Appendix:Hittite Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Hittite, compared with that of English.


For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.


[script needed]

No. English Hittite
๐’‰ˆ๐’…†๐’‡ท (nesili)
1 I ลซk
2 you (singular) zฤซk
3 he -as
4 we wฤ“s
5 you (plural) sumฤ“s
6 they -e
7 this kฤs
8 that apฤs
9 here kฤ
10 there apiya
11 who kuis
12 what kuit
13 where kuwapi
14 when kuwapi
15 how mฤhhan
16 not ๐’ˆพ๐’€œ๐’‹ซ (natta)
17 all hลซmantes
18 many mฤ“kkies
19 some kuiesqa
20 few tฤ“pawes
21 other damais
22 one *ฤs
23 two dฤn
24 three tฤ“ries
25 four meyawes
26 five -
27 big ๐’Šฉ๐’‡ท๐’…– (sallis)
28 long dalukis
29 wide ๐’„๐’„ญ๐’…– (palแธซis)
30 thick -
31 heavy suwฤrus, ๐’ˆพ๐’€๐’† ๐’…– (nakkis)
32 small kappis
33 short manninkuwanz
34 narrow hatkus
35 thin maklanz
36 woman *kuwanz
37 man (adult male) ๐’‰๐’Œ๐’ˆพ๐’€ธ (pesnas) (gen. sg.)
38 man (human being) antuhsas
39 child hฤssas
40 wife *kuwanz
41 husband ๐’‰๐’Œ๐’ˆพ๐’€ธ (pesnas) (gen. sg.)
42 mother ๐’€ญ๐’ˆพ๐’€ธ (annas)
43 father ๐’€œ๐’‹ซ๐’€ธ (attas)
44 animal suppalas
45 fish ๐’ˆฆ๐’„ท๐’Œ‹๐’‰ฟ๐’„ฟ๐’€€๐’€ธ (parแธซลซwayas) (gen. sg.)
46 bird suwais (?)
47 dog kuwas (?)
48 louse -
49 snake iluyanka
50 worm -
51 tree tฤru
52 forest tiessar
53 stick ๐’‰บ๐’€ช๐’„ญ๐’…” (paแธซแธซin) (?)
54 fruit sesan
55 seed warwalan
56 leaf hurpastas
57 root sลซrkas
58 bark (of a tree) -
59 flower alil
60 grass wฤ“lku
61 rope ishimas
62 skin -
63 meat -
64 blood eshฤr
65 bone hastฤi
66 fat (noun) sakan
67 egg -
68 horn karฤwar
69 tail sisai (?)
70 feather patar
71 hair tetanas
72 head harsar
73 ear istฤman
74 eye ๐’ƒฒ๐’„ญ๐’€€๐’…– (sakaui-is)
75 nose tititan
76 mouth ais, iss-
77 tooth gagas
78 tongue (organ) lalas
79 fingernail kaddu (?)
80 foot ๐’„ˆ๐’€ธ (patas)
81 leg egdu
82 knee gฤ“nu
83 hand kissar
84 wing ๐’ˆฆ๐’‹ซ๐’Œ‹๐’‰ฟ๐’…ˆ (pรกrtauwar), ๐’๐’‹ป (pรกttar)
85 belly sarhuwanz
86 guts garates
87 neck kuttar (?)
88 back iskis
89 breast tฤ“tan
90 heart ๐’† ๐’…• (kir)
91 liver lissi
92 to drink ekuzi
93 to eat ฤ“zzi
94 to bite wฤki
95 to suck u(n)hzi
96 to spit allappahhi
97 to vomit -
98 to blow ๐’‰บ๐’Š๐’€€๐’„ฟ (parฤi)
99 to breathe -
100 to laugh halwammar
101 to see auszi, ๐’Œ‹๐’€ช๐’„ญ (uแธซแธซi)
102 to hear istamaszi
103 to know ๐’Šญ๐’€€๐’€๐’†  (sฤkki)
104 to think mala
105 to smell -
106 to fear nฤhi
107 to sleep seszi
108 to live huiszi
109 to die aki
110 to kill kuฤ“nzi
111 to fight hullezzi
112 to hunt huwarniskezzi
113 to hit walhzi
114 to cut kuฤ“rzi
115 to split iskallai
116 to stab iskฤri
117 to scratch *arrirrai
118 to dig ๐’๐’•๐’€€๐’„ฟ (pรกddฤi)
119 to swim -
120 to fly ๐’๐’•๐’€€๐’„ฟ (pรญddฤi)
121 to walk ๐’„ฟ๐’„ฟ๐’€€๐’‹ซ๐’‹ซ (iyatta)
122 to come uฤ“zzi
123 to lie (as in a bed) kitta
124 to sit ฤ“sa
125 to stand arta
126 to turn (intransitive) wehzi, nฤ“a
127 to fall mauszi
128 to give ๐’‰บ๐’€€๐’„ฟ (pฤi)
129 to hold harzi
130 to squeeze ๐’…†๐’„ฟ๐’„‘๐’ฃ (sฤซezzi)
131 to rub ๐’‰๐’Œ๐’ฃ (peszi)
132 to wash ฤrri, warpzi
133 to wipe fshin
134 to pull huettiezzi
135 to push suwezzi
136 to throw ๐’‰๐’Œ๐’…†๐’„‘๐’ฃ (pesiezi), ลซssiezzi
137 to tie ishai, hamanki
138 to sew -
139 to count kappuezzi
140 to say tฤ“zzi
141 to sing ishamai
142 to play duskzi, hinganiskezzi
143 to float -
144 to flow ฤrszi
145 to freeze ekฤizzi
146 to swell suwattari
147 sun istanus
148 moon armas
149 star hastฤ“rz
150 water ๐’‰ฟ๐’€€๐’‹ป (wa-a-tar)
151 rain hฤ“us
152 river hapas
153 lake lulis (?)
154 sea arunas
155 salt -
156 stone ๐’‰บ๐’€ธ๐’…†๐’†ท๐’€ธ (passilas)
157 sand -
158 dust -
159 earth tฤ“kan
160 cloud alpฤs
161 fog kammaras
162 sky ๐’‰ˆ๐’‚Š๐’‰๐’…– (nฤ“pis)
163 wind huwanz
164 snow -
165 ice ekan
166 smoke tuhhuwais
167 fire ๐’‰บ๐’€ช๐’„ฏ (paแธซแธซur)
168 ash hฤs, hฤss-
169 to burn urฤni
170 road ๐’†œ๐’€ธ (palsas)
171 mountain -
172 red mitas
173 green hahlawanz
174 yellow hahlawanz
175 white harkis
176 black hanzanas, dankuis
177 night ispanz
178 day sฤซwaz
179 year wฤซz
180 warm ฤnz
181 cold ekunanz
182 full suus
183 new nฤ“was
184 old miyahwanz
185 good ฤssus
186 bad idฤlus
187 rotten harranz
188 dirty iskunanz
189 straight -
190 round -
191 sharp (as a knife) alpus
192 dull (as a knife) alpanz
193 smooth mius
194 wet hurniyanz
195 dry hฤtanz
196 correct ฤra
197 near manninkuwanz
198 far duwฤn
199 right kunnas
200 left -
201 at -
202 in andan
203 with katti-
204 and -Ca, -ya
205 if takku
206 because kuit
207 name ๐’†ท๐’€€๐’ˆ ๐’€ญ (lฤman)
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans โ€“ Albanian โ€“ Antillean Creole โ€“ Arabic: Arabic (standard)Egyptian Arabic Palestinian ArabicTunisian ArabicCypriot Maronite Arabic โ€“ Armenian โ€“ Aromanian โ€“ Assamese โ€“ Bangala โ€“ Bashkir โ€“ Basque โ€“ Belarusian โ€“ Bengali โ€“ Breton โ€“ Bukitan โ€“ Bulgarian โ€“ Burmese โ€“ Catalan โ€“ Chechen โ€“ Chinese: CantoneseGanMandarinMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongSichuaneseOld Chinese โ€“ Czech โ€“ Danish โ€“ Dutch โ€“ Egyptian โ€“ Esperanto โ€“ Estonian โ€“ Fiji Hindi โ€“ Fijian โ€“ FrenchFrench (old) โ€“ Frisian (West) โ€“ Friulian โ€“ Georgian โ€“ German โ€“ Greek: Greek (modern)Greek (ancient)Greek (Mycenaean) โ€“ Guaranรญ โ€“ Gujarati โ€“ Haida โ€“ Haitian Creole โ€“ Hausa โ€“ Hawaiian โ€“ Hindi โ€“ Hittite โ€“ Hmong (White) โ€“ Hungarian โ€“ Icelandic โ€“ Ido โ€“ Indonesian โ€“ Interlingue โ€“ Irish โ€“ Istro-Romanian โ€“ Italian โ€“ Japanese โ€“ Kashubian โ€“ Khmer โ€“ Konkani โ€“ Korean โ€“ Kurdish โ€“ Latin โ€“ Latvian โ€“ Lingala โ€“ Lingua Franca Nova โ€“ Lithuanian โ€“ Lojban โ€“ Luwian โ€“ Macedonian โ€“ Malagasy โ€“ Malay โ€“ Maltese โ€“ Marathi โ€“ Megleno-Romanian โ€“ Mongolian โ€“ Nepali โ€“ Old Portuguese โ€“ Ossetian โ€“ Polish โ€“ Portuguese โ€“ Punjabi โ€“ Purepecha โ€“ Quechua โ€“ Romani โ€“ Romanian โ€“ Russian โ€“ Sanskrit โ€“ Scottish Gaelic โ€“ Serbo-Croatian โ€“ Sinhalese โ€“ Slovenian โ€“ Spanish โ€“ Sranan โ€“ Sundanese โ€“ Swahili โ€“ Swedish โ€“ Tagalog โ€“ Tajik โ€“ Tahitian โ€“ Temiar โ€“ Thai โ€“ Tocharian B โ€“ Tok Pisin โ€“ Turkish โ€“ Ukrainian โ€“ Vietnamese โ€“ Walloon โ€“ Zulu

Reconstructed languages

Proto-Balto-Slavic โ€“ Proto-Indo-European โ€“ Proto-Indo-Iranian โ€“ Proto-Slavic

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic โ€“ Algonquian โ€“ Altaic โ€“ Austro-Asiatic โ€“ Australian โ€“ Austronesian โ€“ Baltic โ€“ Bantu โ€“ Celtic โ€“ Denรฉโ€“Yeniseian โ€“ Dravidian โ€“ Finnic โ€“ Formosan โ€“ Frisian โ€“ Germanic โ€“ Hmong-Mien โ€“ Hokan โ€“ Indo-Aryan โ€“ Indo-Iranian โ€“ Italian โ€“ Mayan โ€“ Muskogean โ€“ Nigerโ€“Congo โ€“ Oto-Manguean โ€“ Paleosiberian โ€“ Penutian โ€“ Romance โ€“ Sino-Tibetan โ€“ Slavic โ€“ Siouan โ€“ South American โ€“ Taiโ€“Kadai โ€“ Tibeto-Burman โ€“ Tupiโ€“Guarani โ€“ Turkic โ€“ Uralic โ€“ Uto-Aztecan