Appendix:Sino-Tibetan Swadesh lists

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1-25 26-50 51-75 76-100 101-125 126-150 151-175 176-207
English word POS language sub-type romanization cognates are shaded IPA notes(similar use is shaded) Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese
1 I personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin uɔ˨˩˦
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ngo5
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī góa gua˥˧
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ua2
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ngo2
Hakka ngai11 亻厓 亻厓
Burmese nga ŋà ငါ
2 you(singular) personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin ni˨˩˦
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin nei5
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī li˥˧
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin le2
Hakka n11
Burmese nang nìn နင်
3 he personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin tʰa˥˥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin koey5 From .
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī i i˥˥
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin i1
Hakka ki11
Burmese su θù သူ
4 we personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin wǒmen uɔ˨˩mən 我們 我们
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ngo5 dei6 我哋 我哋
Amoy Quanzhou Pe̍h-ōe-jī gún gɨn˥˧ we (not including you)
Amoy Xiamen, Taipei Pe̍h-ōe-jī gún gun˥˧ we (not including you)
Amoy Zhangzhou, Tainan Pe̍h-ōe-jī góan guan˥˧ we (not including you)
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī lán lan˥˧ we (including you)
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ua2mung5 我們 我们
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ua2nang7 我人 我人
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin nang2 we (including you)
Hakka en24
Burmese nga tui. ŋà do̰ʊ ငါတို့
5 you(plural) personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin nǐmen ni˨˩mən informal 你們 你们
Mandarin Standard Pinyin nínmen nɪn˧˥mən polite 您們 您们
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin nei5 dei6 你哋 你哋
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī lín lɪn˥˧
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin le2mung5 你們 你们
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin le2nang7 你人 你人
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ning2
Hakka n11 (ia31) teu24
Burmese nang tui nìn do̰ʊ နင်တို့
6 they personal pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin tāmen tʰa˥˥mən human 他們 他们
Mandarin Standard Pinyin tāmen tʰa˥˥mən female human 她們 她们
Mandarin Standard Pinyin tāmen tʰa˥˥mən non-human 它們 它们
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin koei5 dei6 佢哋 佢哋
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī in in˥˥ 亻因 亻因
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ta1mung5 他們 他们
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin i1nang7 伊人 伊人
Hakka ki11 ia31 teu24
Burmese thu do θù do̰ʊ သူတို့
7 this demonstrative pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhè tʂə˥˩
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhèi tʂei˥˩
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhège tʂə˥˩kə 這個 这个
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhèige tʂei˥˩kə 這個 这个
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ni1 From
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī che tse˥˥
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chit-ê tɕɪt˥˥e˧˥ 即個 即个
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zê2
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zi2gai5 只個 只个
Hakka ia31
Burmese da, di (sany); i ðà, dì (ðì); ì ဒါ, ဒီ (informal), သည် (formal), အီ
8 that demonstrative pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin na˥˩
Mandarin Standard Pinyin nèi nei˥˩
Mandarin Standard Pinyin nàge na˥˩kə 那個 那个
Mandarin Standard Pinyin nèige nei˥˩kə 那個 那个
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin go2 From
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī he he˥˥
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī hit-ê hɪt˥˥e˧˥ 彼個 彼个
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin na2
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin he2gai5 許個 许个
Hakka na31
Burmese ho, hto /hò/, /tʰò/ ဟို, ထို
9 here demonstrative pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhèli tʂə˥˩li 這裡 这里
Mandarin Beijing Pinyin zhèr tʂaɻ˥˩ 這兒 这儿
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ni1 dou6 呢度 呢度
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chia tɕia˥˥ or or
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zê2lai6 這裡 这里
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zi2go7 只塊 只块
Hakka ia31 vi55
Burmese di hma ðì m̥à ဒီမှာ
10 there demonstrative pronoun Mandarin Standard Pinyin nàli na˥˩li 那裡 那里
Mandarin Beijing Pinyin nàr naɻ˥˩ 那兒 那儿
