Appendix:Middle English Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Middle English, compared with that of English.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English Middle English
Englisch
IPA
pronunciation
1 I I, ich, iche, ik , itʃ, ik
2 you (singular) thou, þou, þu θuː
3 he he, heo heː, høː
4 we we, ve weː
5 you (plural) you, yow, ȝou, yu juː
6 they thei, they, þei, þæȝe, he θɛi, heː
7 this this, thisse, thes, þis, þes θis, θiːs, θeːs
8 that that, thatte, þat, þæt, se, seo θat, θaːt, seː, søː
9 here her, here, hire, hir, herre, hier heːr, hɛr
10 there there, tharre, therre, theare, thir, thar θɛːr, θɛr
11 who who, hwo, huo, qwo, hou ʍɔː, ʍoː
12 what what, hwat, hwæt, qwhat ʍat
13 where wher, hwer, qwher, whar, where, huer ʍɛr, ʍɛːr
14 when whanne, whenne, hwanne, hwænne, whane ˈʍan(ə), ˈʍɛn(ə)
15 how how, hou, hu huː
16 not ne, nought, nouȝt, noȝt, not, nat , nɔuxt, nɔt, nat
17 all all, al, æl, alle al
18 many many, mani, maniȝ, moni, mony ˈmaniː, ˈmɔniː
19 some som, somme, some, sum, summe sum, sɔm
20 few fewe, feawe ˈfɛu(ə)
21 other other, oþer, oðer, othere ˈɔðər, ˈoːðər
22 one oon, on, one, an ɔːn
23 two tuo, two, twa twɔː
24 three thre, three, þre, thri θreː, θriː
25 four fower, feour, four, fore fɔur, ˈføːwər
26 five five, fife, fif fiːv
27 big large, larche, largh, grete, gret, greet ˈlaːrdʒ(ə), ˈlardʒ(ə), ɡrɛːt
28 long long, longe, lang, lange lɔnɡ, lanɡ
29 wide brod, brood, brad, wyd, wide brɔːd, wiːd
30 thick thicke, thikke, thykke, thik, þikke ˈθik(ə)
31 heavy hevy, heavi, heui, heuy hɛːviː, hɛviː
32 small smal, small, smæl, smalle smal
33 short schort, short, shorte, schorte ʃɔrt
34 narrow narow, narwe, narewe, narowe, narouȝ narɔw, narwə
35 thin thinne, thin, thünne, thenne, þinne ˈθin(ə)
36 woman womman, woman, wimman, wifmanne, wif ˈwuman, wiːf
37 man (male) wer, were, gume, gome, man, manne wɛr, ˈɡum(ə), ˈɡoːm(ə), man
38 man (human) man, manne, persoun, persoune man, pɛrˈsuːn
39 child child, childe, barn, bern tʃiːld, bɛrn, barn
40 wife wif, wife, wive, wiffe wiːf
41 husband husbonde, housbonde, husband, husbande ˈhuːsbɔnd, ˈhuːsboːnd, ˈhusband
42 mother moder, modere, mother, modre ˈmoːdər, ˈmoːðər
43 father fader, fadir, feder, faðer ˈfadər, ˈfaðər
44 animal beste, beest, animal, der, dere, deor ˈbɛːst(ə), aniˈmaːl, deːr, døːr
45 fish fisch, fish, fysshe, fische fiʃ
46 bird fowel, fowl, foul, brid, bridde fuːl, ˈfuːwəl, brid
47 dog hound, hund, hounde huːnd
48 louse lous, lows, louse luːs
49 snake snake, snaca ˈsnaːk(ə)
50 worm worm, worme, wurm, warm, wirm wirm, wurm
51 tree tre, tree, trewe, treo, treow treː, trøː
52 forest wald, frith, frið, fyrthe, forest wald, friθ, ˈfɔrɛst
53 stick stikke, sticke, stykke, stycke, stik ˈstik(ə)
54 fruit frute, fruct, fruit, ovet, ofet ˈfriu̯t(ə), ˈfruːt(ə), ˈɔːvɛt
55 seed sede, seed, side sɛːd
56 leaf blade, blaid, lefe, leef blaːd, blad, lɛːf
57 root rote, root, roote roːt
58 bark (of a tree) rind, rinde, bark riːnd, rind, bark
59 flower flour, flor, flur, blosme fluːr, ˈblɔsm(ə)
60 grass gras, grasse, gers ɡras, ɡraːs, ɡɛrs
61 rope rope, rop, line rɔːp, liːn(ə)
62 skin hide, hüde, skinne, skin, skinn hiːd, skin
63 meat flesh, flesch, flesche, flæsce, fless, fleische flɛːʃ, flɛʃ
64 blood blood, bloud, blod, bloode bloːd
65 bone bon, ban bɔːn
66 fat (noun) fatte, fat fat, faːt
67 egg ei, ey, æȝe, egge, eg ɛi, ɛɡ
68 horn horn, horne, orn hɔrn
69 tail teil, tayl, tail tɛil
70 feather fether, feþer, fedder ˈfɛðər, ˈfɛdər
71 hair her, hair, herre hɛːr, heːr
72 head hed, hede, heed, heved, heaved, heafod, hefd, hevd, pate hɛːd, ˈhɛvəd, ˈheːvəd, ˈhɛvɔd, hɛːvd, ˈpaːt(ə), ˈpat(ə)
73 ear ere, eare, yere ɛːr(ə)
74 eye eie, eye, yȝe, ˈei(ə), ˈiː(ə)
75 nose nose, nos, nosse, nosu ˈnɔːz(ə)
76 mouth mouth, mouþ, muþ, mouthe, muð, mouþe muːθ
77 tooth tothe, toð, tooth, toþ toːθ
78 tongue tunge, tung, tong, tonge ˈtunɡ(ə)
79 fingernail nayl, nail, neil nɛil
80 foot fot, foot, fote foːt
81 leg schanke, schonke, schank, leg, legge ˈʃank(ə), lɛɡ
82 knee kne, knewe, kneo kneː, knøː
83 hand hand, hond, hande hand, hɔnd
84 wing winge, wing, wynge, wyng ˈwinɡ(ə)
85 belly bouk, bouke, buk, bely, bealy buːk, ˈbɛliː
86 guts therm, tharm, þearm, þerm, guttes, gutes θərm, θarm, ˈɡutəs
87 neck hals, halce, heals, halse, nekke, necke hals, ˈnɛk(ə)
88 back rigge, rygge, rig, bak, bakke ˈridʒ(ə), ˈbak(ə)
89 breast brest, breoste, breste ˈbrɛːst, ˈbrøːst
90 heart herte, hert, heorte ˈhɛːrt(ə), ˈhøːrt(ə)
91 liver liver, livere, lifer ˈlivər
92 to drink drinken, drynken, drinke ˈdrinkən
93 to eat eten, eeten, æten, ete ˈɛːtən
94 to bite biten, byten, bite ˈbiːtən
95 to suck souken, suken, souke ˈsuːkən
96 to spit spitten, spitte ˈspitən
97 to vomit speuen, spewen, spiwen, spewe, *recchen, vomiten ˈspiu̯ən, ˈrɛtʃən, ˈrɛːtʃən, ˈvɔmitən
98 to blow blowen, blouen, blowe ˈblɔu̯ən
99 to breathe brethen, breþen, brethe ˈbrɛːðən
100 to laugh laughen, lauȝhen, laȝhen, laghen, laughe ˈlauxən, ˈlaːxən
101 to see seen, sen, seon, sein, see ˈseːn, ˈseːən
102 to hear heren, hæren, heoren, hearen, hieren, here ˈheːrən, ˈhɛːrən, ˈhøːrən
103 to know witen, witten, knowen, knawen, kno, kennen, kenne, kunnen, can ˈwitən, ˈknɔu̯ən, ˈknɔːwən, ˈkɛnən, ˈkunən
104 to think thinken, thenchen, þenchen, thinke ˈθinkən, ˈθɛntʃən
105 to smell smellen, smillen, smullen, stinken, stincken, stinke ˈsmɛlən, ˈsmilən, ˈstinkən
106 to fear agasten, dreden, dræden, dredden ˈaɡastən, ˈdrɛːdən, ˈdreːdən
107 to sleep slepen, sleepen, slæpen, slepe ˈsleːpən
108 to live liven, lifen, leven, live ˈlivən, ˈleːvən
109 to die sterven, sterfen, steorfen, deyen, dien, deye ˈstɛrvən, ˈstœrvən, ˈdɛiən, ˈdiːən
110 to kill sleyen, slen, killen, kille, quellen, quelle ˈslɛi̯ən, ˈslɛːn, ˈkilən, ˈkwɛlən
111 to fight fighten, fisten, fehten, fiȝten, feghten ˈfixtən, ˈfɛxtən
112 to hunt hunten, huntien, hounten ˈhuntən
113 to hit hitten, hutten, hetten, hitte ˈhitən
114 to cut cutten, kitten, kytten, hewen, hæwen, hewe, scheren, ssere, shere ˈkutən, ˈkitən, ˈhɛu̯ən, ˈʃɛːrən
115 to split cleven, cleoven, parten, parte, sonderen, sondren, sondre ˈkleːvən, ˈkløːvən, ˈpartən, ˈsundərən
116 to stab percen, perce, stiken, stikken, sticken, stingen, stinge, priken, pricken, prike ˈpeːrsən, ˈstikən, ˈstinɡən, ˈprikən
117 to scratch cracchen, scratten, scratte, scrapen, scrape ˈkratʃən, ˈskratən, ˈskraːpən
118 to dig graven, grafe, diggen, digen ˈɡraːvən, ˈdiɡən
119 to swim swimmen, swemme, suimmine, swimme ˈswimən
120 to fly flien, fleghen, fleighen, flen ˈfliːən, ˈfleːn
121 to walk gangen, gongen, gon, goon, goen, walken, wenden ˈɡaːnɡən, ˈɡanɡən, ɡɔːn, ˈwalkən, ˈwɛndən
122 to come comen, cumen ˈkumən
123 to lie (as in a bed) lien, liggen, lyggen, liȝȝe, lie ˈliːən, ˈlidʒən
124 to sit sitten, citten, zitten, siten, sitte ˈsitən
125 to stand standen, stonden, stonde ˈstɔːndən, ˈstandən
126 to turn (intransitive) turnen, tournen, tornen, turne ˈturnən
127 to fall fallen, fellen, falle ˈfalən
128 to give yeven, yiven, ȝeven, given, yeve, give ˈjɛːvən, ˈjiːvən, ˈɡiːvən
129 to hold holden, halden, helden, hælden, healden, holde, halde, taken ˈhɔːldən, ˈhaːldən, ˈheːldən, ˈtaːkən
130 to squeeze wringen, wringe, compressen ˈwrinɡən, kɔmˈprɛsən
131 to rub rubben, ruben, robben, rubbe, rudden, rudde ˈrubən, ˈrudən
132 to wash waschen, washen, wasshen, washe ˈwaʃən
133 to wipe wipen, wipe, wippe ˈwiːpən
134 to pull pullen, pollen, pulle, drawen, draȝen, drayen, drawe ˈpulən, ˈdrau̯ən
135 to push schouven, shouven, schuven, schoven, thresten, thristen, thrusten, thriste ˈʃuːvən, ˈʃuvən, ˈθrɛstən, ˈθristən, ˈθrustən
136 to throw werpen, warpen, weorpen, throwen, þrowen, þrowȝen, thrawen, throwe ˈwɛrpən, ˈwarpən, ˈwœrpən, ˈθrɔu̯ən
137 to tie teien, tien, binden, fasten, fastnen ˈtɛiən, ˈtiːən, ˈfastən, ˈfastnən
138 to sew sewen, sowen, sue ˈsiu̯ən, ˈsɔu̯ən, ˈsɛu̯ən
139 to count counten, compten, tellen ˈkuːntən, ˈkɔntən, ˈtɛlən
140 to say quethen, cwæthen, queden, quethe, seyen, seien, sayen, speken, speke, clepen ˈkwɛːðən, ˈkwɛːdən, ˈsɛi̯ən, ˈspɛːkən, ˈklɛːpən
141 to sing singen, cingen, cinggen, singgen, singe ˈsinɡən
142 to play pleyen, pleien, pleiȝen, playen, plaien, pleye ˈplɛi̯ən
143 to float fleten, fleoten ˈfleːtən, ˈfløːtən
144 to flow flowen, floȝen, flue, yeten, ȝeten, ȝeoten, yette ˈflɔu̯ən, ˈjeːtən, ˈjøːtən
145 to freeze fresen, freosen, congelen ˈfreːzən, ˈfrøːzən, kɔnˈdʒɛːlən
146 to swell swellen, swelle, bolnen ˈswelən, ˈbɔlnən
147 sun sunne, sonne, sune, sone, zunne, sun ˈsun(ə)
148 moon mone, moone, mon ˈmoːn(ə)
149 star sterre, steorre, stere ˈstɛr(ə), ˈstœr(ə)
150 water water, waterre, watere ˈwatər, ˈwaːtər
151 rain reyn, rayn, rein, rain, reyne rɛi̯n
152 river flod, flood, flode, streme, strem, rivere, river, rever floːd, strɛːm, rivˈɛːr, ˈrivər
153 lake lake, lak, lac, mere, meere, mer ˈlaːk(ə), ˈmeːr(ə)
154 sea see, se, , ce, sea sɛː
155 salt salt, selt, sealt, salte, zalt salt
156 stone stone, ston, stan, stoon stɔːn
157 sand sand, sande, sond, sonde saːnd, sand, sɔnd
158 dust dust, doust, duste dust, duːst
159 earth erthe, erþe, eorthe, eorþe, erðe eːrθ(ə), ɛrθ(ə), øːrθ(ə)
160 cloud cloud, cloude, ski, sky cluːd, ˈskiː
161 fog mist, miste, myst miːst, mist
162 sky welken, welkene, welkyn, skue, skew, ski, sky, lift, lyfte ˈwɛlkən, ˈskiu̯, ˈskiː, lift
163 wind winde, wynde, wind, wynd wiːnd
164 snow snow, snowe, snou, snaw, snawe snɔu̯
165 ice is, ise, ice, yse, ys iːs
166 smoke smeke, smeek, smike, smoke, smook, smok smeːk, ˈsmɔːk(ə)
167 fire fyr, fier, fir, fer, fire fiːr
168 ash asshe, assh, asche, ashe, eshe
169 to burn brennen, brinnen, bernen, birnen, byrnen, bern, swithen, swiþen ˈbrɛnən, ˈbərnən, ˈbirnən, ˈswiːðən
170 road wey, way, wei, strete, stret, path, paþþe, paþ ˈwɛi̯, ˈstreːt, ˈpaːθ
171 mountain mountayne, mounteyne, mount, munt, hille, hulle, hill ˈmuːntɛi̯n(ə), muːnt, hil
172 red red, rede, ræd, redde, reed, read reːd, rɛːd
173 green grene, gren, greene, grenne ˈɡreːn(ə)
174 yellow yelow, ȝelowe, ȝelew, ȝelow, yelwe, ȝelwe ˈjɛlɔu̯, ˈjɛlwə
175 white white, whyte, whit, whyt, hwit ʍiːt
176 black blak, blakke, blacke, blake blaːk, blak
177 night nighte, night, niht, niȝt, nyght, nyghte nixt
178 day dai, dæi, dey, daȝ, dæȝ, dei dɛi
179 year yere, yer, ȝere, ȝer, ȝeer, yeer jɛːr
180 warm warm, warme, werm, wearm warm, werm
181 cold cold, colde, cald, cheld, chald, chele, chile kɔːld, tʃɛːld, ˈtʃɛːl(ə)
182 full ful, full, fol, folle, fulle ful
183 new newe, neue, new, neowe, niwe ˈniu̯(ə)
184 old old, olde, ald, oulde, alde, eld, elde ɔːld, aːld, ɛːld
185 good good, gode, god, goode ɡoːd
186 bad ivel, ifel, uvel, evel, badde, bad ˈivəl, ˈuvəl, ˈeːvəl, ˈɛvəl, bad
187 rotten foule, foul, fowle, ful, roten, rotyn fuːl, ˈrɔtən
188 dirty unclene, unclen, baudy, baudi, bawdy, hory, hori unˈklɛːn(ə), ˈbau̯diː, ˈhɔːriː
189 straight right, ryght, riȝt, riht, streight, streiȝt, streȝt rixt, strɛixt
190 round rounde, round, rownde, rownd ˈruːnd(ə)
191 sharp (as a knife) scharp, scharpe, sharpe, sharp, ssarpe, kene, keene ʃarp, ˈkeːn(ə)
192 dull (as a knife) blont, blunt, dul, dulle, dol, dolle blunt, dul, dɔl
193 smooth smethe, smeþe, smothe, smoþe, smoth, even, euen, evene, flat, flatte ˈsmeːð(ə), ˈsmoːð(ə), ˈeːvən, flat
194 wet wet, wete, wette, wæt, moist, moiste wɛt, wɛːt, ˈmɔi̯st(ə)
195 dry drye, drie, dryȝe, dry, ser, sere, seere ˈdriː(ə), sɛːr
196 correct right, ryght, riȝt, riht, trewe, trew, true, sothe, soth, sooth, soþ rixt, ˈtrøːw(ə), triu̯(ə), soːθ
197 near nere, ner, neor, neer, neygh, nygh, nye, nyȝ neːr, nøːr, nɛix, niːx
198 far fer, ferre, fere fɛr
199 right right, ryght, riȝt, riht rixt
200 left left, lift, lefte, lifte lift, lɛft
201 at on, onne, at, et ɔn, ɔːn, at
202 in in, ine, i in,
203 with mid, mithe, wiþ, with mid, mið, wiθ, wið
204 and and, an, a and, an
205 if if, iffe, ȝif if, jif
206 because for, sithe, sithen, sin, as, bicause fɔr, ˈsið(ə), ˈsiðən, sin, az, biˈkau̯z
207 name name, nome ˈnaːm(ə)
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  Standard ArabicEgyptianPalestinianTunisianCypriot – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  MandarinCantoneseGanJizhaoMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongOld Chinese – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – English:  OldMiddle – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – FrenchOld French – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek:  Modern GreekAncient Greek – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian – Japanese – Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – LatinVulgar Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Neapolitan – Norwegian:  BokmålNynorsk – Ojibwe – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – PortugueseOld Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sicilian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Kho-Bwa – Kuki-Chin – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tibeto-Burman (Nepal) – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic