Appendix:List of Proto-Edoid reconstructions

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The following list of Proto-Edoid reconstructions is from Elugbe (1989).

List[edit]

Number Gloss Proto-Edoid Notes
1 slice, trim, etc. *bɛ
2 black, be *bi
3 red, be *bha
4 you (pl.) *bhaɪ
5 house, room *U-bhaGɪ, -baGɪ
6 wide, be *bhɛ
7 ask *bhiənhə
8 oil *A-bhidhi I-
9 sleep (v.) *bhɪchɪN
10 sleep (n.) *U-bhɪchɪN
11 have, possess *bhuNənhə
12 dog *A-bhωa I-
13 goat *E-bhωɪ I-
14 plait (hair) *ɓaNa
15 give birth, bear (child) *ɓiə
16 leaf *U-ɓɪ I-
17 arm, hand *ghU-ɓɔ A-
18 build, thatch (roof) *ɓɔN
19 sand, dust *-ɓu-
20 break (a stick) *ɓunhə
21 many, be *ɓu
22 doctor *O-ɓω A-
23 shoot, hit *ca
24 faeces *A-cəNə
24 fall *deNi
25 effective, be (of juju); come true (of prophecy, etc.) *cɛ
26 pull *ci
27 nine *i-ciənhi
28 spin (thread) *ciN
29 saliva *A-cɪaNɪ I-
30 sew *cω
31 sing *cω
32 carry (load on head) *c\oaGɪ
33 father *O-cωe A-
34 crawl, drag, draw (of snail); flow *cωN
35 night *A-cωNa I-
36 forget *chamhɪnha
37 three *ɪɪ-chaGɪ
38 six *-chaN
39 fish *-ch(i)ənhi
40 seven *i-chiə-
41 good, be *chiəmhi
42 head *U-chiəmhi A-
43 five *ii-chiNənhi
44 man, male *O-chɪ- I-
45 ear *ghU-chɔGɪ A-
45 hoe, dig *gωa
46 penis *A-chuə I-
47 hunter *O-chuə I-
48 hear *chuənhə, chiənhi
48 hoe (n.) *-guə
49 nose *I-chuəNi; *-chuveNi A-
50 take (something) *da
51 grey hair *U-daN I-
52 river *E-də I-
53 long, be (of a stick) *dedhi
55 sell *dɛGɪ
56 tie (rope) *di
57 steal *do
58 weave *do
59 stone *U-doGi, -dio I-
60 sharpen (knife) *dɔGi
61 louse *A-du- ??
63 tongue *U-dhamhɪ A-
64 corpse *O-dhimhi A-
65 eat *dhɪ
66 think, consider *dhodho
67 bargain *dω
67 swallow *dhɔNɪ
68 do, make *dhu
69 cotton *O-dhudhu I-
70 rope *U-dhuNi; *-dhiNi A-
71 eye *dhI-dhω A-
72 drink (alcohol) *ɗa
73 buy *ɗɛ
74 oil palm *U-ɗi A-
75 heart, liver *U-ɗiə A-
76 pound (in mortar) *ɗumhi
77 tie (bundle); make (rope) *fadhɪ
78 wind *O-fɛdh-
79 nail (finger) *-fɪNa
80 wind *A-fofo I-
81 swell *fumhi
82 wash (clothes) *fωNɪnhɪ; *fωɛnhɪ
83 weed, dig *gu
86 twenty *U-gheGi; *-ɟheGi
87 send (someone to do something) *ghiə, ɟhiə
88 dance *gbhe
88 die *ghu
89 tortoise *E-ghuNi I-
90 beat, kill *gbeGi
91 ten *-gbeNi
93 laugh *ghiə (or *gbəi ?)
93 newness *-gbɔ
94 life, world *A-gbɔN
95 tie *gbha
96 chin, jaw *-gbhamhɪ
97 thirty *O-gbaN
99 choose *ɟɛ
100 thief *O-ɟi A-
101 blood *U-ɟɪ-, -ɟɪa A-
102 axe *A-ɟuəNi I-
103 dry *ka
104 maize *O-ka I-
105 carve (wood) *kadhɪ
106 back, behind, rear side *U-kə I-
107 split *kɛGɪ
108 earth, soil *-kɛN
109 market *A-ki I-
110 moon (pl. months) *U-ki I-
111 he-goat *A-kiə I-
112 egg *dhI-kiNə A-
113 gather *koko
114 cock (onomatopoeic) *O-kokodhoko I-
115 plant, sow *kɔ
116 boat, canoe; mortar *U-kɔ I-
117 pour *ku
118 tooth *dhI-kωN A-
119 navel *U-khəN I-
120 housefly *A-khɪNa I-
121 walk, go *khɪNa
122 chicken (domestic fowl) *O-khɔkhɔ I-
123 fight, war (v.) *khɔnhɪ
124 open, close *khuə
125 heavy, be *khω-
126 wash (body) *khωɛ
127 war *dhI-khωmhɪ A-
128 vomit *kpa
129 bag *E-kpa I-
130 cock *O-kpa I-
131 cloth *U-kpəN A-
132 think *kpe (or *kphe- ?)
133 year *U-kpe A-
134 wash (things) *kpeNi
135 leopard *E-kpɛN I-
136 horn *U-kphanhɪ A-
137 beat (drum) *kphədhi
138 lick *ladhɔ
139 creep, flow *lə
140 grind *lɔ
141 mould, build *ma
142 learn *ma-
143 I (independent) *mɛmhɛ
144 wring (clothes) *mi
145 see *mɪnhɪ
146 water *A-mɪN I-
147 bear (fruit) *mɔ
148 child *-mɔ
149 catch, hold in hand *mu
150 measure *mha
151 we (independent) *mhanhɪ
152 my, mine *-mhɛ
153 thing, something *-mhinhi
154 ashes *A-mhuNə
155 give *na
156 defecate *nəN(u)
157 name *dhI-ni A-
158 elephant *E-ni I-
159 four *-niə
160 vein *U-niə, -nhiə A-
161 cold (n.) *O-ninhə
162 ask, question *nɔ
163 mouth *A-nuə
164 animal, meat *E-nhamhɪ I-
165 know *nhichə, nhiəchə
166 eight *-nhɪNanhɪ
167 throw *pi
168 bird *A-pɪ- I-
169 fear (n.) *U-pɪN
170 finished, be; end *pω
171 cold, wet, be *pɔchɪ
172 extinguish *puN
173 white, be *pωNa
174 new, be *pha
175 belly, intestine *dhI-phaNɪ A-
176 urinate *phɛ
177 urine *A-phɛNɪ
178 skin *U-phɪNa I-
179 blow (with mouth) *phupho
180 say, tell *ta
181 ground *U-tɔ A-
182 dig *tɔN
183 roast *tɔN
184 scatter, pour *tu
185 burn *tωchɪ
186 hair *U-tωN I-
187 untie *thaN
188 tree *U-thaNɪ I-
189 tail *U-thiəmhi A-
190 hat, cap *U-thu A-
191 antelope, duiker, cow *E-thuəNi I-
192 butcher, break, split *va
193 shout, loud, be *vaN
194 two *I-və
195 king *O-vie I-
196 cry, weep *vɪɛ
197 fetch, draw (water) *vo
198 full, be *vɔNω
199 uproot, harvest (root crop) *vuN
201 stink *vωaNɪ
202 say (to someone) *wəGi
203 ripe, strong, hard, be *wω
204 live, dwell (in a place) *yənhi
205 drink (alcoholic) *A-yəN
206 song *I-yodho
207 drink (water) *yɔNω

References[edit]

  • Elugbe, Ben Ohiọmamhẹ. 1989. Comparative Edoid: phonology and lexicon. Delta Series No. 6. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.
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