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin go2 dou6 嗰度 嗰度
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī hia hia˥˥ or or
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin nalai 那裡 那里
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin he2go7 許塊 许块
Hakka ke55 vi55 該位 该位
Burmese ai hma aiʔ m̥à
11 who interrogative Mandarin Standard Pinyin shéi ʂei˧˥
Mandarin Standard Pinyin shuí ʂuei˧˥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin bin1 go3 邊個 边个
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī siáⁿ-lâng ɕiã˥˥laŋ˧˥ 啥人 啥人
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī siáng ɕiaŋ˥˧ contraction of siáⁿ-lâng
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin sui5
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin di7nang5 底人 底人
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin di7diang5 哋唺 哋唺
Hakka man31 ngin11
Burmese ba du bə ðù
12 what interrogative Mandarin Standard Pinyin shénme ʂən˧˥mə 甚麼 什么
Mandarin Standard Pinyin nǎge na˨˩kə which 哪個 哪个
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin mat1
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī siáⁿ-mih ɕiã˥˥miʔ˩˩ 啥物 啥物
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī sīm-mi̍h ɕɪm˨˩miʔ˥˥ 甚麼 什么
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī tó-chi̍t-ê to˥˥tɕɪt˩˩e˧˥ which 佗一個 or 叨一個 佗一个 or 叨一个
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin sim1moh8 甚麼 什么
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin mih4gai5 乜個 乜个
Hakka mak2 ke55 麼介 么介
Burmese
13 where interrogative Mandarin Standard Pinyin nǎli na˧˥li 哪裏 哪里
Mandarin Beijing Pinyin nǎr naɻ˨˩˦ 哪兒 哪儿
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin bin1 dou6 邊度 边度
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī tó-ūi to˥˥ui˧˧ 佗位 or 叨位 佗位 or 叨位
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin na2lai6 哪裏 哪里
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin di7go7 底塊 底块
Hakka na55 vui55 哪位 哪位
Burmese ba hma bə m̥à
14 when interrogative Mandarin Standard Pinyin shénmēshíhòu ʂən˧˥mə˥˥ʂɚ˧˥xou˥˩ what time 甚麼時候 什么时候
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin gei2 si4 幾時 几时
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī sīm-mi̍h-sî-chūn ɕɪm˨˩miʔ˥˥ɕi˨˩tsun˧˧ what time 甚麼時陣 什么时阵
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī tang-sî taŋ˧˧ɕi˧˥ 當時 当时
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin guisi/gisi 幾時 几时
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin diang1si5 唺時 唺时
Hakka nai55 shi11 哪时 哪時
Burmese ba du bə ðɔ̰
15 how interrogative Mandarin Standard Pinyin rúhé ʐu˧˥xə˧˥ formal 如何 如何
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zěnme tsən˨˩mə informal 怎麼 怎么
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zěnyàng tsən˨˩iaŋ˥˩ in what way 怎樣 怎样
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin jy4 ho4 formal 如何 如何
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin dim2 joeng2 點樣 点样
Amoy Quanzhou Pe̍h-ōe-jī lû-hô lu˨˩ho˧˥ formal 如何 如何
Amoy Xiamen, Taipei Pe̍h-ōe-jī jû-hô ʣu˨˩ho˧˥ formal 如何 如何
Amoy Zhangzhou, Tainan Pe̍h-ōe-jī jî-hô ʑi˧˧ho˧˥ formal 如何 如何
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī án-chóaⁿ an˥˥tsuã˥˧ informal 安怎 安怎
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chóaⁿ-iūⁿ tsuã˥˥iũ˧˧ in what way 怎樣 怎样
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ruho 如何 如何
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zamo 怎么 怎麽
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zaion 在樣 在样
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zo1ni5 做呢 做呢
Hakka ngiong31 e31 樣仔 样仔
Burmese ba lo bə lóʊ
16 not Mandarin Standard Pinyin pu˥˩ is not/does not
Mandarin Standard Pinyin bié piɛ˧˥ do not (imperative)
Mandarin Standard Pinyin méi mei˧˥ does not have/did not
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin m4 hai6 Negator for verbs, except for ; the copula ; and adjectives. from
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin mou5 has not/there is not. From
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī put put˩˩ literary[1]
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī ṃ˧˧ is not/does not[2]
Amoy Quanzhou Pe̍h-ōe-jī bə˧˧ is not able to[3] or 勿會[4] or 勿會
Amoy Xiamen, Taipei Pe̍h-ōe-jī be˧˧ is not able to or 勿會 or 勿會
Amoy Zhangzhou, Tainan Pe̍h-ōe-jī bōe bue˧˧ is not able to or 勿會 or 勿會
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī mài mai˥˧ do not (imperative) or or
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī bo˧˥ does not have/did not[5]
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin buk
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin m6
Hakka put2
Burmese ma...nè mə...nɛ̰
Burmese ma...bu mə...bú
17 all quantifier Mandarin Standard Pinyin quánbù tɕʰyɛn˧˥pu˥˩ all of it 全部 全部
Mandarin Standard Pinyin zhěng tʂəŋ˨˩˦ ex. all day
Mandarin Standard Pinyin suǒyǒu suɔ˧˥iou˨˩˦ ex. all cars 所有 所有
Mandarin Standard Pinyin dōu tou˥˥ ex. they all see it.
Mandarin Standard Pinyin yígòng ji˧˥kʊŋ˥˩ ex. how many in all? 一共 一共
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin tsyn4 bou6 all of it 全部 全部
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin dou1 even (e.g. 全部都冇晒 "all of it (even) is no more")
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ham4 baang4 laang4 all of it 冚唪唥 冚唪唥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin saai4 verbal particle indicating completeness. From or or
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chôan-pō· tsuan˨˩pɔ˧˧ all of it 全部 全部
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī kui kui˥˥ ex. all day or or
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī só·-ū sɔ˥˥u˧˧ ex. all cars 所有 所有
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī lóng lɔŋ˥˧ ex. they all see it.
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī lóng-chóng lɔŋ˥˥tsɔŋ˥˧ ex. how many in all? 攏總 拢总
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin chuang5bou6 全部 全部
w:Hakka tshion11 phu55 全部 全部
w:Burmese a loun á lóʊn
18 many quantifier Mandarin Standard Pinyin duō tuɔ˥˥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin do1
Amoy Quanzhou Pe̍h-ōe-jī chē tsə˧˧ or 多支[6] or 多支
Amoy Xiamen, Taipei Pe̍h-ōe-jī chōe tsue˧˧ or 多支 or 多支
Amoy Zhangzhou, Tainan Pe̍h-ōe-jī chē tse˧˧ or 多支 or 多支
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin joi7
Hakka to24
Burmese mya mjà
Burmese day
19 some quantifier Mandarin Standard Pinyin yīxiē ji˥˥ɕiɛ˥˥ 一些 一些
Mandarin Standard Pinyin jǐge tɕi˨˩kə 幾個 几个
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin gei2 go3 幾個 几个
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin di1 From
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chi̍t-kóa tɕɪt˩˩kua˥˧ 一寡 一寡
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī kúi-nā-ê kui˥˥na˨˩e˧˥ 幾若個 几若个
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zêg5sê1 一些 一些
Hakka it2 teu24 一兜 一兜
Burmese tha cho θə tʃʰo̰ʊ
20 few quantifier Mandarin Standard Pinyin shǎo ʂau˨˩˦
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin siu2
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chió tɕio˥˧
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin dih8gian2
Hakka seu31, seu55
Burmese a nè ə né
21 other quantifier Mandarin Standard Pinyin qítā tɕʰi˧˥tʰa˥˥ 其他 其他
Mandarin Standard Pinyin biéde piɛ˧˥tə 別的 别的
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin kei4 taa1 其他 其他
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī kî-thaⁿ ki˨˩tʰã˥˥ 其他 其他
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī pa̍t-ê pat˩˩e˧˥ 別的 别的
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin bag8gai5
Hakka nang55 ngoi55 另外 另外
Burmese tha cha θə tʃʰá
22 one cardinal number Mandarin Standard Pinyin ji˥˥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin jat1
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī it ɪt˩˩ more than 10
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī chi̍t tɕɪt˥˥ less than 10
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ig4 more than 10
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin zêg8 less than 10
Hakka it2
Burmese tit tiʔ
23 two cardinal number Mandarin Standard Pinyin èr aɻ˥˩
Mandarin Standard Pinyin liǎng liaŋ˨˩˦
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin ji6 Used when counting 1, 2, 3...
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin loeng5 Used when referring to two objects (e.g. 兩隻狗 "two dogs")
Amoy Quanzhou, Taipei Pe̍h-ōe-jī li˧˧
Amoy Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Tainan Pe̍h-ōe-jī ʑi˧˧
Amoy Quanzhou, Xiamen, Taiwan Pe̍h-ōe-jī nn̄g nŋ˧˧
Amoy Zhangzhou Pe̍h-ōe-jī nō· nɔ˧˧
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin ri6
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin no6
Hakka ngi55
Burmese hnit n̥iʔ
24 three cardinal number Mandarin Standard Pinyin sān san˥˥
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin saam1
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī saⁿ sã˥˥
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin san1
Hakka sam24
Burmese thon θòʊn
25 four cardinal number Mandarin Standard Pinyin sɨ˥˩
Cantonese Standard Cantonese Pinyin sei3
Amoy Pe̍h-ōe-jī ɕi˨˩
Teochew Standard Cantonese Pinyin sei3
Hakka sii31
Burmese lay
  1. ^ Used mainly in words that have been imported from Mandarin, such as chha-put-to (Mandarin: chàbuduō almost).
  2. ^ See w:Amoy (linguistics)#Negative_particles for a fairly complete description of negative particles (also includes a comparison to Mandarin negatives).
  3. ^ see note #2 above
  4. ^ should be one single character (encoding: Big5, U+E000)
  5. ^ see note #2 above
  6. ^ should be one character


Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription