Appendix:List of Proto-Kam-Sui reconstructions

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following list of 368 reconstructed Proto-Kam-Sui forms is from Thurgood (1988: 209-218).

List[edit]

Gloss Proto-Kam-Sui
angry *hwaːt⁷
angry *hnaːn⁵
to answer *taːp⁷
ant *mwit⁸
arm *laːk⁸
arm *k-xiːn¹
armpit *khjaːk⁷
arrive, reach *taŋ¹
ascend *cha⁵
ashes *phwuːk⁷
ashes *phlaːu⁵
aunt *pa³
back(bone) *hlaːi¹
back, behind *lun²
bad, cruel *hwaːi⁶
bamboo strip *thruk⁷
bamboo *xwan¹
bank, shore *pwaŋ⁵
to bark *khrau⁵
basket, winnowing *ɗuŋ³
bathe *ʔaːp⁷
bear *ʔmuːi¹
beard *m-luːt⁸
bedbug *hȵiŋ¹
bee *mit⁸
bee *daːŋ²
bee, wasp *ʔdlu¹
below *te³
bird *mluk⁸
bite; chew *krip⁷
bitter *kam¹
black *ʔnam¹
blind *ɓuːt⁷
blood *phlaːt⁷
blow (wind) *hwaːt⁷
to blow *dzup⁸
body *thrun¹
bone *tlaːk⁷
bow, bend *cam³
bowl, cup *duːi⁴
branch *ʔŋa⁵
branch *ciŋ⁵
break, tear *praːk⁷
bright **kraːŋ¹
brother, older *ɣwaːi⁴
to bundle *dzuːk⁸
bury *hmuk⁷
to buy *trai³
cabbage *kaːt⁷
candle *laːp⁸
carry on back *ʔma⁵
catch, grasp *kjap⁷
cave *kaːm¹
centipede *khryap⁷
chest (body) *tak⁷
to chew *hmaːk⁷
to chew *hnaːi⁵
chicken *kaːi⁵
young chicken *hŋlaːŋ⁵
to chop *hmaːk⁷
to chop *pram³
close (eyes) *khlap⁷
cloud *m-xwa³
cold *hnu¹
collapse *paŋ¹
come; return *hma¹
to connect *kjaːp⁷'
copper *duŋ²
count *ȵai⁶'
a cover *hraːŋ⁵
cowry (money), shell(fish) *khruːi¹
to crawl *hlaːi⁵
cross, pass *da⁶
a crow *ka¹
to cut *kat⁷
to cut *kaːt⁷
day *hŋwan¹
deaf *ɗak⁷
deep *ʔyam¹
descend *hluːi⁵
devil, ghost *laːi⁴
to die *pjai¹
dirt, earth *di⁶
disgusted *ɓja⁵
dog *k-hma¹
door *tu¹
dove *gwau²
draw water *tak⁷
draw water *te³
dream *pwjan¹
to drink *trwap⁷
drop, fall *tuk⁷
drop, fall *tuk⁷
dull *dip⁸
ear of grain *mpraːŋ¹
ear *khra¹
early *khjam¹
eat *caːn¹
egg *krai⁵
eight *pjaːt⁷
end, tip *phe¹
evening *ʔȵam⁵
exchange *hlik⁷
excrement *ke⁴
expensive *mpiŋ¹
extinguish *ɗap⁷
eye *thla¹
face, in front *ʔna³
to fall *lai⁴
far *klaːi¹
fart *tut⁷
feed, raise *gjaːŋ⁴
dry field *traːi⁵
paddy field *ʔra⁵
fingernail *ʔdlyap⁷ (?)
fire *pwai¹
first *kuːn⁵
fish (loach) *mlit⁸
fish *mprai³
fish *pa¹
fish *mum⁶
five *ŋu⁴
flea *k-hmat⁷
flesh, meat *naːn⁴
flower *nuk⁷
fog *muk⁸
forehead *praːk⁷
forest *ɗuŋ¹
to forget *laːm²
field frog *kup⁷
small frog *k-wai³
full *tiːk⁷
to get, gain *ɗai³
gills *ʔȵaːk⁷
to give *khjaːi¹
to go out, out *ʔuːk⁷
to go, walk *paːi¹
god, ghost *mwaːŋ¹
good *ɗaːi¹
granary *gju⁴
grandchild *khlaːn¹
grasshopper *thrak⁷
hair, head *pram¹
hand *k-mja¹
hard **kra³
to hatch *pram¹
to have *ʔnaŋ¹
to have *me²
head *kru³
to hit *dai²
to hold in mouth *ʔŋam¹
hold (child) *ʔuːm³
to hold *ȵam¹
to hold *hŋuːm³
horn *m-kwaːu¹
horse *ma⁴
house *hraːn¹
hungry *ɓjaːk⁷
husband *ʔre¹
insane *mpaːk⁷
to insert *ȵak⁸
to insert *tshaːp⁷
intestine *khjaːi³
iron *khlit⁷
to kick *daːp⁸
to kneel *gruk⁸
knife *miːt⁸
knife, sword *mbra⁴
late *khwe¹
to laugh *kru¹
lazy *khlut⁷
lazy *laːn⁴
leaf *pwa⁵
to lean *ʔniŋ³
leech *mpliŋ¹
left over *kla¹
leg *kwa¹
leg, foot *tiːn¹
lick *lja² (?)
lick *ljaːm⁵ (?)
light, to float *ɓau¹
lightning *ʔdlaːp⁷
to like *maŋ⁴
liver *tap⁷
long *ʔraːi³
loom *kraːk⁷
to lose, misplace *tuk⁷
louse *nan¹
louse, chicken *mprai¹
to love (child) *mprum¹
low *thram⁵
maggot **ʔnuːn¹
male (person) *mpaːn¹
mark *ʔme¹
mark *hle¹
mat (straw) *mpraːŋ¹
meal, early *ŋe²
meal, late *mbrau²
medicine, to cure *gja²
middle *ta⁵
monkey *muːn⁶
moon, month *nüaːn¹
morning *hjit⁷
mouth *paːk⁷
mucus *muːk⁸
mud, dirt *khlum⁵
mud, dirt *naːm⁵
mushroom *hŋla¹
to nail *taːk⁷
navel *ɓlwa¹
near *phlai⁵
net (to cast) *ke¹
new *hmai⁵
nose, face *ʔnaŋ¹
oil *man²
old (things) *kaːu⁵
old (vegetables) *ke⁵
otter, beaver *ɓjaːn³
otter, beaver *chaːt⁷
outside *ʔŋluːk⁷
palm (hand) *phwa³
pangolin *lin⁶
person, child *laːk⁸
pestle *kjaːk⁷
to pick up *cup⁷
to pick (flowers) *ɓit⁷
to pick, select *laːi⁶
pig *k-hmu⁵
wild pig *ʔdlaːi⁵
to pile *dap⁸
pillar *ʔlaːu¹
pipe, water *liːn²
to plant *ljum²
to plant *mpra¹
to transplant *ʔdram¹
pod, sheath *pwak⁷
shoulder pole *hŋlaːn¹
porcupine, wild pig *ʔmiːn³
to pull *ʔdlaːk⁷
pus *zuk⁸
to put *kat⁷
raft, bamboo *naːŋ¹
to rain *xwin¹
rat, mouse *hnu³
raw, live *ɗip⁷
to read *duk⁸
right side *hwa¹
ripe, cooked *zuk⁸
to rise (river) *hma³
river *ʔnja¹
rock, cliff *pra¹
root *kjaːŋ¹
rope *ʔlaːk⁷
to rot *laːn⁶
rotten *naːu⁶
scales **krin⁵
to scare *khjaːn⁵
to scoop *tak⁷
to see *ʔlun¹
to see *ɗai³
seed *pwan¹
rice seedling *kla³
to sell *kwe¹
sesame *ʔŋra¹
shadow *tau¹
to shake *ŋaːu²
shallow *m-hliːn⁵ (?)
be sharp *hraːi⁵
to sharpen *gwan²
sharpened, pointed *khjam¹
spiral shell *ɗau⁵
short *thrin³
shuttle *pjau⁵
younger sibling *nu⁴
to sink *ʔram¹
to sit *dzuːi⁶
six *ljuk⁸
skin *hŋra¹
skinny, lean *ʔrwum¹ (?)
sky *ɓun¹
to sleep *nuːn²
to smell *nun⁴
snake *dzuːi²
snow *ʔnuːi¹
soak, pickle *hma⁵
socks *maːt⁸
soft *ʔma³
sour *khjum³
sparrow *tljaːi³ (?)
spicy (hot) *m-hljaːn⁵
to split *pha⁵
to split *hmaːk⁷
sprout, a *ŋa²
stake, post *khlak⁷
star *ʔdraːu¹
star *hmlut⁷
to stay, live *ŋjaːu⁶
to steal *hljak⁷
stomach *luŋ²
straw *mpwaːŋ¹
stream *kruːi³
to stuff *kjak⁷
to stuff *hwit⁷'
sugar cane *ʔuːi³
a swallow *ʔiːn⁵
to sweep *phjit⁷ (?)
sweet *khwaːn¹
tail *khjut⁷
to take *ʔaːu¹
taro *ɓraːk⁷
thick *ʔna¹
thick, viscous *ʔnak⁷
thin *ɓwaːŋ¹
this *naːi⁶
thunder *tiːn³
thunder *lai⁶
thunder, lightning *pra³
tiger *mum⁴
tired *khwe³
tired *ʔni⁵
tongue *ma²
tooth *pjwan¹
trace, dregs *hȵa⁵
tree, wood *mai⁴
to twist *kjaːt⁷
two *hra¹
uncle *ta¹
upside down *kam³
to use *juŋ⁶
vegetable *ʔma¹
vestige *hruːi¹
village *ɓaːn³
to vomit *trwak⁷
to wait *kra³
to walk, crawl *chaːm³
to want *aːu¹
to wash clothes *ʔlak⁷
to wash hands *zuːk
water *ȵam³
we (incl.) *traːu¹
to wear *tan³
to weave *tam³
to weave, plait *kjaːn¹
to weed *ne¹
to weep, cry *ʔȵe³
well, spring *ɓun⁵
well, spring *ɓu⁵
well, pond, pool *thlam¹
wet *ʔrak⁷
wind *hlwum¹
rice wine *khlaːu³
wing *pwa⁵
woman, girl *ɓjaːk⁷
(fire)wood *trit⁷
worm *dzan⁴
to wrap, bundle *tuːk⁷
to wring towel *ɓjuːt⁷ (?)
to write *kjaːt⁷
yam *man²
year *mpe¹
woman, girl *ɓjaːk⁷
(fire)wood *trit⁷
worm *dzan⁴
to wrap, bundle *tuːk⁷
to wring towel *ɓjuːt⁷ (?)
to write *kjaːt⁷
yam *man²
year *mpe¹

References[edit]

  • Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam–Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.
Vocabulary lists of Mainland Southeast Asian languages
Sino-Tibetan

Greater Bai • p-Naish • p-Ersuic • Akha • Gong • p-Luish • p-Bodo-Garo • Kuki-Chin • Mru • Zakhring • Kho-Bwa • p-Puroik • p-Hrusish • Koro • Greater Siangic • Dhimalish • Baram-Thangmi • p-Kham • Dura • Bunan • (Nepal)

Austroasiatic

p-Austroasiatic • p-Munda • p-Palaungic • p-Pakanic • p-Katuic • p-Pearic • p-Khmeric • p-Monic • p-Aslian • p-Nicobarese

Hmong-Mien

p-Hmong-Mien • Hmong-Mien • Pa-Hng

Kra-Dai

p-Kra • p-Kam-Sui • Kam-Sui (Hunan) • p-Lakkia • p-Tai • p-Be • Jizhao • p-Hlai • Jiamao

Others

Burushaski • Kusunda • Nihali • Kenaboi • p-Ongan • p-Trans-New Guinea • p-Nivkh