creep

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
d motion

S crawls

S stands O up

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -nééh -naʼ -nah -nah -nééh
CONT -nah -naʼ -nah -nah -nééh
REP -nah - - - -
SEM -nah -nah -nah -nah -nah

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to crawl, to creep:

to wilt:

to last, to endure:

to run out, to exhaust:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (FFO moves)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (crawl)

See also: -niiʼ

-NIIʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *ni̓gʸ, from pre-Proto-Athabaskan *niʼg, a root with many disparate meanings, perhaps resulting in the merger of originally distinct roots.

A first meaning involves action with the hand (squeeze, touch). Another meaning relates to the passing of an invisible or hazy entity, as an epidemic, a cold wave, a fad, a swarm, and also relates to pain, ache. A last meaning relates to mental actions as to know, to be aware, to remember.

-NIIʼ shares many stems with the roots -NÍÍʼ, -NIID, -NÍÍD, -NIʼ, -NÍ, -NIH, -NIIH ~ -LĮH and -NEʼ, each of these being themselves a conflation of several originally distinct roots with at times overlapping meanings, which makes their actual identification often speculative.

Maybe as a consequence, the themes in this root often do not behave as neatly as with other roots (classifiers, aspect, conjugations may follow irregular alternations).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to act with the hand

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø successive

S squeezes O, mixes O

iʼniinííh
a + ł motion?

S heads O off, set O free

di + l motion

S touches, reaches

hodoonih (Ø-class.)
hi + Ø ?

S is traded

S trades O

 2. to hurt, to be painful

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
di + Ø ?

S becomes painful

adinííh
hodinííh

S makes O painful

hodiłnííh
di + Ø adjectival

S hurts

adiniih
hodiniih

S makes O hurt

hodiłniih

 3. a wave passes or spreads (epidemic, a heat wave, a crowd, a swarm, a fad)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ł motion

S passes

nahałnííh

 4. to know, to be aware

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø ?

S knows

S makes O know

ná + l ?

S remembers

S reminds O

Ø ?

S hears, learns

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -nííh -niiʼ -nih -nih -nííh
CONT / DUR -niih -niiʼ -nih -nih -niih
REP / SER -nih -niiʼ -nih -nih -nih
SEM -nih -nih -nih -nih -nih
NEUT -niih -niiʼ - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to act with body:

to hurt:

crowd or herd moves:

to know:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (act with hand)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (hurt)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (wave passes)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (know) ==-NISH==

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *nəš-x (to move quickly).

Cognate root found in Chipewyan násnís (I move quickly), Northern Tutchone naɣadəlniš (he is working).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to work

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l motion

S works

ʼa + Ø motion

work is done

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -níísh -nish -nish -nish -níísh
CONT -nish -nish -nish -nish -nish

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (work)

-TĄ́[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *tan ~ *tən (to handle stick-like objects or vessels), probably one of the most polysemous root across all Athabascan languages.

Cognate root found in Ahtna deztaan ((elongated object) is in position), datiił (he is counting), natadghitaan (water drips down), hwghitaʼ (it stops), tinitaan (there is a trail), łtaan ((enclosed object) is in position), dełtaan ((body of water) is in position), sa dinhwtniłten (explain to me!), titahdiniłtaan (they rushed off in a group), l+taan (animate rests), among many other meanings in the sole Ahtna language.

Occurs in Navajo as momentaneous perfective - or -TĄ́Ą́ʼ, in themes related to the handling of stick-like objects (SSO), to raining, to teaching, to the gallopping of a horse, and also acts as the suppletive neuter stem of -BIN (plural S sit).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

 1. to handle SSO

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + Ø motion

S handles SSO

Ø positional

SSO is in position

S keeps SSO in position

hi / di
+ yíní + Ø
positional

SSO hangs, dangles or protrudes

Ø positional

it hangs in mid-air
(new moon, hummingbird)

 2. to rain

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ho + ł motion/operative?

it rains

ni + ł conversive?

it mists, clouds hangs in the air

 3. to teach; to understand, to guess

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + Ø/ł

S teaches

naʼnitin
yínaʼniłtin
di + Ø

S understands, guesses

akʼiʼdiitįįh
ééʼdeetįįh

 4. plural S sit

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
d positional

plural S sit

 5. to gallop

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + l motion

S gallops

Stem set[edit]

The stem set of this root shows a great deal of variation and irregular alternations across the various meanings and aspects.

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tįįh -tą́ -tį́į́ł -tį́į́h -tį́į́ł

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SSO verbs:

to teach:

to understand:

to sit:

to rain:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (handle SSO)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (rain)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (teach)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (sit)

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (gallop)

-TʼAʼ[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *tʼɑɢ (to fly).

Cognate root found in Ahtna nitʼak (it arrived flying), Gwich'in naałtʼak (I flew a plane).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to fly
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
d motion

S flies

S flies O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tʼááh -tʼaʼ -tʼah -tʼah -tʼááh
CONT -tʼaʼ -tʼaʼ -tʼah -tʼah -tʼaʼ

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (fly)

-TÁÁL[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *tatłʼ (to act abruptly with the foot), in bases related to stepping, stomping, kicking. Also occurs in a meaning related to bursting and exploding.

Cognate root found in Ahtna yiztał (he shoved it once with his foot), yuninitaatlʼ (he kicked at it), iʼdiiłtatlʼ (I burst something), Carrier əstał (to kick), dîstəł (to explode).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to move the foot

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases
Ø motion

S steps

l

S steps about, is angry,
nervous, S pulsates

di + Ø motion

S sticks his foot, steps to

(dzi) + Ø successive

S kicks

Motion:

Successive (without dzi-):

S kicks P

 

 

l motion

S dashes

See also other roots of attacking like -DON (to shoot), -GHAAL (to bat), -TʼOH (to shoot), -TŁʼIN (to sling), -TSXIZ (to whip) etc, for a similar alternation between dzi- (away into space), yíní- (repetitive), yíníi- (semelfactive) and adi- (to be given to —, to be a —er, iterative) in successive themes.

  2. to pop, spurt, fly off

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
l successive

S pops

S pops O

The first two bases are seriative forms of the “dash” theme above.

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -taał -táál -tał -tał -taał
CONT -taał / tal -táál -tał -tał -taał
REP -tał -tał -tał -tał -tał
SER -tał -táál -tał -tał -tał
SEM -tał -tał -tał -tał -tał

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

to act with body:

to go swiftly, to dash:

to pop:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (move foot)

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably identical to the above root. Occurs in Southern Athabaskan in bases related to singing or holding a ceremony.

Compare Ahtna deltatl’ (make a speech), Lower Tanana deltutł (he is talking loudly), Carrier dəztəl (to shout), themselves extension of the bursting / explosion meaning above.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to sing, to hold a ceremony
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ho + Ø operative

S sings

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM / DUR -taał -táál -tał -tał -taał

Synonyms[edit]

to sing:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (sing)

See also: -tʼeʼ

-TʼEʼ[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *tʼe (to be thus).

Cognate root found in Ahtna ntʼae (it is), neltʼeʼ (there are many), Chipewyan bénɛłtʼɛ (you're like him).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to be

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø adjectival

S is thus

l adjectival

S is a certain number

ł adjectival

S is similar, is like

  2. Various meanings depending on thematic prefix

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
hashtʼe + Ø

S is calm or ready

P + ni + ł

S causes P to lose everything

shó + Ø

S is acquired

S acquires O

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tʼeeh -tʼeʼ -tʼeeł -tʼeeh -tʼeeh
NEUT -tʼé - - - -
ABS -tʼé - - - -
COMP -tʼeʼ - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (be)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *tʼə̓qʼ (animate or stick-like object moves).

Cognate root found in Ahtna tiiłtʼak (I threw it away (a stick)), Koyukon kʼəltʼəx (to hit something with a stick).

Also occurs in Navajo along with hi-seriative in a motion theme related to hopping (literally, to “throw” oneself successively).

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to propel a slender stiff object (SSO) or animate object (AnO)
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
O + ł motion

S propels SSO/AnO

O + ł successive

S hits SSO/AnO (against P)

hi + d motion

S hops

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tʼeʼ -tʼeʼ -tʼeeł -tʼeeh -tʼeʼ
CONT -tʼeʼ -tʼeʼ -tʼeeł -tʼeeh -tʼeʼ
REP -tʼeeh - - - -
SEM -tʼeeh -tʼeeh -tʼeeh -tʼeeh -tʼeeh

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

AnO verbs:

SSO verbs:

to hop:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (propel SSO/AnO)

-TʼIʼ[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Athabaskan *t’əkʸ’ (to be stretched, taut).

Cognate root found in Ahtna nic’et’ (it is stretched) (with metathesis), Gwich'in niint’aii (it is extended), Chipewyan nįtʼiy (it is tight).

Describes the extension into a line of a slender flexible object as a rope, a wire, and by extension, a fence, a road, rails or a line of people.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. SFO extends
Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
Ø extensional

S extends

hoditʼééh
hootʼih
  •  ?

S extends O

 
 
Ø

S extends
(above bases in the perf.)

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tʼééh -tʼiʼ -tʼih -tʼih -tʼééh
CONT -tʼiʼ -tʼiʼ -tʼih -tʼih -tʼiʼ
REV -tʼih -tʼiʼ -tʼih -tʼih -tʼih
NEUTER - -tʼiʼ - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

Synonyms[edit]

SFO verbs:

Derived terms[edit]

Navajo terms belonging to the root Julien Daux (SFO extends)

Etymology 2[edit]

Etymology uncertain. Cognate not found in other Athabaskan languages.

There is some variation in the actual stems of the imperfective and perfective modes, both -tʼiʼ and -tʼi being reported by various sources. Perhaps an influence of -TʼIʼ above.

Root[edit]

Navajo roots - backup

  1. to stagger, to wobble

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ʼa + ni + Ø motion

S staggers

  2. to go swiftly, to streak

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
dzi + d motion

S goes swiftly

  3. to beat hard, to pound (the heart of a frightened person)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
dzi + d successive

S beats hard

Stem set[edit]

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -tʼééh -tʼiʼ -tʼih -tʼih -tʼééh
CONT -tʼi -tʼi -tʼih -tʼih -tʼi
REP -tʼih - - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems