Appendix:Celtic Swadesh lists

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a Swadesh list of Celtic languages, specifically Proto-Celtic, Proto-Brythonic, Breton, Cornish, Welsh, Old Irish, Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, compared with that of English.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

English Proto-Celtic Proto-Brythonic Breton Cornish Welsh Old Irish Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx
1 I *mī *mi me my mi, fi mi mee
2 you *tū *ti te ty ti thu oo
3 he *es *eβ̃ ev ef, fe, fo é e eh
4 we *snīs *ni ni ny ni sní muid, sinn sinn shin
5 you (plural) *swīs, *swīsswīs *hwi c'hwi hwi chi, chwi sib, síi sibh sibh shiu
6 they *yoi i, int i hwy, hwynt, nhw é siad 'ad, iad ad
7 this *se-, *sindos, *so-sin an ... mañ an ... ma hwn, y ... yma in ... so an ... seo, an ... so an ... seo yn ... shoh
8 that *emo-, *sindo-de an ... se an ... na hwnnw, y ... yna in ... sin, in ... tall an ... sin, an ... siúd an ... sin, an ... siud yn ... shen, yn ... shid
9 here *sondo, *uman? amañ omma yma sund anseo an-seo ayns shoh, aynshoh
10 there *anda?, *kē aze, eno ena yna tall ansin, ansiúd an sin, an siud ayns shen, ayns shid
11 who *kʷēs *puɨ piv piw pwy cía quoi
12 what *kʷid petra pyth beth cid cad é, céard ciod, c'red, cre
13 where *kʷuts pelec'h ple ble cairm, cía airm, cía dú , cá háit, cén áit càite c'raad
14 when *kʷan(o) pedavare, pegoulz, peur, pevare p'eur pryd cuin cá huair, cathain, cén uair cuin cre'n traa, cuin
15 how pegiz, penaos, pevod fatel sut cía chruth, cía indas, cindas, co cad é mar, cén chaoiconas, ciamar, cionnas cre'n aght, kanys, kys
16 not *ne, *nīs *ni ne ... ket ny ddim, nid , nícon cha, chan, cha, chan cha, chan
17 all *olyos holl, tout oll holl, i gyd, oll uile uile uile ooilley
18 many *ɸilu- kalz lies, lower llawer il, imdae, mór a lán, mórán mòran mooarane, ram
19 some *nekʷos bennak, meur a nebes rhai, rhyw nach éigin, roinnt eigin, roinn ennagh, kuse, shiartanse
20 few *bikkano, *nekʷos nebeut nebes ychydig bec, terc, úathad beagán beagan beggan
21 other *alyos, *aralyos all, arall erell arall aile eile eile elley
22 one *oinos, *oynānos *ʉn unan onan un óen aon aon un, unnane
23 two *dwau *dọw daou dew dau dhá daa
24 three *trīs *tri tri tri tair, tri trí trí trì tree
25 four *kʷetwares *pedwar pevar peswar pedwar cethair ceathair ceithir kiare
26 five *kʷenkʷe *pɨmp pemp pymp pump cóic cúig còig queig
27 big *brassos, *māros *mọr bras, meur bras, meur mawr oll, mór mór mòr mooar
28 long *sīros *hir hir hir hir fota, sír fada fada foddey, liauyr
29 wide *ɸlitanos *llɨdan ledan ledan llydan lethan leathan leathann lhean
30 thick *remros, *tegus *teɣ fetis, tev tew tew remor, tiug ramhar, tiubh tiugh roauyr, çhiu
31 heavy *trummos *trumm pounner poes trwm trom trom trom trome
32 small *bikkos *bɨx bihan bian, byghan bach, bychan bec beag beag beg
33 short *birros, *gerros *bɨrr berr berr byr cummair, berr, gerr gearr geàrr giare
34 narrow *angus *kʉl enk, strizh kul cul cáel, cumung cúng cumhang coon
35 thin *tenauyos moan, tanav moon, tanow tenau séim, tanae tanaí tana thanney
36 woman *benā *ben, *gwrėg gwreg, maouez benyn benw, benyw, dynes, gwraig, merch ben bean bean ben
37 man (adult male) *wiros *gwur gour, gwaz, den gour, gwas dyn, gŵr fer fear fear dooinney, fer
38 man (human being) *gdonyos *dün den den dyn duine duine duine dooinney
39 child (youth) *mustākos bugel flogh plant lenab, noídiu leanbh, páiste leanabh, pàiste lhiannoo, paitçhey
40 wife *gwrėg gwreg gwreg gwraig ben, séitig bean, bean chéile {[l|gd|bean}}, bean-chèile, bean-phòsta ben, ben heshey, ben phoost
41 husband *wiros *gwur gwaz gour gŵr céile, fer fear céile fear-pòsta dooinney, dooinney poost, sheshey, sheshey poost
42 mother *mātīr *mamm mamm mamm mam máthair máthair màthair moir
43 father *ɸatīr *tad tad tas tad athair athair athair ayr
44 animal *mīlom *mil aneval, loen, mil enyval, mil anifail, mil anmandae, míl, robb ainmhí ainmhidh baagh, baaghtagh, bioagh, cretoor
45 fish *ɸēskos *uɨsk pesk pysk pysgodyn íasc iasc iasg eeast
46 bird *ɸatar, *ɸetnos *edn evn, labous edhen aderyn én éan eun ushag
47 dog *kū *ki ki ki ci , matad , gadhar, madadh, madra , madadh coo, moddey
48 louse *luwā laou low llau míl, míl étgudo míol cnis mial meeyl
49 snake *natrixs naer, sarpant sarf neidr, sarff nathair nathair nathair aarnieu, ardnieu
50 worm *kʷrimis *prɨβ̃ buzhug, preñv pryv abwydyn, mwydyn, pryf, pryf genwair cruim cruimh, péist cnuimh beisht, beishteig, dhiane
51 tree *kʷresnom *prenn gwez gwedh coed, colfen, pren crann, fid bile, crann crann, craobh billey
52 forest *kaito- *koɨd koad koos, koswik coedwig, fforest caill, fid, fidbad, ros, ruud coill coille keyll
53 stick (of wood) *lorgā bazh lorgh ffon, llory flesc, maide bata, maide bata, bioran, maide maidjey
54 fruit *sutu- frouezh frooth ffrwyth mess, torad toradh meas, toradh mess, troar
55 seed *segeto-, *sīlom had has had síl síol sìol rass, sheel
56 leaf *dolnyā, *dolyā del delen dail duille duille duilleag duillag
57 root *wridā gwrizienn gwreydh gwraidd, gwreiddyn frém, mecon fréamh freumh fraue
58 bark (of tree) *ruskos *rrisk rusk rusk rhisgl coirt, croiccenn, crottball, rúsc coirt, rúsc}, snamh rùsg roost
59 flower *blātus *blọd bleuñv bleujen blodyn bláth, scoth bláth, scoth blàth blaa
60 grass *gʷeltā *gwellt geot, gwelt gwels gwellt fér féar feur faiyr
61 rope *lomanā kordenn lovan rhaff loman, súainem, tét téad ròpa, teud tead
62 skin (of a person) *krokkeno-, *krokno- *krʉn kroc'hen kroghen croen cnes, croiccenn cneas, craiceann cneas,craiceann crackan
63 meat (as in flesh) *kīkos, *mīros kig kig cig cúa, feóil feoil feòil feill
64 blood *krowos *krow gwad goos gwaed crú, fuil cró, fuil fuil fuill
65 bone *astkornu, *knāmis askorn askorn asgwrn cnáim cnámh cnàimh craue
66 fat (noun) *gʷered- druz, lart blonek saim béoil, blonac, geir, íth blonag, saill saill blennick, sahll
67 egg *āuyom vi oy wy og ubh ugh ooh
68 horn *kornu- korn korn corn adarc, benn, corn adharc, corn adharc, corn corn, eairk
69 tail *lostā lost lost cynffon, llost erball, err eireaball earball arbyl, famman
70 feather(rather not down) pluñv pluv plu cleitte cleite ite clooie, fedjag
71 hair *woltos *gwollt blev blew, gols blew, gwallt finna folt folt, gruaig falt, gruag folt, gruag
72 head *kʷennom *penn penn penn pen cenn ceann ceann kione
73 ear *ausos, *kloustā *klʉst skouarn skovarn clust áu, clúas cluas cluas cleaysh
74 eye *lukato- *llugad lagad lagas llygad rosc, súil rosc, súil sùil sooill
75 nose *srognā *froɨn fri troen trwyn srón srón sròn stroin
76 mouth *genus *gen beg, genoù ganow ceg, genau á, bél, gin béal beul beeal
77 tooth (rather not molar) *dantom *dant dant dans dant dét, fíacail déad, fiacail fiacail feeackle
78 tongue *tangʷāss teod taves tafod tengae teanga teanga çhengey
79 fingernail *angʷīnā *ėɣwin ivin ewyn ewin ingen ionga ìne ingin
80 foot *tregess troad troes troed cos, traig cos, troigh cas cass
81 leg *koxsā *koɨs gar garr coes cos cos cas cass, lurgey
82 knee *glūnos *glin glin glin glin, pen-glin glún glúin glùn glioon
83 hand *ɸlāmā *llọβ̃ dorn dorn llaw lám lámh làmh laue
84 wing *ɸatanī askell askell adain, asgell ette, scíath eite, eiteog, sciath, sciathán sgiath fedjag, skian
85 belly *bolgos *bolɣ kof, tor kroth, torr bol, bola bolg, brú bolg broinn, brù bolg
86 guts bouzellenn kolodhyon coluddion, perfeddion, ymysgaroedd, cáelán, inathar inní caolan collane
87 neck *monis gouzoug konna gwddf, mwnwgl brága, muin, muinél muineál muineal mwannal
88 back kein keyn cefn cúl, druimm droim druim dreeym
89 breast *brusū, *kīkos *bronn bronn bronn bron cích brollach, cíoch cìoch keeagh
90 heart *kalonā, *kridyom *kalon kalon kolonn calon cride croí cridhe cree
91 liver *awV- avu avi afu óa ae adha aane
92 to drink *ɸibeti *ɨβɨd evañ, evet eva yfed ibid ól òl iu
93 to eat *ed-o-, *ɸiteti boueta, debriñ dybri bwyta ithid ith ith ee
94 to bite *knā-yo- dantañ, krogiñ densel brathu, cnoi benaid, greimm bain greim as bìd greim
95 to suck *di-na- sunañ dena, sugna sugno dinid, súigid dúil, súigh sùigh jiole, soo
96 to spit skopat berya, trewa poeri do·beir saile caith seile tilg smugaid ceau shelley, tilg shelley
97 to vomit *skeyeti c'hwedañ, dislonkañ, reucheutiñ hwyja chwydu sceïd aisig sgeith skeeah
98 to blow (as wind) *swizd-o- *hwɨθɨd c'hwezhañ hwytha chwythu do·infet, séitid séid sèid sheid
99 to breathe *ana- alanat, analañ anella anadlu do·beir anál análaigh tarraing anail tayrn ennal
100 to laugh *swar-yo- c'hoarzhin hwerthin chwerthin gáirid, tibid déan gáire gàir gear
101 to see *wel-o- gwelet gweles gweld ad·cí feic faic faik
102 to hear *klew-o- *klüwid klevet klywes clywed ro·cluinethar clois, cluin cluinn clasht, cluin
103 to know (a fact) *wi-n-d-o *gwɨbod gouzout godhvos gwybod at·tá a ḟis oc, ro·fitir a fhios a buith agat bi fhios aig fys ec
104 to think *ambi-rād-ī- prederiañ, soñjal prederi meddwl, tybio imm·rádi, smúainid smaoinigh smaoinich smooinee
105 to smell (sense odor) klevet blasa, klywes aroglu, clywed aroglau boltaigidir bolaigh feuch fàileadh soar
106 to fear *obno- aoniñ, kaout aon perthi own bod ag ofn, ofni ad·ágathar, eclaigid, gaibid ecla(with subject and object reversed), is ómun la(with subject as the object of) eagla a bheith ort gabh eagal gow aggle roish
107 to sleep *kuɸ-sko- *kuskɨd kousket koska cysgu con·tuili codail bi ann do chadal caddil
108 to live *biwo- bevañ bywa byw ar·beir biuth, at·tá beó, maraid bí beo, mair bi beò bee bio, bee er mayrn
109 to die *ba-yo- *marwọd mervel merwel marw at·baill, baïd, fo·gaib bás, téit bás faigh bás bàsaich fow baase
110 to kill *gʷaneti *gwėnɨd lazhañ ladha lladd marbaid, oirgid marbhaigh marbh marr
111 to fight *wiketi gouren, stourm omladh brwydro, ymladd cathaigid, fichid troid còmhraig cagg
112 to hunt (transitive) *selgā chaseal helghya hela ad·claid, do·seinn seilg sealg shelg
113 to hit *binati skoiñ gweskel, skwatya bwrw, taro benaid, boingid, búailid, slaidid, sligid buail buail bwoaill
114 to cut *skiy-o- troc'hañ treghi torri do·esc, gerraid, snaidid gearr geàrr giar
115 to split *dlo-n-g-o faoutañ folsa hollti dlongid scoilt sgoilt scolt, skeilt
116 to stab (or stick) gwanañ gwana, pyghya gwanu, trywanu cailgid, tollaid rop sàth seiy
117 to scratch (an itch) *razd-o- kravat, skrabat kravas cosi scrípaid, tochasaid tochais sgròb screeb
118 to dig *kladyeti *klėðɨd kleuzañ palas cloddio, palu claidid claidh, tochail cladhaich cleigh, reuyr
119 to swim *snā- neuñviñ neuvya nofio snáïd snámh snàmh snaue
120 to fly *ɸet-o- nijal nijal hedfan fo·luathar eitil itealaich etlee, ettyl
121 to walk [Term?] bale, kerzhet kerdhes cerdded siblaid, teít siúil coisich, siubhail shooyl
122 to come dont dos dod do·icc, do·tét tar thig tar
123 to lie (as on one's side) *leg-o- gourvez gorwedhes gorwedd laigid luigh laigh lhie
124 to sit *sed-o- azezañ esedha eistedd saidid suigh suidh soie
125 to stand *sistā- sevel sevel sefyll do·airissedar seas seas shass
126 to turn (change direction) *suweti treiñ treylya troi imm·soí, sóïd cas till cass
127 to fall (as in drop) *ki-yo kouezhañ koedha cwympo, disgyn, syrthio do·tuit tit tuit tuitt
128 to give *dāti *rroðọd reiñ ry rhoi do·beir tabhair tabhair cur, toyr
129 to hold (in one's hand) *delg-o- dalc'hen, derc'hel dalghenna, synsi dal, dala gaibid coinnigh cùm cum
130 to squeeze gwaskañ, stardañ gwaska, gwrynya, strotha gwasgu fáiscid, tendaid, timsaigid fáisc teannaich çhionn, craisht, faast
131 to rub frotañ rutya rhwtio, rhwbio con·meil cuimil suath rub
132 to wash *nig-yo- golc'hiñ, gwalc'hiñ golghi golchi folcaid, fothraicid, ind·aim, nigid nigh nigh niee
133 to wipe sec'hañ, torchañ sygha sychu [Term?] cuimil suath glen, rub
134 to pull sachañ, tennañ tenna tynnu do·srenga, srengaid tarraing tarraing tayrn
135 to push bountañ herdhya, pokya gwthio ad·aig brúigh brùth broo
136 to throw *kat-yo- chetañ, teurel tewlel taflu caithid, do·léci, fo·ceird, sneidid, sréïd caith tilg ceau, tilg
137 to tie *wed-o- eren, koulmañ kelmi clymu, rhwymo cenglaid, con·rig, sníid ceangail ceangail kiangle
138 to sew *nē-yo- gwriat gwrias, sewya gwnïo úaigid fuaigh fuaigh fuaill, whaal
139 to count *rimā kontañ akontya, amontya, nivera rhifo rímid cuntais, ríomh cùnnt coont
140 to say *labar-o- lavaret leverel dweud as·beir, labraithir, ráidid abair abair abbyr
141 to sing *kaneti *kėnɨd kana, kanañ kana canu canaid can seinn gow arrane, kiaulley
142 to play *kon-rig-o-, *uɸo-rig-o- c'hoari gwari chwarae cluichigidir, imm·beir imir cluich cloie
143 to float flotañ, neuviñ neuvella nofio snáïd snámh bi a' fleòdradh snaue
144 to flow *liy-o- deverañ bera, dinewi llifo bruinnid, dolin, silid, snigid snigh ruith freayney (of sea), gleashaghey (of people), sheel, shiauilley (on surface), thooill
145 to freeze reviñ, skornañ rewi rhewi reódaid, téchtaid reoigh reòdh rio
146 to swell *swēd-o- c'hwezañ hwythfi chwyddo attaid, bolgaid at at att
147 sun *sāwol heol howl haul grían grian grian grian
148 moon *ēskyom, *lugrā *lloɨr loar loer lleuad, lloer éscae, éasca, gealach gealach eayst
149 star *sterā *ster ster ster sêr rétglu, rind réalt rionnag rollage
150 water *dubros, *udenskyos *duβr dour dowr dŵr dobur, uisce dobhar, uisce uisge ushtey
151 rain *glawā, *wolko- glav glaw glaw bráen, flechud báisteach, fearthainn frasachd fliaghey
152 river *abū *aβon aven, rinier, stêr avon afon aub abhainn abhainn awin
153 lake *linnā lenn lynn llyn linn, loch linn, loch loch lhingey, logh
154 sea (as in ocean) *mori *mor mor mor môr fairrge, ler, muir, trethan farraige, muir cuan, fairge, muir faarkey, keayn, mooir
155 salt *salanos holen holan halen salann salann salann sollan
156 stone *klukā, *magino- *klog maen karrek, men carreg, maen cloch, lía cloch clach clagh
157 sand [Term?] traezh tewes tywod gainem gaineamh gainmheach geinnagh
158 dust poultrenn doust, polter llwch lúaith, lúaithred deannach, dusta duslach, dust, stùr joan
159 earth (as in soil) *talamū douar dor daear talam, úir talamh, úir talamh thalloo
160 cloud koumoul kommol cwmwl nél néal, scamall neul, sgòth bodjal, niaul
161 fog *kiwo- morenn, nivlenn niwl niwl ceó ceo ceò kay
162 sky *nemos *neβ̃ neñv, oabl ebron awyr, wybren aer, nem aer, neamh, spéir adhar, nèamh, speur aer, speyr
163 wind (as in breeze) *wintos *gwɨnt avel, gwent gwyns gwynt gáeth gaoth gaoth geay
164 snow *snigʷyo- *ėrɣ erc'h ergh eira snechtae sneachta sneachd sniaghtey
165 ice *yegis *jaɣ skorn rew, yey aig oighear eigh, eighre rio
166 smoke *mukV moged mog mwg , deatach, toit ceò, deatach, toit jaagh
167 fire *teɸnets tan tan tân áed, daig, teine tine teine aile, çhenney
168 ash *loutus ludu lusow lludw lúaith luaith luath leoie
169 to burn (intransitive) *dauyeti deviñ, leskiñ leski llosgi bruthnaigidir, teinnid dóigh dòth, loisg losht
170 road *sentus *hɨnt hent fordh, hens ffordd, hynt bóthar, conar, rót, slige bóthar, ród rathad bayr, raad
171 mountain *moniyo- *mönɨð menez menydh mynydd benn, slíab sliabh beinn, sliabh beinn, muyne, slieau
172 red *dergos, *roudos *rrʉð ruz rudh coch, rhudd derg, rúad dearg, rua dearg, ruadh jiarg, ruy
173 green *glastos *glas glas, gwer gwyrdh glas, gwyrdd glas, úaine glas, uaine glas, uaine eayney, glass
174 yellow *bodyos melen melyn melyn buide buí buidhe buigh
175 white *bānos, *gelos, *windos *gwɨnn gwenn gwynn gwyn bán, finn, gel bán, fionn, geal bàn, fionn, geal bane, fynn, gial
176 black *dubus *duβ du du du dub dubh dubh doo
177 night *noxs noz nos nos adaig oíche oidhche oie
178 day (daytime) *dīyos *dið dez, deiz dydh dydd día, latha laa
179 year *blēdnī bloavezh, bloaz blydhen blwyddyn blíadain bliain bliadhna blein
180 warm (as in weather) *teɸsmi- tomm toemm cynnes, twym te blàth, teth çheh
181 cold (as in weather) *ougros yen yeyn oer úar fuar fuar feayr
182 full *ɸlānos *llọn leun leun llawn lán lán làn lane
183 new *nouyos *newɨð nevez nowydh newydd núa nua, úr nuadh, ùr noa, oor
184 old *senos *hen hen, kozh hen, koth hen sen sean sean shenn
185 good *dagos, *matis *mad da, mad da, mas da, mad dag, maith, so- dea-, maith math mie
186 bad *drukos, *ulkos *drug fall, drouk drog drwg droch, olc droch-, {{l|ga|dona}, }olc droch, dona, olc drogh, olk
187 rotten (as, a log) *bragnos *braɨn brein breyn, poder braen, pwdr brén bréan, lofa lobhte breinn, loau
188 dirty *salākos lous plos brwnt, budr salach salach salach breinnagh, broghe, sollagh
189 straight eeun ewn syth díriuch díreach dìreach jeeragh
190 round *krundis *krunn ront, krenn krenn crwn cruinn cruinn cruinn cruinn
191 sharp (as a knife) *kerbos lemm lymm llym, miniog áith, gér géar geur geyre
192 dull (as a knife) *mailos dall pŵl máel maol maol moal
193 smooth *slimonos levn, lintr gwastas, leven llyfn mín, réid mín mìn meein, rea
194 wet *wlikʷos *gwlɨb gwleb glyb, gwlygh gwlyb fliuch fliuch fliuch fliugh
195 dry (adjective) *siskʷos *sɨx sec'h sygh sych tírim tirim tioram çhirrym
196 right (correct) *eɸinos reizh ewn certh, cywir, iawn cert, cóir ceart ceart kiart
197 near *onkos tost, ogos ogas agos ocus cóngarach, in aice dlùth, faisg er çheu, er gerrey, faggys
198 far *kēnos, *kʷeslos pell pell pell cían, i fat fada fada foddey
199 right (side) *dexswos dehou deghow de dess deas deas jesh
200 left (side) *kliyos *kleð kleiz kledh chwith, cledd clé, túath- clé clì clee, toshtal
201 at *onkos da orth at, wrth oc ag aig ec
202 in *en *ɨn ba, e, e-barzh yn mewn, yn i i ann ayns
203 with (accompanying) *kantā, *kom gant, get gans â, efo, gan, gyda co, i n-arrad, la le le lesh, marish
204 and *-kʷe, *atkʷe, *eti ha ha a ocus agus agus as
205 if *smā ma, mar, pe mar os, pe día, , ma, nan ga, my
206 because abalamour ma, peogwir drefenn achos, oherwydd hóre óir oir er-yn-oyr
207 name *anman *anw anv hanow enw ainmm ainm ainm ennym
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  (Standard Arabic, Cypriot, Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, Tunisian) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber:  (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch  (Limburgish, Zealandic) – Egyptian – English:  (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Faroese – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – Fongbe – French  (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Gothic – Greek (Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian  (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Konkani – Korean  (Middle Korean, Jeju) – Kurdish – Latin (Vulgar Latin) - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Low Saxon – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi  (Old Marathi) – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian:  (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese  (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani  (Caló) - Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Siberian Tatar – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Telugu – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Yiddish – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afroasiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Arabic – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan:  (Middle, Early New) – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Pama-Nyungan – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan:  (Raji-Raute, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed proto-languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Bantu – Proto-Basque – Proto-Germanic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Italic – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Mayan – Proto-Slavic