刎頸之交

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See also: 刎颈之交

Chinese[edit]

to behead, to decapitate, to cut the head off; beheading, decapitation 's; him/her/it; this
 
to deliver; to turn over; to make friends
to deliver; to turn over; to make friends; to intersect (lines); to pay (money)
trad. (刎頸之交) 刎頸
simp. (刎颈之交) 刎颈
Literally:friendship of decapitation; throat-slashing friends”.

Etymology[edit]

Figuratively, a solid friendship of no regret even if one is to be beheaded for the other, from the Biography of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru in the Records of the Grand Historian (《史記·廉頗藺相如列傳》).

歸國上卿:「攻城野戰大功口舌賤人。」宣言:「。」已而望見避匿舍人相與:「所以親戚高義惡言恐懼庸人不肖辭去。」:「將軍?」:「不若。」:「群臣將軍之所以不敢加兵所以國家私讎。」肉袒負荊賓客謝罪:「鄙賤將軍。」相與刎頸之交 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
归国上卿:“攻城野战大功口舌贱人。”宣言:“。”已而望见避匿舍人相与:“所以亲戚高义恶言恐惧庸人不肖辞去。”:“将军?”:“不若。”:“群臣将军之所以不敢加兵所以国家私雠。”肉袒负荆宾客谢罪:“鄙贱将军。”相与刎颈之交 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
From: The Records of the Grand Historian, by Sima Qian, circa 91 BCE
Jì bà guī guó, yǐ Xiàng rú gōng dà, bài wèi shàngqīng, wèi zài Lián Pō zhī yòu. Lián Pō yuē: “Wǒ wèi Zhàojiāng, yǒu gōngchéng yězhàn zhī dàgōng, ér Lìn Xiàngrú tú yǐ kǒushé wèi láo, ér wèi jū wǒ shàng, qiě Xiàngrú sù jiànrén, wú xiū, bù rěn wèi zhī xià.” Xuānyán yuē: “Wǒ jiàn Xiàngrú, bì rǔ zhī.” Xiàngrú wén, bù kěn yǔ huì. Xiàngrú měi cháo shí, cháng chēng bìng, bù yù yǔ Lián Pō zhēng liè. Yǐ'ér Xiàngrú chū, wàngjiàn Lián Pō, Xiàngrú yǐn chē bìnì. Yú shì shèrén xiàngyǔ jiàn yuē: “Chén suǒyǐ qù qīnqī ér shì jūn zhě, tú mù jūn zhī gāoyì yě. Jīn jūn yǔ Lián Pō tóng liè, Lián jūn xuān èyán ér jūn wèinì zhī, kǒngjù shū shèn, qiě yōngrén shàng xiū zhī, kuàng yú jiāngxiàng hū! Chén děng bùxiào, qǐng cíqù.” Lìn Xiàngrú gù zhǐzhī, yuē: “Gōng zhī shì Lián jiāngjūn shú yǔ Qínwáng?” Yuē: “Bùruò yě.” Xiàngrú yuē: “Fú yǐ Qínwáng zhī wēi, ér Xiàngrú tíngchì zhī, rǔ qí qúnchén, Xiàngrú suī nú, dú wèi Lián jiāngjūn zāi? Gù wú niàn zhī, qiáng Qín zhīsuǒyǐ bùgǎn jiā bīng yú Zhào zhě, tú yǐ wú liǎng rén zài yě. Jīn liǎnghǔ gòngdòu, qí shì bù jù shēng. Wú suǒyǐ wéi cǐ zhě, yǐ xiān guójiā zhī jí ér hòu sīchóu yě.” Lián Pō wén zhī, ròutǎn fù jīng, yīn bīnkè zhì Lìn Xiàngrú mén xièzuì. Yuē: “Bǐjiàn zhī rén, bù zhī jiāngjūn kuān zhī zhìcǐ yě.” Zú xiāngyǔ huān, wèi wěnjǐngzhījiāo. [Pinyin]
They were already over and returned to the country; because of his achievement was great, Xiangru was appointed as a high-ranking official, and his rank was higher than Lian Po. Lian Po said: "I have become a general of Zhao, have some great achievements of siege and field battle; still, Lin Xiangru is above me by just achieving a feat by the conversation, and Xiangru was originally a lowly person; I am ashamed and can't bear to be under him." He declared: "When I see Xiangru, I'll be sure to humiliate him." Xiangru heard that and then he was reluctant to meet him. Every time Xiangru went to the court, he described himself as ill, and he didn't want to fight for the rank with Lian Po. Before long, Xiangru went out and observed Lian Po, and Xiangru hid by pulling the car. At that time, his servants remonstrated him together to say: "My lord, the reason why I left from my relatives to serve you is just because I admire your respectable personality. Now you have became in the same order with Lian Po; when Lord Lian stated bad words, you hid for fear of this, and awed too much; even mediocre people would be ashamed for that, and for generals and ministers, much more so! We are dishonorable; let us take our leave." Lin Xiangru insisted that they stay, saying "In your estimation, is General Lian more considerable than the king of Qin?" They said: "No, he isn't." Xiangru said: "Even under the intimidation of the king of Qin, I scolded him in his court and humiliated his men; though I am dull, should I be afraid of General Lian? What I am keenly aware is this, that the only reason why the mighty Qin dare not threaten Zhao with war is the presence of Lian and me. We are two tigers who cannot both survive a conflict with each other. The reason why I do that [not to hold a grudge against Lian] is to put the national emergency above my personal resentment." On hearing of that, Lian Po stripped his clothes off, bore a flogging rod, and came to Lin Xiangru's home via a retainer to apologize, "This mean and lowly person didn't know that you, general, is generous to this much." Finally, they got along with each other and vowed a friendship till death.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 2/2 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (28) (23) (28)
Final () (59) (121) (19) (90)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Open Open Open
Division () III III III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨunX/ /kiᴇŋX/ /t͡ɕɨ/ /kˠau/
Pan
Wuyun
/miunX/ /kiɛŋX/ /t͡ɕɨ/ /kᵚau/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuənX/ /kiæŋX/ /t͡ɕie/ /kau/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/munX/ /kiajŋX/ /cɨ/ /kaɨw/
Li
Rong
/miuənX/ /kiɛŋX/ /t͡ɕiə/ /kau/
Wang
Li
/mĭuənX/ /kĭɛŋX/ /t͡ɕĭə/ /kau/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uənX/ /ki̯ɛŋX/ /t͡ɕi/ /kau/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wěn jǐng zhī jiāo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
man5 ging2 zi1 gaau1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/2 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jǐng zhī zhī jiāo
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjieng › ‹ tsyi › ‹ tsyi › ‹ kæw ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-[k]eŋ/ (no palatalization before *-eŋ?) /*tə/ /*tə/ /*[k]ˁraw/
English neck go to (3p object pronoun; attributive particle) cross (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 1/1 1/1
No. 13207 6789 17188 6296
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0 0 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯnʔ/ /*keŋʔ/ /*tjɯ/ /*kreːw/

Idiom[edit]

刎頸之交

  1. friends sworn to death; eternal friends; best friends who can face hardships together

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (刎頸之交):
  • Korean: 문경지교 (刎頸之交, mun'gyeongjigyo)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふん
Hyōgaiji
けい
Hyōgaiji

Jinmeiyō
まじ(わり)
Grade: 2
kan’yōon kan’on kun’yomi kun’yomi

Idiom[edit]

(ふん)(けい)()(まじわり) (funkei no majiwari

  1. Alternative spelling of 刎頸の交わり

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

刎頸之交 (mun'gyeongjigyo) (hangeul 문경지교)

  1. Hanja form? of 문경지교.