Appendix:Greek Swadesh list

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This is an Swadesh list of words in English and Greek. A Swadesh list for Ancient Greek is also available.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English Greek
ελληνικά (ellīniká)
IPA
pronunciation
1 I εγώ IPA(key): eˈɣo
2 you (singular) εσύ, εσείς (formal) IPA(key): eˈsi, IPA(key): eˈsis
3 he αυτός IPA(key): afˈtos
4 we εμείς IPA(key): eˈmis
5 you (plural) εσείς IPA(key): eˈsis
6 they αυτοί IPA(key): afˈti
7 this αυτό IPA(key): afˈto
8 that εκείνο IPA(key): eˈcino
9 here εδώ IPA(key): eˈðo
10 there εκεί IPA(key): eˈci
11 who ποιος IPA(key): pços
12 what τι IPA(key): ti
13 where πού IPA(key): pu
14 when πότε IPA(key): ˈpote
15 how πώς IPA(key): pos
16 not δε(ν), μη(ν) IPA(key): ðe(n), IPA(key): mi(n)
17 all όλοι IPA(key): ˈoli
18 many πολλοί IPA(key): poˈli
19 some μερικοί IPA(key): meriˈci
20 few λίγοι IPA(key): ˈliʝi
21 other άλλοι IPA(key): ˈali
22 one ένα IPA(key): ˈena
23 two δύο IPA(key): ˈðio
24 three τρία IPA(key): ˈtria
25 four τέσσερα IPA(key): ˈtesera
26 five πέντε IPA(key): ˈpende
27 big μεγάλος IPA(key): meˈɣalos
28 long μακρύς IPA(key): maˈkris
29 wide πλατύς, φαρδύς IPA(key): plaˈtis, IPA(key): farˈðis
30 thick παχύς, χοντρός IPA(key): paˈçis, IPA(key): xonˈdros
31 heavy βαρύς IPA(key): vaˈris
32 small μικρός IPA(key): miˈkros
33 short κοντός IPA(key): koˈndos
34 narrow στενός IPA(key): steˈnos
35 thin λεπτός IPA(key): leˈptos
36 woman γυναίκα IPA(key): ʝiˈneka
37 man (male) άνδρας IPA(key): ˈandras
38 man (human) άνθρωπος IPA(key): ˈan̪θropos
39 child παιδί IPA(key): peˈði
40 wife σύζυγος, γυναίκα IPA(key): ˈsiziɣos, IPA(key): ʝiˈneka
41 husband σύζυγος, άντρας IPA(key): ˈsiziɣos, IPA(key): ˈandras
42 mother μητέρα, μάνα IPA(key): miˈtera, IPA(key): ˈmana
43 father πατέρας IPA(key): paˈteras
44 animal ζώο IPA(key): ˈzoo
45 fish ψάρι IPA(key): ˈpsari
46 bird πουλί IPA(key): puˈli
47 dog σκύλος IPA(key): ˈscilos
48 louse ψείρα IPA(key): ˈpsira
49 snake φίδι IPA(key): ˈfiði
50 worm σκουλήκι IPA(key): skuˈlici
51 tree δέντρο IPA(key): ˈðendro
52 forest δάσος IPA(key): ˈðasos
53 stick ραβδί, βέργα IPA(key): raˈvði, IPA(key): ˈverɣa
54 fruit φρούτο IPA(key): ˈfruto
55 seed σπόρος IPA(key): ˈsporos
56 leaf φύλλο IPA(key): ˈfilo
57 root ρίζα IPA(key): ˈriza
58 bark (of a tree) φλοιός IPA(key): fliˈos
59 flower λουλούδι IPA(key): luˈluði
60 grass χορτάρι IPA(key): xorˈtari
61 rope σχοινί IPA(key): sciˈni
62 skin δέρμα IPA(key): ˈðerma
63 meat κρέας IPA(key): ˈkreas
64 blood αίμα IPA(key): ˈema
65 bone κόκαλο IPA(key): ˈkokalo
66 fat (noun) λίπος IPA(key): ˈlipos
67 egg αυγό IPA(key): avˈɣo
68 horn κέρατο IPA(key): ˈcerato
69 tail ουρά IPA(key): uˈra
70 feather πούπουλο, φτερό IPA(key): ˈpupulo, IPA(key): fteˈro
71 hair τρίχα (single), μαλλιά (collective) IPA(key): ˈtrixa, IPA(key): maˈʎa
72 head κεφάλι IPA(key): ceˈfali
73 ear αυτί IPA(key): afˈti
74 eye μάτι IPA(key): ˈmati
75 nose μύτη IPA(key): ˈmiti
76 mouth στόμα IPA(key): ˈstoma
77 tooth δόντι IPA(key): ˈðondi
78 tongue γλώσσα IPA(key): ˈɣlosa
79 fingernail νύχι IPA(key): ˈniçi
80 foot πόδι IPA(key): ˈpoði
81 leg πόδι IPA(key): ˈpoði
82 knee γόνατο IPA(key): ˈɣonato
83 hand χέρι IPA(key): ˈçeri
84 wing φτερό IPA(key): fteˈro
85 belly κοιλιά IPA(key): ciˈʎa
86 guts σπλάχνα, εντόσθια IPA(key): ˈsplaxna, IPA(key): eˈndosθia
87 neck λαιμός IPA(key): leˈmos
88 back πλάτη IPA(key): ˈplati
89 breast στήθος IPA(key): ˈstiθos
90 heart καρδιά IPA(key): karˈðʝa
91 liver συκώτι IPA(key): siˈkoti
92 to drink πίνω IPA(key): ˈpino
93 to eat τρώ(γ)ω IPA(key): ˈtro(ɣ)o
94 to bite δαγκώνω IPA(key): ðaˈŋɡono
95 to suck ρουφώ IPA(key): ruˈfo
96 to spit φτύνω IPA(key): ˈftino
97 to vomit ξερνώ IPA(key): kserˈno
98 to blow φυσάω IPA(key): fiˈsao
99 to breathe αναπνέω, ανασαίνω IPA(key): anaˈpneo, IPA(key): anaˈseno
100 to laugh γελάω IPA(key): ʝeˈlao
101 to see βλέπω IPA(key): ˈvlepo
102 to hear ακούω IPA(key): aˈkuo
103 to know ξέρω, γνωρίζω IPA(key): ˈksero, IPA(key): ɣnoˈrizo
104 to think σκέφτομαι, νομίζω IPA(key): ˈsceftome, IPA(key): noˈmizo
105 to smell μυρίζω IPA(key): miˈrizo
106 to fear φοβάμαι IPA(key): foˈvame
107 to sleep κοιμάμαι IPA(key): ciˈmame
108 to live ζω IPA(key): zo
109 to die πεθαίνω IPA(key): peˈθeno
110 to kill σκοτώνω IPA(key): skoˈtono
111 to fight μαλώνω IPA(key): maˈlono
112 to hunt κυνηγώ IPA(key): ciniˈɣo
113 to hit χτυπώ IPA(key): xtiˈpo
114 to cut κόβω IPA(key): ˈkovo
115 to split χωρίζω IPA(key): xoˈrizo
116 to stab μαχαιρώνω IPA(key): maçeˈrono
117 to scratch ξύνω IPA(key): ˈksino
118 to dig σκάβω IPA(key): ˈskavo
119 to swim κολυμπώ IPA(key): kolimˈbo
120 to fly πετάω IPA(key): peˈtao
121 to walk περπατώ IPA(key): perpaˈto
122 to come έρχομαι IPA(key): ˈerxome
123 to lie (as in a bed) ξαπλώνω, πλαγιάζω IPA(key): ksaˈplono, IPA(key): plaˈʝazo
124 to sit κάθομαι IPA(key): ˈkaθome
125 to stand στέκομαι IPA(key): ˈstekome
126 to turn (intransitive) γυρίζω IPA(key): ʝiˈrizo
127 to fall πέφτω IPA(key): ˈpefto
128 to give δίνω IPA(key): ˈðino
129 to hold κρατάω IPA(key): kraˈtao
130 to squeeze ζουλάω IPA(key): zuˈlao
131 to rub τρίβω IPA(key): ˈtrivo
132 to wash πλένω IPA(key): ˈpleno
133 to wipe σκουπίζω IPA(key): skuˈpizo
134 to pull τραβώ IPA(key): traˈvo
135 to push σπρώχνω IPA(key): ˈzbroxno
136 to throw ρίχνω, πετώ IPA(key): ˈrixno
137 to tie δένω IPA(key): ˈðeno
138 to sew ράβω IPA(key): ˈravo
139 to count μετράω IPA(key): meˈtrao
140 to say λέω IPA(key): ˈleo
141 to sing τραγουδώ IPA(key): traɣuˈðo
142 to play παίζω IPA(key): ˈpezo
143 to float πλέω, επιπλέω IPA(key): ˈpleo, IPA(key): epiˈpleo
144 to flow τρέχω IPA(key): ˈtrexo
145 to freeze παγώνω IPA(key): paˈɣono
146 to swell φουσκώνω, πρήζομαι IPA(key): fuˈskono, IPA(key): ˈprizome
147 sun ήλιος IPA(key): ˈiʎos
148 moon σελήνη, φεγγάρι IPA(key): seˈlini, IPA(key): feˈŋɡari
149 star αστέρι, άστρο IPA(key): aˈsteri
150 water νερό IPA(key): neˈro
151 rain βροχή IPA(key): vroˈçi
152 river ποτάμι IPA(key): poˈtami
153 lake λίμνη IPA(key): ˈlimni
154 sea θάλασσα IPA(key): ˈθalasa
155 salt αλάτι IPA(key): aˈlati
156 stone πέτρα IPA(key): ˈpetra
157 sand άμμος IPA(key): ˈamos
158 dust σκόνη IPA(key): ˈskoni
159 earth γη IPA(key): ʝi
160 cloud σύννεφο IPA(key): ˈsinefo
161 fog ομίχλη IPA(key): oˈmixli
162 sky ουρανός IPA(key): uraˈnos
163 wind αέρας IPA(key): aˈeras
164 snow χιόνι IPA(key): ˈçoni
165 ice πάγος IPA(key): ˈpaɣos
166 smoke καπνός IPA(key): kaˈpnos
167 fire φωτιά IPA(key): foˈtça
168 ash στάχτη IPA(key): ˈstaxti
169 to burn καίω IPA(key): ˈceo
170 road δρόμος IPA(key): ˈðromos
171 mountain βουνό IPA(key): vuˈno
172 red κόκκινος IPA(key): ˈkocinos
173 green πράσινος IPA(key): ˈprasinos
174 yellow κίτρινος IPA(key): ˈcitrinos
175 white άσπρος IPA(key): ˈaspros
176 black μαύρος IPA(key): ˈmavros
177 night νύχτα IPA(key): ˈnixta
178 day μέρα IPA(key): ˈmera
179 year χρόνος IPA(key): xroˈnos
180 warm ζεστός IPA(key): zeˈstos
181 cold κρύος IPA(key): ˈkrios
182 full γεμάτος IPA(key): ʝeˈmatos
183 new καινούργιος IPA(key): ceˈnurʝos
184 old παλιός IPA(key): paʎos
185 good καλός IPA(key): kaˈlos
186 bad κακός IPA(key): kaˈkos
187 rotten σάπιος IPA(key): ˈsapços
188 dirty βρόμικος IPA(key): ˈvromikos
189 straight ίσιος IPA(key): ˈisços
190 round στρογγυλός IPA(key): stroɲɟiˈlos
191 sharp (as a knife) κοφτερός IPA(key): kofteˈros
192 dull (as a knife) στομωμένος IPA(key): stomoˈmenos
193 smooth λείος IPA(key): ˈlios
194 wet βρεγμένος, υγρός IPA(key): vreɣˈmenos, IPA(key): iˈɣros
195 dry στεγνός, ξερός IPA(key): steˈɣnos, IPA(key): kseˈros
196 correct σωστός IPA(key): soˈstos
197 near κοντά IPA(key): koˈnda
198 far μακριά IPA(key): makriˈa
199 right δεξιά IPA(key): ðeksiˈa
200 left αριστερά IPA(key): aristeˈra
201 at σε IPA(key): se
202 in μέσα IPA(key): ˈmesa se
203 with με IPA(key): me
204 and και IPA(key): ce
205 if εάν, αν IPA(key): eˈan, IPA(key): an
206 because επειδή, γιατί IPA(key): epiˈði, IPA(key): ˈʝaˈti
207 name όνομα IPA(key): ˈonoma
Pronunciation

Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the pronunciation shown.

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription