Appendix:Hittite Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Hittite, compared with that of English.


For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.


[script needed]

No. English Hittite
π’‰ˆπ’…†π’‡· (nesili)
1 I π’Œ‘π’ŠŒ (Ε«k)
2 you (singular) 𒍣𒄿𒅅 (zΔ«k)
3 he --π’€Έ (as)
4 we wΔ“s
5 you (plural) sumΔ“s
6 they -e
7 this kās
8 that apās
9 here kā
10 there apiya
11 who kuis
12 what kuit
13 where kuwapi
14 when kuwapi
15 how māhhan
16 not π’ˆΎπ’€œπ’‹« (natta)(dittas=Yes)
17 all hΕ«mantes
18 many mΔ“kkies
19 some kuiesqa
20 few tΔ“pawes
21 other damais
22 one *ās
23 two dān
24 three tΔ“ries
25 four meyawes
26 five -
27 big π’Š©π’‡·π’…– (sallis)
28 long dalukis
29 wide 𒁄𒄭𒅖 (palαΈ«is)
30 thick -
31 heavy suwārus, π’ˆΎπ’€π’† π’…– (nakkis)
32 small kappis
33 short manninkuwanz
34 narrow hatkus
35 thin maklanz
36 woman *kuwanz
37 man (adult male) π’‰π’Œπ’ˆΎπ’€Έ (pesnas) (gen. sg.)
38 man (human being) antuhsas
39 child hāssas
40 wife *kuwanz
41 husband π’‰π’Œπ’ˆΎπ’€Έ (pesnas) (gen. sg.)
42 mother π’€­π’ˆΎπ’€Έ (annas)
43 father π’€œπ’‹«π’€Έ (attas)
44 animal suppalas
45 fish π’ˆ¦π’„·π’Œ‹π’‰Ώπ’„Ώπ’€€π’€Έ (parαΈ«Ε«wayas) (gen. sg.)
46 bird suwais (?)
47 dog kuwas (?)
48 louse -
49 snake iluyanka
50 worm -
51 tree tāru
52 forest tiessar
53 stick π’‰Ίπ’€ͺπ’„­π’…” (paαΈ«αΈ«in) (?)
54 fruit sesan
55 seed warwalan
56 leaf hurpastas
57 root sΕ«rkas
58 bark (of a tree) -
59 flower alil
60 grass wΔ“lku
61 rope ishimas
62 skin -
63 meat -
64 blood eshār
65 bone hastāi
66 fat (noun) sakan
67 egg -
68 horn karāwar
69 tail sisai (?)
70 feather patar
71 hair tetanas
72 head harsar
73 ear istāman
74 eye 𒃲𒄭𒀀𒅖 (sakaui-is)
75 nose tititan
76 mouth ais, iss-
77 tooth gagas
78 tongue (organ) lalas
79 fingernail kaddu (?)
80 foot π’„Šπ’€Έ (patas)
81 leg egdu
82 knee gΔ“nu
83 hand kissar
84 wing π’ˆ¦π’‹«π’Œ‹π’‰Ώπ’…ˆ (pΓ‘rtauwar), 𒁁𒋻 (pΓ‘ttar)
85 belly sarhuwanz
86 guts garates
87 neck kuttar (?)
88 back iskis
89 breast tΔ“tan
90 heart π’† π’…• (kir)
91 liver lissi
92 to drink ekuzi
93 to eat π’‚Šπ’„‘π’π’Šπ’£ (Δ“zzi)
94 to bite wāki
95 to suck u(n)hzi
96 to spit allappahhi
97 to vomit -
98 to blow π’‰Ίπ’Šπ’€€π’„Ώ (parāi)
99 to breathe -
100 to laugh halwammar
101 to see auszi, π’Œ‹π’€ͺπ’„­ (uαΈ«αΈ«i)
102 to hear istamaszi
103 to know π’Š­π’€€π’€π’†  (sākki)
104 to think mala
105 to smell -
106 to fear nāhi
107 to sleep seszi
108 to live huiszi
109 to die aki
110 to kill kuΔ“nzi
111 to fight hullezzi
112 to hunt huwarniskezzi
113 to hit walhzi
114 to cut kuΔ“rzi
115 to split iskallai
116 to stab iskāri
117 to scratch *arrirrai
118 to dig 𒁁𒁕𒀀𒄿 (pΓ‘ddāi)
119 to swim -
120 to fly 𒁁𒁕𒀀𒄿 (pΓ­ddāi)
121 to walk π’„Ώπ’„Ώπ’€€π’€œπ’‹« (i-ya-at-ta /iyatta/)
122 to come uΔ“zzi
123 to lie (as in a bed) kitta
124 to sit Δ“sa
125 to stand arta
126 to turn (intransitive) wehzi, nΔ“a
127 to fall mauszi
128 to give π’‰Ίπ’€€π’„Ώ (pāi)
129 to hold harzi
130 to squeeze 𒅆𒄿𒄑𒍣 (sΔ«ezzi)
131 to rub π’‰π’Œπ’£ (peszi)
132 to wash ārri, warpzi
133 to wipe fshin
134 to pull huettiezzi
135 to push suwezzi
136 to throw π’‰π’Œπ’…†π’„‘π’£ (pesiezi), Ε«ssiezzi
137 to tie ishai, hamanki
138 to sew -
139 to count kappuezzi
140 to say tΔ“zzi
141 to sing ishamai
142 to play duskzi, hinganiskezzi
143 to float -
144 to flow ārszi
145 to freeze ekāizzi
146 to swell suwattari
147 sun istanus
148 moon armas
149 star 𒄩𒀸𒋼𒅕𒍝 (ha-as-te-er-za)
150 water π’‰Ώπ’€€π’‹» (wa-a-tar)
151 rain hΔ“us
152 river hapas
153 lake lulis (?)
154 sea π’€€π’Š’π’ˆΎπ’€Έ (arunas)
155 salt -
156 stone π’‰Ίπ’€Έπ’…†π’†·π’€Έ (passilas)
157 sand -
158 dust -
159 earth π’‹Όπ’‚Šπ’ƒ· (tΔ“kan)
160 cloud alpās
161 fog kammaras
162 sky π’‰ˆπ’‚Šπ’‰π’…– (nΔ“pis)
163 wind huwanz
164 snow -
165 ice π’‚Šπ’ƒ· (ekan)
166 smoke tuhhuwais
167 fire π’‰Ίπ’€ͺπ’„― (paαΈ«αΈ«ur)
168 ash hās, hāss-
169 to burn urāni
170 road π’†œπ’€Έ (palsas)
171 mountain -
172 red mitas
173 green hahlawanz
174 yellow hahlawanz
175 white π’„―π’† π’…– (ha-ar-ki-is)
176 black hanzanas, dankuis
177 night ispanz
178 day sΔ«waz
179 year wΔ«z
180 warm ānz
181 cold ekunanz
182 full suus
183 new nΔ“was
184 old π’ˆͺ𒅀𒄷𒉿𒀭𒍝 (miyahwanz)
185 good āssus
186 bad 𒄿𒁕𒀀𒇻𒍑 (idālus)
187 rotten harranz
188 dirty iskunanz
189 straight -
190 round -
191 sharp (as a knife) 𒀠𒁍𒍑 (alpus)
192 dull (as a knife) alpanz
193 smooth mius
194 wet hurniyanz
195 dry hātanz
196 correct āra
197 near manninkuwanz
198 far duwān
199 right kunnas
200 left -
201 at -
202 in andan
203 with katti-
204 and -Ca, -ya
205 if takku
206 because kuit
207 name π’†·π’€€π’ˆ π’€­ (lāman)
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans β€“ Albanian β€“ Amharic β€“ Antillean Creole β€“ Arabic:  (Standard Arabic, Cypriot, Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, Tunisian) β€“ Armenian β€“ Aromanian β€“ Assamese β€“ Avar β€“ Bangala β€“ Bashkir β€“ Basque β€“ Belarusian β€“ Bengali β€“ Berber:  (Tashelhit, Central Atlas Tamazight) – Breton β€“ Buginese β€“ Bulgarian β€“ Burmese β€“ Burushaski β€“ Cape Verdean β€“ Catalan β€“ Cebuano β€“ Chechen β€“ Chinese (Mandarin (Sichuanese, Standard, Nanjingnese), Cantonese, Gan, Hakka, Min (Min Nan, Min Dong), Old Chinese, Wu (Shanghainese, Suzhounese), Xiang) – Cornish β€“ Crimean Tatar β€“ Czech β€“ Dalmatian β€“ Danish β€“ Dutch  (Limburgish, Zealandic) – Egyptian β€“ English (Old, Middle) β€“ Elamite β€“ Estonian β€“ Faroese β€“ Fiji Hindi β€“ Fijian β€“ Finnish β€“ Fongbe β€“ French  (Old French) β€“ Frisian β€“ Friulian β€“ Galician β€“ Garo β€“ Gelao β€“ Georgian β€“ German β€“ Gothic β€“ Greek (Ancient Greek) β€“ GuaranΓ­ β€“ Guinea-Bissau Creole β€“ Gujarati β€“ Haitian Creole β€“ Hausa β€“ Hawaiian β€“ Hebrew β€“ Hindi β€“ Hittite β€“ Hmong β€“ Hungarian β€“ Icelandic β€“ Ilocano β€“ Indonesian β€“ Irish β€“ Italian  (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese β€“ Javanese β€“ Jeju β€“ Jizhao - Kashubian β€“ Khmer β€“ Konkani β€“ Korean  (Middle Korean) – Latin (Vulgar Latin) - Latvian β€“ Lingala β€“ Lithuanian β€“ Low Saxon  (Sallaands) β€“ Macedonian β€“ Makasar β€“ Malagasy β€“ Malay β€“ Malayalam β€“ Maltese β€“ Manx β€“ Māori β€“ Marathi  (Old Marathi) β€“ Mauritian Creole β€“ Megleno-Romanian β€“ Mongolian β€“ Navajo β€“ Norwegian:  (BokmΓ₯l, Nynorsk) – Northern Kurdish β€“ Ojibwe β€“ Okinawan β€“ Ossetian β€“ Papiamento β€“ Polish  (Old Polish) β€“ Portuguese  (Old Portuguese) β€“ Punjabi β€“ Purepecha β€“ Quechua β€“ Romani  (CalΓ³) - Romanian β€“ Russian β€“ Sanskrit β€“ Scottish Gaelic β€“ Serbo-Croatian β€“ Siberian Tatar β€“ Slovak β€“ Slovene β€“ Somali β€“ Spanish β€“ Sranan β€“ Sumerian β€“ Sundanese β€“ Swahili β€“ Swedish β€“ Tagalog β€“ Tahitian β€“ Tajik β€“ Tamil β€“ Tatar β€“ Telugu β€“ Temiar β€“ Thai β€“ Tocharian B β€“ Tok Pisin β€“ Turkish β€“ Tuvaluan β€“ Ukrainian β€“ Vietnamese β€“ Walloon β€“ Welsh β€“ West Coast Bajau β€“ Wutunhua β€“ Yiddish β€“ Zazaki β€“ Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afroasiatic β€“ Algonquian and Iroquoian β€“ Arabic β€“ Austroasiatic β€“ Austronesian β€“ Baltic β€“ Bantu β€“ Berber β€“ Celtic β€“ Chumashan and Hokan β€“ Dené–Yeniseian β€“ Dravidian β€“ Finnic β€“ Formosan β€“ Frisian β€“ Germanic β€“ Hmong-Mien β€“ Indo-Aryan:  (Middle, Early New) β€“ Indo-Iranian β€“ Italian β€“ Japonic β€“ Kra–Dai β€“ Mayan β€“ Muskogean β€“ Niger–Congo β€“ Oto-Manguean β€“ Paleosiberian β€“ Pama-Nyungan β€“ Penutian β€“ Romance β€“ Sino-Tibetan:  (Sinitic, Raji-Raute, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) β€“ Kho-BwaKuki-Chin β€“ Slavic β€“ Siouan and Pawnee β€“ South American β€“ Tungusic β€“ Tupian β€“ Turkic β€“ Uralic β€“ Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto β€“ Ido β€“ Interlingua β€“ Interlingue β€“ LΓ‘adan β€“ Lingua Franca Nova β€“ Lojban β€“ Toki Pona β€“ VolapΓΌk

Reconstructed proto-languages

Proto-Austronesian β€“ Proto-Balto-Slavic β€“ Proto-Bantu β€“ Proto-Basque β€“ Proto-Germanic β€“ Proto-Indo-European β€“ Proto-Indo-Iranian β€“ Proto-Italic β€“ Proto-Japanese β€“ Proto-Mayan β€“ Proto-Slavic